Obrazy na stronie


Anthracen Testing.


Nov. 10, 1876.



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percentage and melting-point before, the second line that powder, originally of a more or less light yellow colour, was after treatment with sulphuric acid :

in all cases darkened by separated carbon ; the loss in

percentage is mostly considerable ; the melting- and Action of Sulphuric Acid.

solidifying-points are slightly improved ; and, taking this
Crystals and

Powder Mixed.

series by itself, the results might well be estimated as

pure quinone. But this idea will soon prove most 276 278


erroneous. 6. 15'2 274–275 10*2 274-276 4:6 270-275 The crystals are very little affected both in percentage 279

and melting-point; they retain their original pure colour; 14'4 276—277 9.8 277-278 4:2 not at 300 no carbon is separated; and they are undoubtedly pure 278 277


quinone both before and after treatment with acid. 8. 16.2 274–276

11:6 273—275
5'2 266-272

But the powder shows a totally different character. In

most cases the percentage is largely reduced, while the 276 275

melting-point, which before could only be noted in nine 14:6 274-275 10:8 275-275

3*7 not at 300 out of fifteen cases, has altogether disappeared. The ex270 277

pression “not at 300" means, in most cases, the substance 17.8 266-268 998 273—275 7*7 not at 300 slightly softens and becomes charred at that temperature. 272 277

In most cases the residue from the treatment with acid 12'2 272-272 9:6 275-276 3'o not at 300

was simply carbon, and no crystals could be detected even

under the microscope ; in a few instances some well279

18'2 271-275
14'2 275-276 3.9 not at 300

defined crystals were observed, but the relative quantity

was insignificantly small, and had no effect upon the 279 278

melting-point; No. 16 forms the only real exception, and 16'9 2734276 13'9 274-276 3*2 not at 300 I look upon the 1'2 per cent of powder as good quinone. 278 277

I look upon this result with the powder as of consider20'2 274–276 16'3 273—275 3o7 not at 300 able importance, because it clearly shows that by the 280 278

separation of crystals and powder the actual truth has 19.8 276—278 16.0 274–276 2'4 not at 300

been more nearly approached than before, and also be. 277 281

cause it affords a pretty accurate insight into the nature

of different samples. 13 22'0 273-275

18:3 273-277
4'0 266-272

As an illustration I will take one sample, No. 9 in first

table, which is of a very exceptional character, for which 2143 276—276 18:2 277–277

2.6 not at 300

reason I have also submitted it to the process of purifica270 276


tion by two consecutive treatments, the results of which 14. 233 266-268

15'1 272-274 8.0 256-258 are given in Nos. 17 and 27. This sample represents, as 270 274

I know, a lot of anthracene obtained by the re-distillation 21.8 270-270 14:6 274–274

6:1 not at 300

of anthracene oil, i.e., oil from which the anthracene has 280 280

been separated. It is of course well known that large

271 16. 26.4 274–277 22'1 276—278

quantities of such anthracene are made and sold simply 4'2 261-266

because no ready means were known to prove its more 276 280


than doubtful quality. By the usual test this sample 24:6 276–276 22'I 276—278 I'2 278—278 would appear to be of a fair average quality, but the 277 278

270 splitting up into crystals and powder is much more 27'0 273-275 20.8 274–276 6'1 260—265 striking than the action of sulphuric acid. But the last 276 276

table shows the adion of the acid upon the products of 2494 276–276 20'0 276-276 3'1 not at 300

usual quinone test not to give anything like accurate 278

results; the melting point of the mixture is misleading, 278

and the powder in the mixture is not so well acted upon 34:8 268-273 30'0 276—277 4:6 not at 300 by the acid as in the separate form. 278 278

This leads me to a short consideration of Messrs. 31'2 276-277 29°7 276-277 4'2 not at 300 Meister, Lucius, and Brüning's "new and improved 271 275


method,” which, I think, has but little chance of being 23. 39*9 267–269 34'0 273--274 58 258—260 adopted, and I find my opinion shared by several people 273 275

here whose judgment must be of considerable weight. I 39'3 273-273 33.6 273--274 5*2 not at 300 delicate for practical working, and consequently the

consider this method as not practical, because it is too 278 278


results will not be correct. I think it scarcely possible 24. 417 276–277 38:3 276-277 3'3 264-270

without loss to transfer the solution of quinone in hot 279 278

acid from one basin to another considering the small 39.8 279-279 37.8 276-277 0°4 not at 300 quantities in hand, and I look upon this operation as an 268 275


unnecessary addition to the already large number of 26. 495 268-268

40'9 271–273 8.7 250-248 manipulations—more than twenty from beginning to end 270 274

-as the solution may be heated and cooled in the same 48:4 270-270 40'4 272-273

basin. This is a minor objection, but I take it as prac8.1 not at 300

tically impossible to separate the quinone from carbon by 280 280

heating the dish, i.e., to completely volatilise the first 27. 52'5 272-276 47'9 274-277 4'7 not at 300 without burning a particle of the last or without the last 280 280

retaining any of the first. 49*7 278-279 47*2 278—279 4'2 tot at 300 Above all this method is based upon the assumption 279 280

that the acid destroys everything except quinone, which 28.

56°3 275-277 5399 274--277 2:6 not at 300 it certainly does not. I have made several experiments 278 278

with samples of commercial quinone, dissolving them in 55'3 278—278 52*9 278-278

acid, treating them like anthracene samples, i.e., boiling

Oʻ7 not at 300 them with chromic acid in the usual manner, also sepaThe a&ion is perfectly uniform with samples of the rating the product into crystals and powder, and finally most varying percentages. The mixture of crystals and treating these with sulphuric acid.



Pigmentum Nigrum.

203 A detailed account of these experiments I must reserve The next paper was " On Phospho- and Arseno-Cyanofor a future occasion, but I will state the results arrived gen," by Mr. W. R. HODGKINSON. As chloroform is at clearly bring out the fact that sulphuric acid does not converted into formonitrile or hydrocyanic acid by the destroy all impurities.

action of ammonia, it was hoped that an analogous comBefore concluding I wish to say a few words on the pound, containing phosphorus or arsenic in place of nimelting- and solidifying-points of pure quinone. I have trogen, would be obtained on substituting PHz or AsHz long been under the impression that the pale yellow for ammonia. A variety of experiments were tried by colour of quinone was due to some trace of impurities, acting on chloroform and iodoform with nascent phosphine and that perfectly pure quinone was quite white. I have in different ways, but the results were very unsatisfactory. purified à quantity by repeated re-crystallisations from On the other hand, a solution of iodoform in anhydrous petroleum spirit and sulphuric acid alternately, but the alcohol or ether, when treated with arsine, yielded a redfinal result is not absolutely colourless, it shows the dish brown amorphous precipitate, containing carbon, faintest trace of very light yellow.

hydrogen, iodine, and arsenic, and which is insoluble in The melting-point of quinone is given by different most menstrua. This substance is still under investiobservers as 273, 275, and 276. I find it even a little gation. higher; the very pure sample melts and solidifies at fully “ A Secondary Oxidised Product formed during the Re277, which degree I am inclined to look upon as the duction of Stannic Ethide to Stannous Ethide,by W. R. current one.

HODGKINSON and G. C. MATTHews. On treating an In conclusion I may remark that to fix the relative aqueous solution of stanno-diethyl chloride or bromide commercial value of per cent unit by my test it may per- with zinc, it is reduced to stannous ethide, whilst a small haps be desirable at first to combine with it the usual quantity of a yellowish green amorphous solid is produced test, thus giving as the result of the analysis, percentage by a secondary process of oxidation. After being repeatand melting point of crystals and powder mixed, and of edly washed with ether and with strong hydrochloric acid, crystals and powder separate. A very short time will to remove adhering stannous ethide and metallic zinc, &c., suffice to bring out the relative value of per cent.

it was thoroughly washed, and dried in vacuo over sul35, Whitecross Place, Wilson Street,

phuric acid. The results of the analyses were found to Finsbury, E.C.

agree with the formula C5H15 SnCO2. This substance does not combine with acids. It fuses and volatilises


The thanks of the Society having been given to the authors of these papers, a preliminary notice by Messrs. W. R. HODGKINSON and H. C. SORBY was read, on

" Pigmentum nigrum, the Black Colouring-matter conCHEMICAL SOCIETY.

tained in Hair and Feathers.” When perfectly white hair Thursday, November 2nd, 1876.

or feathers are heated gently with dilute sulphuric acid

for some time they completely dissolve, but if black or Professor Abel, F.R.S., President, in the Chair. brown feathers or hair are thus treated an amorphous

black residue is obtained. This substance, which exists After the minutes of the previous meeting had been read only in very small quantity in the blackest feathers, may and confirmed, and the presents announced, the following be conveniently prepared from rooks' feathers (which yield names were read for the first time :-Messrs. W.C. Davis, about one per cent) which have been separated from the J. Clark, T. Tyrer, F. H. Marshall, T. G. Charlesworth, central rib, and thoroughly cleaned from waxy and fatty J. Wood, Griffith Jones, B.A., J. Falconer King, and C. c. matter by treatment with alcoholic ammonia. On di. Capel. For the third time :-Messrs. Thomas 7. Johnson, gesting them with successive quantities of dilute sulphuric Otto Hehner, G. C. Thomson, H. A. Bernays, w. J. acid for several days, until the acid ceases to be coloured Fuller, and Gustav Auerbach, who were ballotted for and by red or brown soluble colouring matters, a black residue duly elected.

is obtained, which, after being thoroughly washed with The President then announced that the Goldsmiths' dilute hydrochloric acid at 80° C., and then with water, is Company had generously contributed £1000 towards the dried, and the last trace of fatty matter finally removed Society's Research Fund, started some time since by Mr. !y treatment with boiling alcohol and ether. On analysis Longstaff.

it gives numbers agreeing very well with the formula Mr. LUPTON read the first paper, “On the Oxides of C18H6N208. It is not acted on by dilute acids or alkaPotasstum.After mentioning the experiments of Davy, lies, but nitric acid slowly oxidises it. It forms new Gay-Lussac, Thénard, and others, he described the me compounds by the action of bromine, one of which is thod by which he had obtained some new oxides of soluble in water, and gives a characteristic absorption potassium : this consisted in passing air, and in some spectrum. cases nitrous oxide, over metallic potassium gently heated In reply to a question from the President, Mr. SORBY to a known temperature in a glass flask. In this way he said he had regarded the subject of the colouring-matter had, by stopping the action at certain stages, obtained of hair and feathers more from a biological than from a three new oxides,-K8O5, K604, and K403,—but could chemical point of view. Having found that a black resi. find no evidence of the existence of an oxide of the com- due was left on heating feathers with the dilute acid, Mr. position K40.

Hodgkinson had undertaken to investigate chemically the The President having thanked the author, a commu- nature of the substance. The black pigment was found nication " On certain Bismuth Compounds ” (Part III.), by in black, brown, and dark red hair, but in the latter it was Mr. M. M. P. Muir, was read by the Secretary. In it associated with a brown pigment soluble in dilute sulthe author describes two new bismuth chromates, namely, phuric acid. In very bright red hair he had also found a 3Br203,7CrO3 and 5Biz03, 11CrO3,6H20, the former being pink colouring-matter. The feathers of birds were of two of a light orange colour and the latter brick-red. The kinds, namely, those which contained the pigmentum a&ion of bromine on hot bismuthous oxide was found to nigrum—including the iridescent feathers, such as those of give an oxybromide of the formula Biļi Bry013. On passing the peacock, which are really black-and another class of dry ammonia over the bismuth oxybromides, BigBr16015 feathers, like those in the crest of the crowned crane, and BiOBr, metallic bismuth was obtained. The author which are not iridescent, but contain various coloured has also succeeded in preparing a hypobismuthic hydrate, pigments. He considered it very important, from a phyBi204,H,O, by suspending the oxide in potassic hydrate siological point of view, that this matter should be more solution and passing in chlorine at 100% until the oxide fully investigated. With regard to the pigment of the had acquired a chocolate-brown colour.

negro's skin,

he had not examined it, but had no doubt


CHEMICAL News, Water Analysis.

Nov, 10, 1876. that it would prove to be identical with that found in the Dr. Stone exhibited some diffraction gratings on glass hair.

and metal, ruled for him by Mr. W. Clark, of Windsor Mr. Sorby exhibited a specimen of pigmentum nigrum, Terrace, Lower Norwood. The majority of them were and also specimens illustrating the colours obtained with close spirals, about 1000 to the inch, which, when held this pigment and others soluble in the dilute acid.

between the eye and a distant lime-light, exhibited cirProf. CHURCH said his attention had been entirely di- cular spectra of great brilliancy. The slight difference rected to the feathers in twelve species of turacoa, in between the spiral and true circles appeared to exercise which the red parts of the feathers were coloured by no appreciable effect on the result. The metal gratings turacin. This differs in an important point from the were of linear form, 1000 lines to the inch, intended for pigmentum nigrum, in that its ash consists wholly of oxide use by reflection in a spectroscope. The spectra thus of copper. The amount of copper present in turacin is obtained were of much greater brilliancy than those considerably larger than he had formerly stated : this ordinarily obtained by refraction, and presented obvious was owing to the fact that when turacin is distilled a red advantages for examining the ultra-violet rays. He excoloured substance passes over which contains copper. plained the mechanical difficulties which had been sur. This, unlike turacin, is insoluble in ammonia, but soluble mounted in their manufacture, together with the manner in ether.

in which the diamond cutters are prepared. The metals The PRESIDENT, having thanked the authors for their | hitherto employed, namely, cast-steel and German silver, extremely interesting communication, adjourned the are objectionable, and Dr. Stone proposes, on the sugges. meeting until Thursday, November 16th, when the fol- tion of Prof. McLeod, to employ speculum metal, and will lowing papers will be read :-"On Barwood," by the late report the result of the experiments more fully at a subse. Dr. Anderson; “On Potassium Trioxide," by G. S. quent meeting. Johnson; “On the Coal-Gas of the Metropolis," by J. S. Dr. GUTHRIE then briefly described some experiments D. Humpidge ; "On Calcium Sulphate,” by J. B. Hannay. which he had made to determine the effect of a crystalloid

on a colloid when in the presence of water. Mr. Graham,

in his classical researches, made numerous experiments PHYSICAL SOCIETY.

with a salt on one side of a colloid membrane and water November 4th, 1876.

on the other, and Dr. Guthrie thought it might be well to determine what a&ion, if any, takes place when a salt is

added to a solution of a colloid such as size. Two or three Professor G. C. Foster, F.R.S., President, in the Chair lumps of rock-salt were added to a jelly of size, and the

whole hermetically sealed in a glass tube. The colloid The following candidates were elected Members of the the salt was obtained, and the size became perfe&ly white

parted with its water readily, a -saturated solution of Society : -Warren de la Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S., and W. H. and opaque, having undergone a structural change. ExPreece. Dr. Guthrie read two letters which he had received from periments were also made, employing a more hygrometric

salt, such as chloride of calcium. Dr. Forel, in continuation of a communication he

Mr. W. C. Roberts pointed out that a jelly containing made to the Society on the 27th of May last, in reference to the " Seiches " or periodic oscillations which take place 5 per cent of silicic acid readily parts with water to sul

phuric acid, and dries into a hard glass-like hydrate of in the Swiss lakes, and on which he has recently made an

silica. He asked whether this inight be considered as elaborate series of observations. Since his communication he has found, in a pamphlet by Dr. J. R. Mérian, analogous to the action of salt on size, or whether the published in 1828, a formula strictly applicable to the strong affinity between the acid and water removed it to

another class of action. phenomena under consideration. If't be the duration of half an oscillation, h the depth of the lake, and I its the existence of a point at which the jelly did not give up

Dr. GUTHRIE thought it might be possible to establish length :

its water to the hygrometric substance. He also pointed Th - that

out the analogy between a jelly and a mass of small bags 7 1

filled with liquid.



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NOTICES OF BOOKS. Considering that probably this formula will be applicable to lakes of irregular depth if he be the mean depth, he has Water Analysis : a Practical Treatise on the Examination applied it to several, and the following are

some of

of Potable Water. By J. Alfred WANKLYN and his results :- In the case of transverse seiches on Lake Ernest THEOPHRON CHAPMAN. Fourth Edition, reLeman the formula gives 216 metres as a mean depth, and written by J. ALFRED WANKLYN, M.R.C.S., &c. Lon334 metres is the greatest known depth. With a longitu- don : Trübner and Co. dinal oscillation the mean depth is found to be 130 metres. In the case of Lake Wallenstadt, the formula having We are by no means surprised that a new edition of this shown the mean depth to be somewhat greater than the

work has become necessary. The increasing attention generally accepted greatest depth, Prof. Forel took a num

paid to public health and the growing conviction of the ber of fresh soundings, and found a great basin of compara- importance of a pure water supply, must lead to a higher tively even bottom, and of such a depth as to render appreciation of the analytical process first made known in probable the mean depth given by the formula.

its pages-a process which may truly be said to have Mr. 0. J. Lodge suggested that the formula would be rendered the sanitary examination of water possible, rendered more simple by using the hyperbolic function. which, if not absolutely perfe&, is by far the most satisIt would then become

factory we yet possess, and which has been adopted by competent and disinterested judges in most parts of the

civilised world. i

The present edition is by no means a mere reprint o those which have appeared before. The body of the work

is now divided into three sections ; the first part being Mr. Lodge also exhibited the curve which this equation devoted to " water analysis for general sanitary pur. represents.

poses.” If the question is merely whether the water of a

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Nov. 10, 1876.
Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

205 given well can be safely used for domestic purposes, Mr. | CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN Wanklyn considers that a reply may be obtained from the results of the determination of total solids, of chlorine, of

SOURCES. free and albuminoid ammonia, and of poisonous metals, if present.

Instructions for these determinations are given in successive chapters and require no further com- Note.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwise ment, since this portion of the work has not undergone

expressed. any essential modification.

The second part of the book is more especially Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances, de l'Acadeni designed for those who make analytical chemistry a

des Sciences. No. 15, October 9, 1876. profession, and contains minute directions for the execution of a complete mineral analysis of a water

Absorption of Free Nitrogen by the Proximate residue. These instructions will be of great service to the Principles of Vegetables under the Influence of chemist who is consulted on the selection of a water Atmospheric Electricity.-M. Berthelot.-According to supply for any town. This part of the work has been re

experiments which have been made free nitrogen arranged, modified, and considerably extended. We have, is directly absorbed the ordinary temperature first, a chapter, not found in the earlier editions, on the by organic matters under the influence of the electric specific gravity of natural waters. Then follows the de. effluve (Comptes Rendus, lxxxii., p. 1283). This absorption termination of the insoluble, and of the soluble solids in takes place both with pure dry nitrogen and hydrocarbons, the water residue, and of the alkalinity. Here we find a case in which oxygen is totally excluded, and with moist an account of an improvement for the details of which cellulose and dextrin (p. 1357). The author's experiments the author declares himself indebted to a private commu

demonstrate the influence of a natural cause, hitherto nication from Dr. Mohr, and which will be of great use in scarcely suspected, and nevertheless of great importance all cases where very small amounts of alkali in the state

for vegetation. When the effects of atmospheric electriof carbonate have to be determined volumetrically. Mr. city have been taken into consideration, its luminous and Wanklyn remarks that the alkalinity of water expressed violent manifestations, such as thunder and lightning, have as grains of carbonate of lime per gallon is almost been chiefly regarded. Upon whatsoever hypothesis the identical with the insoluble solids.

formation of nitric and nitrous acids or of nitrate of amThe section on “Hardness" is extended by the addition monia have been exclusively studied. But the author's of a method for the titration of magnesia in drinking experiments show a new and hitherto unknown action, waters, the operation being capable of completion within which works unceasingly under the most serene sky, and a quarter of an hour. Next follows a chapter on the which determines a direct fixation of nitrogen in the "General Quantitative Analysis of the Water Residue," principles of the tissues of plants. under which lead we find directions for the determination On Capillary Affinity.-M. E. Chevreul.—The author of sulphates, nitrates, iodates, &c., and phosphates, which refers to experiments on this subject described in his latter, however, the author considers can rarely be present earlier writings. He advises all chemists who desire to except in infinitesimal proportions.

know the degree of certainty which ought to be attributed In stating the results of an analysis, Mr. Wanklyn dis to analytical methods to examine both their reagents and approves of the method of “ stating the quantity of each the bodies that have been separated with the spectroscope. metal and each acid-radical in a given volume of water," Action of Boric Acid and of the Alkaline Borates which, he considers, “has the fatal property of masking upon Plants.-M. E. Peligot.---The author finds that and concealing most fundamental facts that the analysis boric acid and borates of potassa and soda have a destrucshould disclose.” He holds that "water residues may be tive action upon vegetables. He therefore doubts the looked upon as impure carbonate cf lime or impure propriety of their use for the preservation of articles of chloride of sodium.” The chapter on the “purification food, and suggests that their action upon animals should of water" contains much novel and interesting matter. be carefully investigated by a commission nominated by The decomposition, or otherwise the removal, of such the Academy of Sciences. bodies as quinine, morphia, and strychnine by passage in solution through charcoal must lead to further results.

Reciprocal Action of Oxalic Acid and the MonoThe chapters on "Gases and Vapours Dissolved by Water” atomic Alcohols.--A. Cahours and E. Demarcay.-Not and on « Urine and Sewage" are substantially the same

suitable for abstraction. as in the last edition.

Determination of Free Nitrogen in Organic SubThe third part of the work is composed of " Examples stances: Chemical Composition of certain Gunof Complete Mineral Analyses," and deals with the

cottons (Abel's Compressed Gun-cotton, Collodionwater supplies of Londoni, Manchester, Sunderland, Paper, and Collodion.-P. Champion and H. Pellet.Croydon, and Bonn, and with the waters of the Rhine | The authors have applied to the determination of nitrogen and the Nile.

the methods of Pelouze or of Schlosing with an important The appendix contains a republication of the original modification. When nitro compounds are not capable of memoirs of Messrs. Wanklyn, Chapman, and Smith, on

being carried along by the vapour of water they employ the action of oxidising agents upon organic substances in the arrangement which has been suggested by M. F. Jean alkaline solution, and a reprint of documents bearing on

(Bull. de la Soc. Chim., June, 1876, p. 13). The authors the controversy between the author and Dr. Frankland as consider compressed gun-cotton, prepared by Abel's to the merits of their respective processes for the analysis method, not as tri-nitro-cellulose, CiH,073 NO5, but as of water.

To pronounce upon this portion of the book penta-nitro-cellulose, C24H150155 NO3. They have found would be an invidious task. We do not like prolonged the composition of a Russian sample of collodion obtained controversies, and we find that a man with a grievance, from M. Carette. A sample of pyroxylised paper only however good his case, often comes to be regarded as a

contained two equivalents of nitric acid. bore. But if an author is attacked, and if his reply is ex- Limits within which the Explosion of Fire-Damp cluded from the journal where the attack is published, he is Possible, and on New Properties of Palladium.can scarcely be blamed for defending himself wherever it | M. J. J. Coquillion.—It is difficult to obtain a strong exis practicable. Nothing, we think, is more certain to find i plosion with air and fire-damp on working upon small its level than an analytical method.

quantities of gas, as is done in laboratories.

I part of In fine, we must express our opinion that this edition fire-damp with 6 of air, and 16 of air with 1 of fire-damp; of Mr. Wanklyn's work will meet with even higher and are the two extreme limits. Palladium wire, even if wider approval than its predecessors in accordance with heated to white-redness, does not fire the most explosive its greatly increased value.



Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.


Nov. 10, 1876. No. 16, October 16, 1876.

AIB12, and to the yellow kind C2Al3B48. The determinaThe session of thc Academy was opened by a discourse tions of the specific heat of boron are hence no longer pronounced by M. Dumas, on occasion of the death of trustworthy, with the exception of those of Kopp, executed M. C. Sainte-Claire Deville, the well-known mineralogist. with amorphous boron, the number found being oʻ254.

Relation of the Two Specific Heats of a Gas.-M. This multiplied into the atomic weight of boron, 11, gives C. Simon.—It is concluded that in simple gases the physi- 2798, a product half as large as that of most other elecal molecules remain sensibly invariable in form and di

All attempts to obtain pure crystalline boron mensions so long as no electric or chemical phenomenon have been unsuccessful. The author is engaged with an is produced.

investigation of the purity of amorphous boron as prepared

by the method previously employed. Etching Action Produced upon Different Metals by the Acids.-MM. Tréve and Durassier.-It is known that

Contributions to the Theory of Luminous Flames. the action of acids upon metals gives rise to various figures Dr. Karl Heumann.- In this part of his treatise the author which have been sometimes considered as calculated to

arrives at important results, both theoretical and practical. throw a light upon the internal structure of the metal. We He shows that the carbon in the fame exists as a solid have had occasion to make certain observations, which body, and not, as Frankland assumes, in the state of seem to show that in the conditions in which we operated vapour,, He finds that gas-jets of steatite are decidedly the figures are connected, not with the internal structure, preferable to those of iron, since they consume less gas but with the external action exerted by the bubbles of gases for an equal strength of light. Metallic jets, in general, disengaged during the reaction of the acids. The authors notably enfeeble the light. He refers to the result obtained give an illustration representing two horse-shoe magnets by the Commission of the English Board of Trade who which have been plunged into acids, and which are grooved reported, in opposition to the view of Vogel, that a rein a regular design, not capable of being made intelligible frigeration of the gas does not decrease the amount of by a mere description.

light, and considers that they must have experimented Compound of Chloral and of Acetic Chloride.—MM. sation. On the contrary, he finds that if the jet and the

with a kind of gas poor in hydrocabons capable of conden. J. Curie and A. Millet.—The result is a liquid heavier than outflowing current of gas are both strongly heated the and insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, ether, and glacial luminous effect is increased to an extraordinary degree. acetic acid, boiling without decomposition between 186° and 188°, and containing 62 per cent of chlorine.

Presence of Guanin in the Urine of Swine.Sulpho-antimoniuret of Lead found at Arnsberg, upon bran alone, and was evidently suffering from gout.

Domenico Pecile.—The swine in question had been fed in Westphalia.-M. F. Pisani.-This mineral is not a

The author is endeavouring to ascertain the presence or plagionite, as might at first sight be assumed, but a true heteromorphite. Its hardness is 2'5, and its specific

absence of guanin in the urine of healthy swine. gravity 5.59 to 5'73. Its composition isSulphur ..




University of London.-The following is a list of the 99:56

candidates who have passed the recent B.Sc. examinaOrigin of Eruptive'Rocks, Vitreous and Crystalline. tions :-Pass List.First Division. John Henry Best, -A. M. Lévy.—An examination of the microscopic struc- University College; Thomas Capper, Trinity College, ture of two eruptive rocks, which, in the opinion of the Cambridge ; John Kent Crow, Owens College; William author, may throw some light on the origin of vitreous and Hewitt, Royal School of Mines; William Wansbrough crystalline rocks.

Jones, Magdalen College, Oxford ; John Frederic Main,
Trinity College, Cambridge; Hermann Ludwig Theodor

Sack, B.A., private study; Ambrose Robinson Willis,
Justus Liebig's Annalen der Chemie,

Royal School of Mines. Second Division. Reginald Band 183, Heft 1.

Hargreaves Bulley, Owens College; William Fisher, B.A., Compounds of Phthalic Acid with the Phenols.- King's College ; Cecil Reeves Harrison, University ColAdolf Bæyer.—The first part of a long but interesting lege; John Stephenson Jellie, private study; Archibald memoir. The author treats of fluorescein, its history, Prentice Ledward, Owens College: Archibald McAlpine, preparation, properties, and salts; of diacetyl-fluorescein, Royal College of Science, Dublin; George William dibenzoyl-Auorescein, monoethyl-fluorescein, diethyl- Mackie, B.A., private study; Henry Major, B.A., private Auorescein, and chloride of Auorescein. He shows that study; James Monckman, Yorkshire College of Science; fluorescein can take up a molecule of water without de- James Isaac Paddle, B.A., University College; Walter composition, and that two molecules of resorcin can be Pearce, St. Mary's Hospital and Royal School of Mines; successively withdrawn from it. He then proceeds to the Bernard Joseph Snell, B.A., New College; Edward reduction product of fluorescein, known as Auorescin, and Holdsworth Sugden, B.A., Owens and Headingley Colexamines the behaviour of the former body with different leges; Albert Edward Tovey, private study. reagents, and its substitution-products, including dinitro- Science Scholarships.- In the Dublin Daily Express, Auorescein, diacetyl-dinitro-fluorescein, the hydrate of Professor Galloway calls attention to a paper dinitro-fluorescein, and tetra-nitro-fluorescein. He then

“ Technical Education,” read at a recent meeting of the treats of the action of bromine upon Auorescein, and the Iron and Steel Institute by the secretary, Mr. Jones. In production of mono-brom-fluorescein, dibrom-fluorescein, this paper the author said that the Commissioners of the diacetyl-dibrom-fluorescein, and tetra-brom-fluorescein International Exhibition of 1851 have still a surplus of (better known as eosin), the salts of eosin, and erythrin £186,000, and that it had been proposed to expend with its salts. The second chapter of the treatise is de: 2100,000 of this on a scientific library and on science voted to orcinphthalein, and is taken from an inaugural Scholarships to be attached to the Science School at dissertation by E. Fischer.

South Kensington. He proposed that it should be disOn Boron.—Dr. W. Hampe.—The author shows that tributed amongst the different science colleges and in. the supposed crystalline boron obtained by Wöhler and stitutions in England. Professor Galloway asks Irish Sainte-Claire Deville by fusing aluminium with amorphous members of Parliament to get this distribution extended boron or with boracic acid is not pure boron, but com- to Ireland. He hopes, at least, that a chemical scholar. pounds. To the black crystals he assigns the fomula 'ship will be obtained for the College of Science, Dub lin



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