Obrazy na stronie

192 Anthracen Testing.


Nov. 3, 1876. well satisfied if my experiments should in some degree , alkaline filtrate remains of a deep orange colour, even contribute to an improved manufacture, the whole of which after very prolonged washing with hot alkaline soluis, after all, in a very primitive state. It will then be in- tion. teresting to prove the difference in value by actual experi- It will be unnecessary to further summarise the result ment, and with that object the following results were of the above tables because it is very evident that the reobtained :

duction in percentage formed by the usual quinone test is an There are two methods of improving the quality of an

apparent loss only, for the crystals alone show a sensible thracene, viz., by simple strong pressure, and by washing increase, and the powder a remarkable diminution. with suitable solvents of a number of impurities. much oil as ever possible should be separated by pressure, anthracene, viz., by washing, I have taken two samples

Now to the second method of improving the quality of because the oil retains much of the impurities which afterward yield the powder instead of quinone crystals; and, of very different percentages, and have purified them in a further, if an oily sample is washed at once much anthra

similar manner as is usual on the large scale; the first cene is lost by solution. Two very oily and poor samples table on next page gives the results. were therefore first strongly pressed, the first once and

1000 grms. of anthracene were taken in each experiment, the second twice, with the following result, viz. :

and the quantities obtained were as follows :


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Powder Mixed.


TOO 100


100 100 IOO





Taking in all cases the percentage of "crystals and units, which are also reduced to 1000. (See second table powder mixed as 100, and calculating therefrom the pro- on next page). portion of crystals and of powder separately, we obtain Taking in all cases the percentage of the mixture of ihe following table, which will show more clearly the crystals and powder = Ico, we obtain the following table, effect of pressing :

which will show more clearly still the effect of purifying:-
Crystals and

Crystals and
Powder Mixed.

Crystals. 1. Original


42:1 Once pressed..

1. Original


43'3 12:6 First treatment


22.6 2. Original

Second treatment.. 30'2

912 Once pressed..

2. Original ..

86'2 Twice pressed

13'2 15'9 First treatment



Second treatment.. Taking the crystals as pure quinone and the powder as


4:6 impurity, retaining very little quinone, the effect of These tables again show the different effect upon the pressing is very striking, and it becomes pretty evident mixture of crystals and powder, and upon the crystals and that no article giving less than 20 per cent of crystals powder separately, and, as I think, give a clear idea of the should be found in the market.

real working effect of the various treatments, such as has The action of potassium permanganate and especially hitherto not been collected or published. I also think the of potassium hydrate, points in the same direction, i.c., | above results will tend to prove the practical value of the lower the percentage of a sample the more oily and separating the crystals and powder, instead of merely impure the sample the larger the proportion of impurities estimating the mixture. removed, and this is sometimes to such extent that the Some experiments made with the view of learning more




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Nov. 3. 1876.

New Nickel Mineral from New Caledonia.
Effect of Purifying two Samples of Anthracene by two Consecutive Treatments.
Crystals and Power Mixed.



1. Original
17.8 266-268



not at 300

First treatment

27'0 273-275
208 274–276

6:1 260—265

Second treatment

52'5 272—276
479 274–277


not at 300

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No. 2

34:8=34800 or 1000 30'0=30000 or 1000 4:6= 4600 or 1000 First treatment

720 41°7=30024 or 863 38.3=27576 or 919 3*3=2376 or 515 Second treatment

510 56°3= 28713 or 831 53.9=27489 or 916 2.6=1326 or 287 closely the nature of the powder may find their place | green portion contained mere traces of ferric oxide and here, although, as I have already stated, I have not yet alumina, also mere traces only of lime and magnesia. come to a final conclusion on this point.

The different portions of the ore were specially tested for (To be continued.)

carbonate, but traces only were found in each case, largest in the brown substance.

The hard and greenish white portion constituting the

layers or strata already referred to, and resembling magON A NEW NICKEL MINERAL FROM

nesic silicate, contained principally insoluble silica NEW CALEDONIA.

(quartz) with small quantities of the constituents of the By P. G. W. TYPKE, F.C.S.

soft green and brown parts of the mineral.

I more especially examined the green mineral, as the

qualitative analysis had shown that it formed the more MR. A. LIVERSIDGE, Professor of Mineralogy, Sidney important constituent of the ore. It was amorphous and University, New South Wales, described, in 1874, in the of uneven fracture. Its colour was of a bright apple-green Journal of the Chemical Society (New Series, vol. xii., to olive-green ; streak light green; hardness about p. 613) a new nickel mineral which he had obtained from 3; sp. gr. = 2.468; lustre dull vitreous; heated in a closed New Caledonia, and to which he assigned the formula- tube it gave off water and darkened in colour ; heated (NIO,MgO)10(SiO2)8+3H20,

before the blowpipe flame it left a brown magnetic powder, or,

and on platinum wire with borax gave the ordinary nickel Sig026+3H,0,


Quantitative Analysis. showing it to be principally a hydrated double silicate of nickel and magnesia.

Determination of Water.-A carefully selected portion Through the kindness of Mr. T. Loram, F.C.S., Mr.

of the bright apple-green mineral was powdered in the Valentin received a splendid specimen of the new nickei agate mortar and dried at 100°C. ore which had come into the London market, and at his 1. 4.8110 grms. lost oʻ2120 grm... = 4:40 p. c. of OH, instigation I submitted the ore to a fresh investigation. 2. 0:6520 grm. of the mineral dried As the results which I obtained differ in many respects at 100° C. when ignited in a plati. from those obtained by Professor Liversidge, I thought num crucible lost 0'0490 grm. = 7:51 you might perhaps think them of sufficient interest to Total percentage of loss..

=I1'91 publish them in your valuable journal. A glance at the ore showed that its composition was

The analysis of the other constituents was made with not uniform. The greater portion consisted of an emerald the portion of the mineral dried at 100° C. green, brittle substance, which could be easily scratched Determination of Silica.—The substance was dissolved with the knife, and exhibited, when broken up, an uneven in dilute hydrochloric acid. The greater portion of the fracture.

silica being left in the insoluble state (quartz), the whole This green mineral was coated in places where the was evaporated to dryness and ignited. water had acted upon it with a brown powdery substance, and exhibited layers or thin greenish white strata of dis

1. 1'4280 grm. of (dry) substance integrated portions of the mineral, containing quartz

gave 0*7946 grm. of SiO2 .. =55664 p. c. of silica crystals. Other portions of the ore showed dark brown to

2. O:8475 grm. of (dry) substance

gave oʻ4760 grm. of SiO2 black with the lustre and appearance of radiated heavy

=56:16 spar, and contained much ferric hydrate.

Determination of Ferric Oxide and Alumina.A qualitative analysis of the several portions of the ore

1. 1'4280 grm. gave o'c136 grm. of Fe2O3 -the apple-green and the dark brown-showed that the

and Al2O3

=0'95 p. c. latter differed from the former in containing more ferric 2. 0·8475 grm. gave


grm. of Fe2O3 hydrate and a little more alumina. Both contained prin

and A1203

= 0'70» cipally silicic acid and nickel oxide, with little ferric oxide and alumina, and less even of lime and magnesia. The

No separation of the iron and alumina was attempted.


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Estimation of Barley in Oatmeal.


Nov. 3, 1876. Determination of Nickel Oxide.

portions of silicic and nickel oxide vary, and do not justify 1. 1'4280 grm. gave 0-5078 grm. = 35-56 p. c. of Nio us in fixing upon a mineralogical formula, or making out 2. O:8475

= 35:57

a distinct species of a nickel mineral. The nickel oxide when dissolved in hydrochloric acid

Royal College of Chemistry,

October 16, 1976. and re-precipitated with KHO showed no diminution in weight.

Determination of Magnesia.1. Experiment lost.

ESTIMATION OF BARLEY IN OATMEAL. 2. 0·8475 grm. gave o‘005 of P20,Mg2 =0:18 p.c. of Myo

By Messrs. PATTINSON and STEAD, Mr. Liversidge ignited his mineral till “it ceased to

Analytical Chemists, Middlesborough-on-Tees. diminish in weight,” but does not appear to have observed that after ignition the nickel was no longer soluble either | As the praćice of adulterating oatmeal with the less in hydrochloric acid or in aqua regia, whilst before igni- valuable barley-meal is much resorted to by millers and tion it dissolved freely in dilute hydrochloric acid, leaving others, it becomes of the greatest importance to have insoluble white granular silica behind. The nickel

some systematic method of analysis by which to detersilicate of the mineral being in the hydrated condition is converted by strong ignition in a platinum crucible into fore beg to lay before your readers the following methods,

mine the proportion of barley so introduced. We there. the insoluble anhydrous silicate.

In order to ascertain whether nickel existed as hydrate practised by ourselves, which we find to give very good in the mineral I boiled up a portion with ammonic car- In order to obtain an average sample from the parcel of bonate, filtered, and passed sulphuretted hydrogen through meal received for analysis, the whole contents of the parcel the filtrate. No nickel sulphide was obtained, showing are thoroughly mixed in a large porcelain mortar. A quarter that the whole of the nickel was combined with the silica of the meal mixed in this manner is now pounded to twice

Percentage composition of the its original fineness, which is then spread evenly over the
Mineral dried at 100°C. surface of a piece of paper. When this is done, 10 grms.

(taken over the whole of the meal) are weighed off, Water lost on ignition

pounded, and passed through a brass sieve containing 7:51

7'510 inirty meshes to the linear inch. In order to expedite the Silica.. .

55.64 56:16


pounding, which is a tedious process, after each pounding Nickel oxide


35 57 35565 the oatmeal is transferred to the sieve, and is there rubbed Alumina and ferric oxide

0'95 0*70 0·825 with an india-rubber pestle, which has the effect of causing Lime .. Magnesia ..

the fine meal to separate from the epidermis, to which it O'18 0180

adheres very pertinaciously, and thus makes it difficult to

pound. After the whole has passed through the sieve it is

99-980 Water of hydration lost at 100° C. = 4'40 p. c.

very well mixed up, and about 2 grms. placed in a 3-inch

glass or porcelain mortar with sufficient milk-warm water From these figures the composition to be deduced for

to make a moderately thin paste. The mortar and con the apple-green nickel mineral is approximately that of a

tents are kept slightly warm during the pounding in order hydrated nickel disilicate of the formula :

that the cellular matter may be softened, and the starch

thus made easy to separate. The pestle is kept gently (SOHO

working for about five minutes, care being taken not to Si20.NiH2, or, Nio"

press too hard, for if too much pressure is applied the SIOHO

barley starch granules will be broken up. We find that Another portion of the apple-green mineral picked from the weight of the pestle itself is quite sufficient for the a different part of the ore yielded results which differed purpose. The sample after this treatment is ready for considerably from the figures obtained with the mineral mounting. A small quantity of the paste is taken on the just described. Unfortunately the determination of the end of a glass rod, and is transferred to the slide of a nickel oxide was lost, and I was therefore unable to com- microscope. A drop of water is allowed to fall on the plete the analysis. Thus much, however, it would appear, paste, and a thin glass cover placed over the whole. may safely be deduced from the subjoined figures, that Pressure is now applied to the cover, which is at the same the proportions of silica and nickel oxide, as well as time rubbed backward and forward. The excess of the water of hydration, vary to some extent in the apple-green substance in water is removed from time to time by mineral,

means of blotting-paper. Composition in 100 parts The pressing and rubbing actions are continued till the of the cried (100° C.)

outline of surrounding bodies can just be observed with Water lost on ignition of the

the naked eye with an equal degree of distinctness through substance (dried at 100° C.)

every part of the slide covered by the object. Great care Silica


is taken not to allow too much water to be under the Nickel oxide..


cover, for when an excess of water is present the starch Alumina and ferric oxide

grains run together into groups, which at once renders the Lime

object useless. The slide prepared, it is now examined Magnesia

under the microscope, and the barley granules, in ten diftrace

ferent fields, counted. Standard samples are now exA portion, o'473 grm., of the mineral was boiled with amined, one containing 5 and the other 10 per cent barley. pure sodic carbonate in a platinum dish, and the filtrate These we always have ready for mounting. They are evaporated to dryness with hydrochloric acid, when it left prepared by mixing 9-5 grms. and 9 gļms. of pure oatmeal 0'0225 of silica = 4'33 per cent of uncombined silica. with o'5 and 1 grm. barley respectively, and treating the

There is a considerable range left between Mr. Liver mixtures in all respects as detailed above. sidge's 47-236 per cent of silica and my 66-97, or even If the sampling and mounting has been properly 55'90 per cent of silica, as found in the two samples executed, the number of barley granules found in ten picked and selected with equal care; and we can therefore different fields of the 10 per cent sample slide will be only come to one conclusion, viz., that the mineral is twice the number found in ten similar fields of the 5 per probably the result of the action of hydrated or soluble cent sample. This having been obtained, we have now silicic acid upon some nickel compound, and that the pro- only to calculate from the results obtained.



0:18 trace

Ten Fields.


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Nov. 3, 1876.

Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

195 First divide the number of granules found in the and

CORRESPONDENCE. 10 per cent standard slides by 5 and 10 respectively; this gives the number of barley grains corresponding to i per

DYSODILE. cent of barley. We have now only to divide the number of granules found in the sample slide by the figure obtained as above mentioned to arrive at the percentage of barley Sir, I think you will find in Prof. Church's article on

To the Editor of the Chemical News. present. We should here state that we always mount two slides, dysodile a mistake. In giving the results of his analysis

he saysand take the average of the two results. The following are the results obtained by testing mix. I think Prof. Church will find, if he will re-calculate the

"Oʻ328 grm. gave o'o98 grm. Fe2O3, or 28.88 p.c. Fe2O3." tures of oat- and barley-meal, the composition of which above data, that the percentage of Fe2O3 will be 29:87, or was known, viz. :

that, correctly stated, the above would beBarley Present in Granules in


"Oʻ328 grm. gave o'og8 grm. Fe2O3, or 29 87 p.c. Fe2O3," Oatmeal.


--I am, &c.,
I per cent

I'00 per cent.


Littleborough, October 30, 1876. 3







IO'Oo 20


To the Editor of the Chemical News. 30


SIR,- In the CHEMICAL NEWS (vol. xxxiv., p. 154) you The great objection to microscope analysis has been

were good enough to insert a query for me asking for indue, first, to the great difficulty of obtaining a fair average phosphates in mixed manures. I had some slight hope of

formation respecting the estimation of mineral and organic sample in the minute amount mounted on the slide. Second, to the still greater difficulty of getting the same who professes to do this. Perhaps, sir, by the insertion

an answer, for I hear that there is an agricultural chemist proportion of meal on comparative slides. It will be clear of this letter in your valuable journal we may derive inthat the number of granules must depend on the amount formation respecting the metnod of estimation, and test its of meal in any given area, and that unless the proportions

accuracy.-I am, &c., are the same good results would be impossible. We, how

E. Chris. Porter. ever, find that by the method of mixing with warm water,

3. Romney Terrace, Greenwich, S.E., and stirring for a considerable time, a very thorough

October 28, 1876. mixing is ensured, inasmuch that portions taken from different parts of the mixture when examined under the microscope give very concordant results. Also, that by CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN making the comparative slides have an equal degree of transparency through those parts over which the meals

SOURCES are spread, the difficulty of obtaining similar amounts of meal on different sildes is overcome, as we find that when Note.--All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwise the transparency is equal the amount of meal is also equal.

expressed. Second Method,

Moniteur Scientifique, du Dr. Quesneville, This method is based on the great differences in appear.

October, 1876. ance and hardness of coarsely ground oat- and barley;this subject, recently published by M. E. Marchand: The

Chemical Force of Light.-An abstract of a work on meal. We proceed as follows, viz. :-After thoroughly mixing the sample, we sieve off the finer parts of the meal, chemical action of light is studied especially from a and examine only the coarse portions, as we find that, as

climatological point of view. a rule, the coarse portions contain the same proportion of Spectrum Analysis.--A notice of Prof. Bunsen's recent barley as the fine.

3 or 4 grms. are spread out on the paper inserted in Poggendorff's Annalen, vol. clv. surface of a piece of glazed paper, and with the aid of a

Theory of Spectral Rays.-M. G. Salet finds that pocket-lens and by pressing with the finger-nail, the many chemical elements, especially the non-metallic, harder barley particles are detected, and may be com- have two spectra-one formed of lines, which is due to pletely separated from the oats. It is only necessary to atoms, and one with bands, which pertain to molecules. weigh the barley so obtained to arrive at the proportions Iodine in the state of vapour at the ordinary pressure gives in which it exists in the sample.

an absorption-spectrum composed of channelled bands of This is a very excellent method, and is always used by the beautiful colour peculiar to this element, and which us in conjunction with the microscope method, with which

cannot be due to an unknown compound of iodine. But it agrees very closely. It is best, however, not to depend | if an electric spark of high tension is caused to strike through on this method alone, as the sellers of oatmeal might the vapour there is obtained a to:ally different spectrum, take the precaution to mix what they sold with finely, composed of brilliant rays, the arrangement of which ground barley, in which case the whole of the barley would stands in no relation with that of the absorption-bands, and pass off with the fine portion when being sieved, and more

which do not coincide with those of any other known elewould therefore be found in the coarser part,

ment. From analogous reasons M. Salet considers that it must be admitted that bromine, sulphur, &c., have each

two distinct spectra. A spectrum with bands is also Sheep Husbandry in Georgia.-"A Manual of Sheep obtaired with nitrogen, however it has been purified. The Husbandry in Georgia” has been prepared under the di- vapours of the alkaline metals yield also by absorption rection of the Commissioner of Agriculture of the State spera quite similar to those of the non-metallic elements. of Georgia. From it we learn that sheep-raising is more The multiplicity of spectra appears, therefore, a general lucrative than cotton-growing, the average annual profit fact. The band-spectra, due to complex molecules, on capital invested in sheep being 63 per cent. The great appear at temperatures where certain atomic groupings drawback lies in the useless dogs with which we believe may still exist. The line-spectra appear when a very the United States are more infested than any other part elevated temperature has disaggregated these combinations, of the world, and which in Georgia destroy 28,000 sheep and forced the atoms to arrange themselves in a more yearly!

simple manner. It is to some extent a spectral allotropy.

Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.


Nov. 3, 1876. Observations on the Last Work of M. Pasteur on Merrimack Manufacturing Company has been decided in the Fermentation and Manufacture of Beer.-M. his favour. Charles Blondeau.-A lengthy dissertation, unfit for abstraction. Historical and Chemical Survey of the Manufacture

MISCELLANEOUS. of Turkey-Red.--M. Theodor Chateau.— The conclusion of this treatise. The author in summing-up gives the fol- The Research Fund of the Chemical Society.lowing as his theory of the process of Turkey-red dye- A sum of £1000 has been voted to the Chemical Society ing:—The oil employed brings with it a fatty acid, the by the Goldsmith's Company, in aid of the fund for the oleic acid, or gives rise to the same or to a similar fatty promotion of original research. acid, or to a mixture of fatty acids in which oleic acid predominates. In the process of aluming this fatty acid, --The sum of £700 has been presented to Owens College,

New Scholarship in Chemistry at Owens College. simple or compound, combines with a certain quantity of Manchester, by Mrs. Crace Calvert, for the foundation of alumina set at liberty in the operation, forming a fatty salt with an aluminous base, which may also be formed

a Scholarship in Chemistry of the annual value of £25, by double decomposition between alkaline fatty salts and in memory of her late husband, Dr. Crace Calvert, F.R.S. salts of alumina. This fatty acid at the same time forms

Lead Poisoning.-In a late number of The Lancet a a kind of combination with albuminoid matter, whether somewhat singular case of cumulative lead-poisoning is the sort of vegetable albumen found in the emulsive oils reported, which tends to show that early rising has its (huiles tournantes), or with the animal albuminoid matters pains and penalties as well as its profits and pleasures. of yolk of egg, blood, gall, when these are employed, or

A cab-washer who was in the habit of drinking deeply with those of the dung of cows, sheep, or goats. This during the day, and of sleeping in an omnibus until the threefold compound of fatty acid, alumina, and albuminoid time came for him to wash forty cabs, was brought into matter has not the stability of a definite compound, for St. Mary's Hospital, in February, 1875, suffering from neutral liquids like aceton, oils of turpentine and petro- phthisis and delirium tremens. He recovered from the leum, and sulphide of carbon split it up, or rather divide

latter complaint and got better of the former, but it was it into several parts, some soluble in these media, and the found that he had completely lost the use of his upper others insoluble or merely viscid. This triple compound extremities, while his voice was reduced to the merest does not combine intimately with the fibre of the cotton, whisper. On being questioned he stated that, as he since the above-mentioned neutral solvents remove it, usually finished his work just as the public houses opened, proving that it is merely deposited on the surface, or at

he always had the very first glass of beer or gin that was any rate penetrates but to a small depth, a fact which served in the morning; that is to say, the liquor which constitutes one of the physical characters of the brightness had remained all night in the drawpipe in contact with of Turkey-red. This triple compound unites, or rather is the lead. His gums showed the well-known blue line dyed, on contact with the colouring matter of madder indicative of lead poisoning, and other confirmatory without forming any intimate combination with the fibre symptoms existed which need not be detailed here. His of the cotton, such as takes place in the operations of urine gave 1-3400th of a grain of lead per fluid ounce, and dyeing upon tissues prepared with ordinary mordants.

some of the gin which he drank every morning having The lake thus formed on the outer surface of the cotton been procured and tested gave 1-430th of a grain per fluid may be brightened by the ordinary methods of “ clearing." | December he was treated with iodide of potassium in

From the beginning of June to the beginning of Manufacture of Ultramarine.-C. Furstenau.--Only large doses, and was galvanised and faradised daily, but two silicates of alumina are serviceable in the manufac- all to no purpose. Mr. S. J. Knott, M.R.C.S., the mediture of ultramarine, 2A1203,3SiO3 and Al2O3,2SiO3. These cal superintendent of galvanism at St. Mary's Hospital, silicates yield colours having different properties according suggested that a thorough trial of galvanic baths should as they are treated with the bisulphide or pentasulphide be made on the patient. Accordingly, on December 4th, of sodium, thus :-(1.) 2A1203,3Si03 treated with NaS2 he was placed in a warm bath, and the water charged with give a light blue product of feeble colouring power. (2.) 2A1,03,3 SiO3 with Nass gives a pure deep blue of twenty-eight

cells of a voltaic battery. At first the current

was passed from the positive pole, placed at the nape of great colouring power. These two colours do not contain

the neck, to the negative, which was placed at the feet. alum. (3.) Al2O3,2SiO2 treated with NaS2 gives a reddish | After ten minutes the negative pole was moved along his light product not very pure. (4.) Al2O3,2SiO3 treated with legs and arms for twenty minutes more. The treatment Nas, gives a deep violet-blue of great colouring power. was continued daily, and at the end of a fortnight he was China clays in which the alumina and silica are found in so much better as to be able to raise his arms fairly, and other proportions than those indicated above give mix- flex them pretty well. From this time he continued to tures of different ultramarines. For a pure blue the fol- | mend, the baths being still kept up three times a week, lowing mixture may be taken :

and finally returned to his work in February. The fourth 2A1203,3 SiO3+4NaO, CO2+4C+7S.

bath was acidulated and tested by Dr. Handfield Jones, For reddislı products of great colouring power

who found well-marked traces of lead in it, which were

absent in the water supplied to the bath. If lead can be A1,03,2SiO3+4NaO,CO2+8C16S.

thus eliminated from the body by the electric current, why Salicylic Acid and its Applications.—Dr. F. von not arsenic, mercury, and silver? In ordinary cases of Heyden.—A very long paper, not suitable for abstraction. lead colic and dropped wrists the ele&ric bath has proved

Certain Derivatives of Dimethyl-Protocatechuic efficacious in a few days without any medicine. If this Acid and of Vanillic Acid.—MM. F. Tiemann and method of administering electricity be equally efficacious Kaeta Oukimori Matsmoto.-Taken from the Ber. der in other cases of plumbism as in those treated by Mr. Deut. Chem. Gesellschaft. The authors have given Knott, medicine will have to thank physical science for vanillic acid the more formidable name of mono-methyl- putting into her hands an additional weapon for counterproto-catechuic acid.

acting human disorders. Coniferyl and Vanillin.-F. Tiemann. Sulphur in Lighting-Gas.-M. A. Vérigo.-Already

TO CORRESPONDENTS. noticed. Litigation on the Use of Aniline-Black in America.

W. Wallace. The tables will be inserted in an early number.

7. B. Lindsay.-Reece's machine is a good one. -The a&ion brought by M. J. J. Müller Pack, purchaser of

ERRATUM.-On page 185, col. I, line 30 from top, for "2000 the patent-rights of the late Mr. J. Lightfoot, against the grammes" read 2000 grains.

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