Obrazy na stronie
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tion at Glasgow, and stated that the system of protection re-,
commended by the Professor, and which he appears to have
regarded as new, was suggested, and its adoption strongly
advocated, nearly forty years ago by the late Mr. Sturgeon,
whose many valuable contributions to electrical and mag-
netical science seem to have been strangely overlooked by
recent investigators and writers. The paper in which the
system was first described was read before the London
Electrical Society on the 7th of March, 1838, and an
abstract of it was published in the second volume of the
"Annals of Electricity." There is, however, one impor-
tant difference between the two systems. Mr. Sturgeon
considered it necessary that the copper sheathing or
covering of a protected room or powder magazine should
be well connected with the ground; but Prof. Maxwell is
reported to have stated that "there would be no need of
any earth connection. They might even place a layer of
asphalte between the copper floor and the ground, so as
to insulate the building." It is obvious, however, that if
the magazine were struck by lightning a disruptive dis-
charge through the layer of asphalte would in all proba-
bility take plate, which might rupture the copper sheathing,
and thus ignite the contents of the magazine; but by the
adoption of Mr. Sturgeon's plan an accident of this kind
could not occur.

Remarkable Meteor.-The PRESIDENT said that on Tuesday, the 15th of August last, whilst standing on the deck of the packet in Douglas Bay, in the Isle of Man, he observed one of the most brilliant meteors that he had ever seen. At about 35 minutes past 9 o'clock p.m., Greenwich time, he was looking towards the west, when he observed a body, apparently larger than the planet Jupiter, in the S.S.E., at an elevation of about 30° with the horizon, traversing the heavens at first in a nearly horizontal direction, then gradually declining, and finally disappearing by a steep curve to the N.N.W. When first observed it appeared to be of a yellowish colour, but it changed to a greenish blue before it sank out of sight. During its last stage it reminded him of a large Roman candle, and from its great brilliancy appeared to be not very far from the place where he stood, but he observed no signs of its bursting, and it left little trace of a luminous track behind it. The speed at which it travelled appeared to be less than that of most meteors which he had observed.

This meteor appears to have been observed by several parties, for Mr. J. P. Norris wrote to the Times from Abbey House, Bristol, under date of August 15-"A brilliant meteor has this moment fallen due west of this house. It first appeared in the neighbourhood of Arcturus, then seemed to burst, and trail light of rainbow colour, and was visible to near the horizon slanting towards the north. Its distance cannot have been great, for we saw it throughout two-thirds of its course against a dark cloud. It may have fallen, therefore, in the neighbourhood of Clevedon." A correspondent, writing from Further Barton, Cirencester, on Wednesday, says "At about 9.30 yesterday evening (15th) a magnificent meteor was seen from this place, passing slowly across the north-western heavens about midway between Arcturus and the horizon. The colour was vivid pale green, it left a greenish wake behind it, and burst with brilliant scintillations of whiter light;" and another says-" At 9.30 last night, Greenwich time, I saw the finest meteor or fire-ball that it has ever been my fortune to observe. It passed just below E. Bootes, and travelled northwards in a descending direction between A. Canes Venatici and the large cluster in Coma, rather nearer the latter. It exactly resembled the globe of fire projected by a Roman candle; the colour was of a brilliant yellow, and then after changing to a vivid green the meteor disappeared. The ball was pure, and unattended by luminous track."

He gave the above particulars to show how observers were deceived as to the distance of meteors. The party who observed the one on the 15th of August near Bristol thought that it fell near Clevedon, while he (the President)


seeing it at Douglas, 220 miles N.N.W. of that city, ima-
gined it at no very great distance from him.
He brought
the matter before the Society for the purpose of enquiring
whether the meteor had been observed by other parties,
especially residents in Belfast or Glasgow, in order to
ascertain if it had been seen westwards of those two

Mr. A. M. WORTHINGTON described the changes which take place in the forms of drops of liquids falling vertically on a horizontal surface, and exhibited the apparatus used in his experiments, and also a series of smoked glass plates bearing the impressions produced by the falling of drops of liquids from different heights.


Familiar Letters on the Mysteries of Nature and Discoveries in Science. By Dr. T. L. PHIPSON. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington.

IN this book the reader is introduced to a number of subjects lying somewhat away from the beaten tracks of science, and often overlooked in our popular treatises. The author discusses the ignis fatuus, electric fogs, the ehemistry of the ocean, the science of sleep, plant motion, firestones, atmospheric electricity, lightning-prints, earthquakes, luminous animals, aërolites and inhabited planets. These topics he handles in a suggestive manner; he places facts in a novel light, and often shows the question. able character of our stereotyped explanations of natural phenomena. The Will-o'-the-wisp, he tells us, is, in England, most common "in the peaty districts around Port Carlisle, in Cumberland;" and on the Continent, "in the damp valleys between the pretty little university town of Marburg and that of Cassel, and more certainly stil! in the grave-yards outside the town of Gibraltar." He points out that the phenomena must be clearly distinguished from the "more or less stationary flames of ignited naphtha springs," common in the East and in Italy, and occasionally visible in Herefordshire and Lanarkshire. From his own observations, as well as from the evidence of Dr. Dereham, he rejects the view of Ray, Willoughby, Kirby, and Spence, who attributed this phenomenon to swarms of luminous insects. These, he declares, "rise far higher in the air than does the Will-o'the-wisp, and present the appearance of hundreds of little specks of light." He ascribes the flame to an escape of marsh gas, through which a small quantity of phosphuretted hydrogen is diffused, and considers that wherever the wisp manifests itself, there lies the corpse of some animal. This view agrees well with the provincial name of "corpse-candle," and with a number of popular traditions. Folklore, however, records also cases where the spectator of a wisp has received a sudden blow or shock, and this, as the author suggests, points to electric phenomena of a nature perfectly distinct from the true wisp, and closely related with the fire of St. Elmo.

On fogs-a subject of peculiar though painful interest to dwellers in London-Dr. Phipson gives much curious information. He even suggests a method for their dispersal. "In order to disperse the dense electro-positive London fogs it would be necessary to supply them with an abundant source of electro-negative electricity more quickly than the earth usually supplies it. In the present state of electrical science I imagine such a thing to be far from impossible." Dry electro-negative fogs are supposed, on imperfect evidence, to be connected with the appearance of certain diseases. "A dry blue mist of this kind was noticed in London, in 1832, 1854, 1866, during the period of cholera; and the yellow kind has been known to accompany epidemics of scarlatina." Such fogs are not .dispersed by rain and wind. On the eveningo July 24th, 1872, "when a tolerably stiff breeze from the S.E. was blowing, I found that it was impossible to see the tree

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on the towing-path from Putney Bridge." The author has never been able to obtain decided indications of ozone during the prevalence of an electro-negative fog, "but sometimes electro-positive fogs have shown no ozone either in spite of the strong suffocating odour which often accompanies them. This would argue in favour of the existence at certain periods of antozone in the air-a fact which it would be exceedingly interesting to place beyond a doubt."

In the chapter on the "chemistry of the ocean" the curious fact is noticed that one half of all the known elementary bodies have been recognised in sea-water. We learn also that the waters of the Caspian, which has no known outlet, are yet, unlike those of the Dead Sea and of the Great Salt Lake, less salt than the Ocean. We turn next to a letter on the "science of sleep, somnambulism, and anesthesia." Here, apropos of a certain theory propounded to account for the periodical recurrence of sleep, we find the following important and most truthful remark :

"It is a notorious fact that medical men, whose knowledge of chemistry is necessarily, in most cases, somewhat limited, are very fond of getting behind a chemical screen when confronting a difficult physiological problem; in like manner certain chemists, whose acquaintance with mathematics is of a most elementary nature, are prone to shield their incapacity of dealing with troublesome facts by erecting screens of mathematical formulæ, or abstruse chemical formulæ, as nearly as possible allied to them, which they create for the occasion, losing sight of nature altogether, and dealing, like our sensation-novel writers, with the products of their imagination." We fear that certain neo-chemical luminaries will be apt to exclaim with Costard, "me," "still me" as they read this passage. In a chapter on the marvels of applied electricity Dr. Phipson remarks that "Man's command of fire at once distinguished him from the rest of animated creation. In the higher classes of apes and monkeys, for instance, although we do not observe so great a dread of fire as we see manifested by quadrupeds, yet there is not a monkey, however highly organised, that has the slightest power over fire. I recollect a scene narrated by the captain of a ship that was wrecked on the coast of Madagascar. The crew made a large fire in the woods at night, and having withdrawn from the blazing embers they secreted themselves in order to observe what the monkeys would do with the fire. As soon as the sailors had retired, numbers of these agile beings leaped from the boughs and approached the fire, the warmth and glare of which they appeared to enjoy. Theyapproached nearer and nearer as the fire gradually burnt out, but not one had the intelligence to throw in a single bough to keep the fire alive, though numerous logs and sticks were scattered upon the ground." The only fault we have to find with this narrative is that there are no monkeys in Madagascar, whilst the lemurs, which, to some extent, take their place, are but organised for throwing logs or sticks upon a fire.

Dec. 8, 1876.

out the imperfection of our knowledge concerning the
causes of earthquakes, Dr. Phipson indulges in a strange,
and we cannot help saying a most unscientific remark:-
"What a field is here open to our young geologists if
they can be persuaded to abandon collecting fossils and
petrifactions!" Why we should abandon the observa-
tion of any class of natural objects is to us a mystery.
There is a very curious chapter on "lightning-prints."
The term needs a little explanation. Occasionally it
happens that when men or animals have been struck by
lightning, and especially if killed, peculiar impressions
have been left upon their bodies, which seem to be the
impress of some adjacent object. Many of the accounts
of phenomena of this kind are either altogether mytholo-
logical or much exaggerated. Thus, according to the
Abbé Lamy, "on the 18th July, 1689, lightning struck the
tower of the church of St. Sauveur, at Langy, in France,
and printed upon the cloth of the altar some Latin words
of a prayer book. The words Qui pridie quam puteretur,
to the end of the prayer were all reproduced, with the ex-
ception of Hoc est corpus meum and Hic est sanguis meus,
which in the book were printed in red ink." In 1786,
Leroy, a member of the French Academy of Sciences,
announced that Benjamin Franklin had frequently told
him, some forty years previously, the case of a man who,
whilst standing at his door during a thunder-storm, saw
the lightning strike a tree opposite to him. It was after-
wards discovered that a reversed image of the tree was
indelibly imprinted upon the breast of that man. A Mr.
James Shaw relates a case which had occurred in 1812.
Six sheep feeding in a small pasture surrounded by a
wood at Combe Bay, near Bath. They were killed by a
flash of lightning, and when flayed "the inside of each
skin bore a very faithful image of the surrounding land.

The following case is fully authenticated:-In 1836, a young man was killed by lightning near Zante. He had around his body a belt containing some gold pieces. and the images of some of these were indelibly printed upon his right shoulder. The impressions produced, however, were not fac similes of the gold pieces, but circles of three different dimensions, corresponding exactly in size with the three kinds of pieces of money in the belt. Impressions appear also to have been produced in some cases upon inanimate bodies. Thus, according to Professor Andreas Poey, lightning engraved upon the dry leaves of a palm tree in Cuba the representation of some trees growing at the distance of 340 yards. Further observation is here wanted and may both extend our knowledge of the properties of electricity and lead to useful application.

Treating of "life on the earth" the author shows that its correlation with the physical "forces," if modern word splitters will allow us the use of the term, is incomplete. Life, indeed, may produce heat, light, electricity, and cheill-mical action, but it has never, within our observation, been produced by them. Turning to the duration of life he considers, quoting the well-known case of Cornaro, that sobriety is its most essential condition. It must, however, be remembered that Cornaro does not appear to have been a hard worker. The quantity of food sufficient for a man whose days are spent in the dolce far niente must necessarily be quite insufficient for persons whose brains or whose muscles are kept in constant exertion. We do not believe that in these days "the generality of people eat far too much."

According to Dr. Léning, M. de Romas, and Arago, the problem of transforming thunder clouds, and thus preventing the formation of hail has been solved, and all that is required is that our knowledge should be reduced to practice. The damage done by hail in the south of France in a single storm has been known to amount to a million sterling. An interesting application of electricity is the rendering sea-water, &c., potable by passing through it a current from the battery. The author has not unsuccessfully experimented on this question at Ostend.

In his letter on earthquakes, Dr. Phipson remarks that in his opinion "enough stress has not been laid upon the constant presence of snlphur among the products of volcanic action In earthquakes we have constantly a suffocating smell of sulphur or sulphurous gas, and the same occurs in intense thunder storms, especially when the lightning strikes an object on the earth's surface. We have not yet the key to this enigma." In pointing

The proportion of the time of gestation and of the subsequent growth of the young animal to the duration of its life is next considered. But it is an exceedingly difficult thing to determine the average natural life of an animal in a wild state. In captivity or domestication so many disturbing influences come into play that the result is of doubtful value. And, supposing that the time of gestation bears any fixed proportion to the normal period of life, is there any a priori reason for affirming that the same ratio must prevail in all the different divisions of the animal

CHEMICAL NEWS, Dec. 8, 1876.

The Society of Public Analysts.

kingdom? As to the time of growth we know already that it bears no constant proportion to the duration of life. In mammals and birds the period of maturity is much longer than the period of growth; but in many insects, e.g., the goat-moth and the cockchafer, it is very much shorter. This chapter of his work Dr. Phipson concludes with the following passage::"Those men who abide by experiment and observation, and who simply record their scientific experience, are not likely to shock the religious opinions which govern so many of their fellow creatures; it is otherwise with those who indulge in speculative theories and who attempt to explain everything in their manner. These are only bigots and fanatics in another form, and they deserve the odium which they draw upon themselves from the opposite eztreme of humanity."

We cannot agree with this passage; observations and experiments" pure simple" will arouse persecution the moment their results are seen to clash with ecclesiastical tradition. In the very next chapter Dr. Phipson declares:"When the latter (Galileo) began to give the world the benefit of his observations he was most villanously persecuted." With theories, geological, biological, or astronomical, theologians have, as such, no right to interfere. In a manner strictly analogous physicists, geologists, and the like have no claim to dogmatise on religious questions. We have always denounced every attempt made by either body to exceed its boundaries, but we cannot forget that the first transgression of this nature was made by the theologians.

But there can be no need for us further to multiply either extracts or comments. Whoever has followed us so far will admit that Dr. Phipson's "Familiar Letters " abound in facts not generally known and in interesting reflections. Though popularly written, in the sense of being free from the cumbrous terminology now so much affected, they may be advantageously read by the professed man of science as well as by the person of ordinary ture, and will certainly set both thinking.



syrups, as found by incineration, is potash, and in the majority of instances this assumption is a correct one. It is almost impossible for many persons employed in sugar-houses to find time or opportunity for an ash estimation by the ordinary method, but a correct knowledge of the potash percentage-besides its value as an adjunct to the Duncan and Newlands process-affords also the means of finding the total ash. The potash percentage is readily found thus by any intelligent workman :-Weigh 100 grms. of syrup in a beaker; add 30 c.c. alcohol and 30 c.c. water, containing in solution about 15 grms. tartaric acid. Stir vigorously for a few minutes; then allow the mixture to rest for about half-an-hour. Collect the precipitate upon a tared filter, allow it to drain, then wash with other 60 c.c. mixed alcohol and water. Dry in a water-bath, and weigh. One-fourth of the precipitate is potash. Potash × 5 total ash.

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rity of the collected bitartrate, incinerate 5 grms. in a "In the event of any doubt being entertained of the pucul-platinum capsule, boil the resulting black flux in water, filter and wash the carbon thoroughly, and titrate the filtrate in the usual way with normal acid. This could only be necessary when much lime is present in the syrup-a most unlikely thing to happen in this country. "Greenock, August 15, 1874."


To the Editor of the Chemical News. SIR, In the CHEMICAL NEWS (vol. xxxiv., p. 231) you publish the first portion of a paper by Mr. P. Casamajor, on the Estimation of Potassium by means of Acid Tartrate." He claims special applicability for his method to the estimation of potash in the syrups of sugar-houses. In the Sugar Cane for October 1st, 1874, I inserted a short paper, for the use of foremen or others employed in such houses, containing a description of the same plan of working, adapted to the facilities and time at their command. With the platinic chloride at our call in the laboratory, it seemed useless to attempt any elaboration of the tartaric acid mode of estimation, which may, in its own sphere, be a useful aid to those seeking for a rapid means of assaying the probable ash in syrups. In the same number of the Sugar Cane, or the previous one, there is a paper by Mr. Casamajor on the "Expansion of Sugar Solutions by Heat," so he could hardly be quite ignorant of the appearance of mine. I append a copy of my paper. I am, &c.,

Glasgow, December 2, 1876.

ROBERT FRAzer Smith.

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To the Editor of the Chemical News. SIR, The leading members of the executive of the German Chemical Society in Berlin have nominated the veteran Prof. Wöhler President of the Society for the coming year.

I feel that the announcement will be hailed with delight by every chemist, and I beg you to allow me the opportunity of pointing out to such of our craft as are members of that excellent society that they are entitled to vote at the election of President; and that they should not neglect to give expression to the respect and admiration all must feel for the illustrious chemist by sending without delay, by post-card or letter, to the present President or one of the Secretaries of the Society, in Berlin, a short statement, signed and dated, to the effect that they give their votes in favour of Prof. Wöhler.-I am, &c.,

Savile Club, 15, Savile Row, W., December 6, 1876.



To the Editor of the Chemical News. SIR,-I had hoped that I might be spared the necessity of following the example of the Treasurer and one of the Vice-Presidents of the Society of Public Analysts in resigning, before the expiration of my year of office, my position as President, and also my membership, in the


Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

Society, but the occurrence of another in addition to several previous acts of irregularity in the performance of the secretarial duties, and the disapproval I entertain and have expressed, without effect, of these and of the manner in which the editorial duties have been conducted in connection with the Society, have caused me now at once to tender my resignation, and thus to express to the members of the Society my reason for so doing.-I am, &c.,

17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C., December 5, 1876.



{ Dec. 8, 1876.

behalf of MM. A. Zaytzeff and P. Sorokine, describes researches on the action of iodide of allyl and of zinc upon acetic ether. M. Menschoutkine communicates, on behalf of M. L. Lound, his studies on the transformation of canesugar when its aqueous solutions are heated. He finds that these solutions are inverted when heated to 100° in presence of air. If heated in the absence of air, or in presence of air perfectly purified, there is no transformation. Nitrogen and oxygen have no action; carbonic acid acts more fully than air. The transformation must be ascribed partly to the carbonic acid, partly to other substances in the atmosphere not yet determined. M. Menschoutkine, on behalf of MM. F. Wreden and Znatowich, announces tained in the action of hydriodic acid upon naphthalin. The same chemist communicates, on the part of M. G. Fudakovski, an examination of saccharine matters con

CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN that hexa-hydrocymen and decahydro-naphthalin are ob


NOTE.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwise taining galactose. M. Beilstein, on behalf of Dr. Cech, expressed.

Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de Paris,

Nos. 8 and 9, November 5, 1876. Decolouration of Indigo by Hydro-sulphurous Acid and by the Persulphide of Hydrogen.-M. E. Schaer. It is generally admitted that the decolouration of indigo by these agents is due to its transformation into white indigo, and, in fact, mere agitation in the air suffices to restore the blue colour. But certain experiments seem to show that the decolouration is produced by the formation of a colourless molecular compound. For indigo decolourised by hydro-sulphurous acid is regenerated, not only by the action of air and oxidising agents, but also by decided reducing agents, such as sulphuretted hydrogen. Further, indigo bleached by the persulphide of hydrogen is restored by the action of sulphurous acid. These phenomena are explained by the decomposing action of sulphuretted hydrogen upon hydro-sulphurous acid, and of sulphurous acid upon persulphide of hydrogen. We may, then, admit that indigo combines with hydro-sulphurous acid and persulphide of hydrogen, forming colourless compounds, which are destroyed with liberation of the indigo by all agents capable of destroying either hydro-sulphurous acid or persulphide of hydrogen.

No. 10, November 20, 1876.

New Researches on Gallium.-M. Lecoq de Boisbaudran. Already noticed.

Remarks of M. Boutlerow on a Note by M. L. Henry relating to the Fixation of Hypochlorous Acid upon Isobutylen.-M. Boutlerow remarks that M. Henry has merely confirmed his researches, conducted nine years ago.

Dissociation of the Bicarbonate of Soda at the Temperature of 100°; a reply to M. Gautier.-M. V. Urbain. The author maintains, contrary to the opinion of M. Gautier, that if dried plasma is exposed to the temperature of 100° the bicarbonate of soda which it contains is not decomposed.

Stains Produced by Sulphocyanic Acid.-M. Pierre Miquel. The author finds that sulphocyanic acid produces upon paper free from iron a carmine-red spot, which disappears spontaneously on exposure to the air, and more rapidly if a gentle heat be applied. Ammoniacal vapours destroy the colour immediately, and hydrochloric gas restores it. Thus a test-paper is obtained far more sensitive than litmus.

Nitro- and Amido-Naphthyl-Sulphurous Acids, and on their Derivatives.-P. T. Clève.-Not suitable for


Correspondence from St. Petersburg, April 12, 1876. -W. Louguinine.-The second part of the eighth volume of the Journal of the Russian Chemical Society contains the following papers:-M. A. Zagoumenny has obtained diphenyl-carbinol by the action of alcoholic potassa upon benzo-phenon at 160° in sealed tubes. M. E. Wagner, on

communicates a notice of the colouring power of viridic acin, which he recommends as a colour for esculents (a very old suggestion). M. A. Borodine communicates, on the part of M. Schalfeieff, researches on the cerotic acid extracted from bees'-wax. The acid obtained by Brodie's method is a mixture. M. Idanoff communicates researches on diethyl-methyl-acetic acid, an isomer of œnanthylic acid. There is, further, papers on the electrolysis of the aqueous solutions of oxalic acid, by M. N. Bunge; on the differences observed between starches of different origin when submitted to diastatic action, by M. A. Dobroslavine; on the action of the saliva on divers kinds of starch, by Dr. Georgiefsky; and on the action of iodide of allyl and zinc upon oxalate of ethyl, by M. Michel Zaytzeff.

Absorption-Spectra of different Colouring Matters and Metals of the Iron Group, with Applications.This paper, which is taken from the Berichte der Deutsch. Chem. Gesell. (viii., 1246 and 1533), is incapable of useful abstraction.

Revue Universelle des Mines, July and August, 1876.

Fermentation of Urine.-M. Leon Krafft.—This paper treats of the preparation of ammoniacal salts from the drainings of cesspools. These liquids are either mixed with sulphuric acid or filtered over sulphate of lime, the result being in either case the conversion of the volatile carbonate of ammonia into the fixed sulphate. The liquid, rendered limpid and clear either by settling or filtration, is evaporated down to one-tenth of its volume either over the naked fire, or by the "graduation" principle. It is then absorbed by a powder composed of turf, bone-black, mineral phosphate of lime, and baked gypsum.

Moniteur Scientifique, du Dr. Quesneville,
November, 1876.

Chemical Patents taken out in France during the Year 1875.-A list of the titles of patents.

Determination of Tannin.-G. Pouchet.-The author passes in review the processes known, and gives the preference to titration with permanganate in an alkaline solution.

On Rosolic Acid.-MM. Graebe and Caro.-Taken from Liebig's Annalen.

Contributions to a Knowledge of Rosaniline.-E. and O. Fischer.-From the Berichte der Deut. Chem. Gesell., ix., p. 891.

commission of naval officers appointed to enquire into the Duchemin's Compass with Circular Magnets.-A merits of this invention has reported decidedly in its favour.

Preparation of Thallium.-Dr. R. Nietski.-The author is not satisfied with the method of Krause. He takes the chloride of thallium, moistens it with water slightly acidulated, and adds a few fragments of zinc. After a few days all the thallium is separated in a spongy


Dec. 8, 1876.

Early Closing amongst Chemists and Druggists.

mass, which is carefully washed, and dissolved in hot dilute sulphuric acid. The foreign metals and the other impurities remain undissolved. A pure and concentrated solution of sulphate of thallium is thus obtained, from which the salt may be separated by crystallisation, and the metal may be obtained either by a galvanic current or by means of zinc.

Dyeing Aniline-Blacks.-M. Allard. The author protests against the claim set up by M. Grawitz to be the first inventor of the process for dyeing aniline-blacks without exposure to air, the colour being due to the formation of double salts of aniline peroxidised by chlorates or chromates.



unduly prolonged, and might be curtailed without inconvenience to the public or prejudice to the trade, whilst conferring great benefit upon employers and employed." Proposed by Mr. S. Drury, seconded by Mr. C. Butler :— "That the chemists and druggists present, being convinced of the benefits to be derived from the adoption of earlier hours of closing, hereby form themselves into a provisional committee (with power to add to their number) for carrying out the object of the meeting." Proposed by Mr. R. A. Johnson, seconded by Mr. J. R. Faulkner :"That the foregoing resolutions be forwarded to the Press, and to the various chemists and druggists of the locality, with a view to their co-operation in the movement." The proceedings terminated with a vote of thanks to the Chairman. The next committee meeting is fixed for Wednesday, December 13, at the same time and place.

The Newcastle Institute of Mining and Mechaniful institute has lately received the honour of being incal Engineers.-We are glad to announce that this usecorporated by Royal Charter.

University of London.-The following gentlemen
have passed the recent Second B.A. and Second B.Sc.
examinations:-Examinations for Honours (B.A. and
B.Sc. conjointly); Mathematics and Natural Poilosophy.-
First class. J. S. Morris, B.A. (Scholarship), St. John's
College, Cambridge; J. F. Main, B.Sc., Trinity College,
Cambridge. Second class. S. White, B.A., University MONDAY,
College. Chemistry (B.Sc. only).-First class. J. K.
Crow (Scholarship), Owens College. Second class. W.
W. Jones, Magdalen College, Oxford. Geology and
Paleontology. First class. W. Hewitt (disqualified by

age for the Scholarship), Royal School of Mines; J. K. TUESDAY,
Crow (Scholarship), Owens College; A. R. Willis, Royal
School of Mines. Second class. J. Monckman, York-
shire College of Science; A. E. Tovey, private study.
Royal Institution of Great Britain.-The following
are the arrangements of the Lectures before Easter,

Prof. John Hall Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S.-Six Lectures adapted to a juvenile auditory, on the "Chemistry of Fire; on Dec. 28 (Thursday), 30, 1876; Jan. 2, 4, 6, 9, 1877.

Prof. Alfred H. Garrod, M.A., F.R.S.--Ten Lectures on "The Human Form; its Structure in relation to its Contour;" on Tuesdays, Jan. 16 to March 20.

Dr. C. R. Alder Wright, F.C.S.-Four Lectures "On Metals, and the Chief Industrial Uses of these Bodies and their Compounds;" on Thursdays, Jan. 18 to Feb. 8.

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Manchester Literary and Philosophical, 7.
WEDNESDAY, 13th.-Society of Arts, 8. "A New Process of Printing
a Number of Colours at one Impression," by E.

THURSDAY, 14th.-Royal, 8.30.
SATURDAY, 16th.-Physical, 3. "An Experimental Contribution to
the Theory of the Radiometer," by W. Crookes,
F.I.S. "On a Capillary Electtrometer, " by
Prof. J. Dewar, F.R.S.E.


E. H. Cook.-Received with thanks.

7. W. M.-Mr. Smith's letter renders the publication of yours un


William Pole, F.R.S., Mus. Doc.-Six Lectures "On Chemical Technology, or Chemistry in its

the Theory of Music;" on Thursdays, Feb. 15 to March 22.

Mr. Ernst Pauer.-Two Lectures "On the Nature of Music: the Italian, French, and German Schools;" on Saturdays, Jan. 20, 27.

Mr. J. A. Symonds.-Three Lectures "On Florence and the Medici;" on Saturdays, Feb. 3 to 17.

Prof. Henry Morley.-Five Lectures "On Effects of the French Revolution upon English Literature;" on Saturdays, Feb. 24 to March 24.

The Friday Evening Meeting will begin on Jan. 19, 1877, at 8 o'clock; the Discourse by Prof. Tyndall at 9 p.m. The succeeding discourses will probably be given by Prof. Huxley, Prof. Osborne Reynolds, Mr. Francis Galton, Prof. F. Guthrie, Mr. J. F. Moulton, Sir John Lubbock, Mr. Frederick J. Bramwell, and others. To these meetings Members and their friends only are admitted.

Applications to the Arts and Manufactures. BY THOMAS RICHARDSON and HENRY WATTS. Second Edition, illustrated with numerous Wood Engravings.

Vol. I., Parts 1 and 2, price 36s., with more than 400 Illustrations.
Nature and Properties of Fuel: Secondary Products obtained from
Fuel: Production of Light: Secondary Products of the Gas Manu-
Vol. I., Part 3, price 33s., with more than 300 Illustrations.
Compounds: Soda, Potash: Alkalimetry: Grease.
Sulphur and its Compounds: Acidimetry: Chlorine and its Bleaching

Vol. I., Part 4, price 21s., 300 Illustrations.
Aluminium and Sodium: Stannates, Tungstates, Chromates, and
Silicates of Potash and Soda: Phosphorus, Borax: Nitre: Gun-
Powder: Gun Cotton.

Vol. I., Part 5, price 36s.

Prussiate of Potash: Oxalic, Tartaric, and Citric Acids, and Appendices containing the latest information, and pecifications relating to

the materials described in Parts 3 and 4.

BAILLIERE AND Co., 20, King William Street, Strand.

Early Closing amongst Chemists and Druggists. BERNERS COLLEGE of CHEMISTRY,

A conference of chemists in the Notting Hill District, who were favourable to earlier hours of closing, was held on Friday last in the Mall Hall, the Mall, Notting Hill. Messrs. Johnson (Twinborrow), Westbourne Grove, Chas. Butler, Faulkner, Baker, Grosvenor, Long, H. Long, Drury, &c., attended, and also Messrs. E. Kennedy and F. A. Allen, Secretaries, Early Closing Association. The following resolutions were adopted :-Proposed by Mr. A. P. Baker, seconded by Mr. C. H. Grosvenor:-"That in the opinion of this meeting the business hours observed by the chemists and druggists of this neighbourhood are

in conjunction with the SCIENTIFIC DEPARTMENT of the
Instruction and preparation in CHEMISTRY and the EXPERI-
MENTAL SCIENCES under the direction of Professor E. V.

The Class Rooms are open from 11 to 5 a.m. and from 7 to 10 p.m.
Especial facilities for persons preparing for Government and other

Private Pupils will find every convenience.
Analyses, Assays, and Practical Investigations connected with
Patents, &c., conducted.

Prospectuses and full particulars on application to Prof. Gardner at Berner's College, 44, Berners-street, W., or at the Royal Poly. technic Institution.

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