Obrazy na stronie


Report of State Board of Health of Massachusetts.

For the quantitative determination of cellulose Dr. Müller proceeds as follows:-Two grms. of the material in question are dried at 110° to 115°. If resins, wax, &c., are present, they are extracted with a mixture of strong alcohol and benzol, and the mass is then repeatedly boiled with water or very dilute ammonia. The residue is then bruised in a mortar with a pestle of box-wood. In operating on woods fine plane-shavings are the most convenient form, and require no further preparation. The mass is now placed in a large wide-mouthed stoppered glass, with 100 c.c. of water. A solution of bromine, containing 2 c.c. of bromine to 500 c.c. of water, is then added, to the extent of 5 or 10 c.c., according to the nature of the material. When the yellow colour of the liquid disappears a fresh portion of the bromine solution is added, and so on until free bromine may be recognised in the liquid, even after standing from twelve to twenty-four hours. The mass is now filtered, washed with water, and heated nearly to a boil, with about 500 c.c. of water to which 2 c.c. of ammonia have been added. The mass is filtered, washed with water, returned to the stoppered glass, and again treated with water and solution of bromine, as before. This alternating treatment with ammonia and bromine is thus repeated three or four times, and finally on washing with water, and then with boiling alcoholpure cellulose is obtained as a mass, dazzling in its whiteness. It may be considered pure if-after remaining for twenty-four hours in contact with very dilute solution of bromine, and subsequent treatment with warm dilute ammonia-no coloration appears in the liquid.

The author is of opinion that the determination of cellulose will become of practical importance in the future, as new fibrous materials will doubtless be introduced into the market, and as it will become necessary to ascertain the result of the various processes for their preparation. The remaining and larger portion of the work is devoted to an elaborate description of the vegetable fibres already in use, and of those capable of industrial application, the number of which will surprise those who have not examined this subject. Particular attention is given to a survey of materials suitable for the paper-trade, and to an account of the improved processes, mechanical and chemical, for its preparation.

We must strongly recommend Dr. Müller's work to all who take an interest in vegetable fibres and their applications, and especially to all concerned in textile manufactures, in the paper-trade, and in the development of the resources of our colonies.


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absence of offensive smell. Here he contradicts one of
the most preposterous assertions of the Rivers' Pollution
Commission, that bad smells are always perceptible.'"
My statement is-"There is no offensive smell.
except from the moist precipitate" (p. 349).
As to Leamington, I find my notes confirmed by the
London Standard of October 17, 1874, and by the London
Times of October 21, 1875. I am sure that the authorities
will not say that my expression of "costly and expensive
failures," as applied to their experience with the precipi-
tating processes, is at all too strong.

You say "No mention is made of the important results obtained by Mr. Smee, jun., who showed that milk and butter obtained from cows fed on sewage grass became more rapidly offensive than that of cows fed upon normal herbage. No notice is taken of the important evidence of Mr. Markham that irrigation, even with common river water, and applied only when necessitated by dry weather, injures the health of the surrounding districts in India. No less has Dr. Folsom left out of account the valuable report of M. Lefeldt, the Prussian Commissioner, who complains of the mephitic odours' on the model sewage farm, and who found the stems of grass from irrigated meadows full of unassimilated sewage matters."

I have given more than a page to the consideration of Mr. Smee's statement (pp. 344 and 345). I have distinctly stated the fact well known to Mr. Markham and others with regard to irrigation in India (p. 335). The "mephitic odours" found by Lefeldt on," the model sewage farm,' (Breton's Farm) were due, as he says on page 6 of his Report, lines 24, 25, 26, not to the process of irrigation, but to the precipitating tanks, which he and I both condemned. His other statement, with reference to the Craigentinny Meadows, is that "when the rye-grass is irrigated within two days of the time of cutting a rank growth was produced which cattle do not eat, and which was full of unassimilated sewage for a few inches above the roots." This fact he did not consider of sufficient importance (being due to bad management) to mention at all in his general resumé. Finally, Lefeldt says that sewage distribution, if properly managed, does not create more stink than is ordinary on farms (pp. 13 and 54), and (p.48) that there was a horrible smell (Ein entsetzlicher Geruch war damit verbunden) from the drying of the precipitate in the A B C process, even when special care was taken at the time of his pre-arranged visit with the chief engineer.

As to England, I have given my authorities, and there
I am content to let the matter rest.-I am, &c.,
Boston, September 1, 1876.

[In inserting Dr. Folsom's letter we cannot see that he has in any way substantiated those statements upon

REPORT OF STATE BOARD OF HEALTH OF sewage precipitation which we denounced as grossly in


To the Editor of the Chemical News. My attention has recently been called to your issue of July 28, in which I find a review of the last report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts; I rely on your candour and courtesy to give equal prominence to my reply.

First, as regards Leeds, my statements are, in the main, corroborated by the prospectus of "The Clarifying and Utilisation of Sewage Company" (asknowledging by their very name that they do not assume to purify the sewage), by authorities whom I have quoted, and by articles in the Leeds Mercury and the Yorkshire Post, of December 23, 1874, although I may have misunderstood my informant, who was an intelligent man, familiar with the details of the work, as to some unimportant matters. I do not know how the error occurred by which I made the number of tanks six instead of twelve, unless by mistake in copying or proof-reading, which I failed to detect; it does not appear in my notes. You say "The author admits the

accurate. As regards Leeds, surely the name which a local company has thought fit to assume, even if backed by random newspaper articles, is a curiously feeble argument to set against the official reports and certificates of the responsible authorities, the analyses of a chemist like the late Dr. Letheby, and the observations of scientific men made during prolonged and reiterated visits of inspection! The informants who misled Dr. Folsom into speaking of six tanks of iron in place of twelve of stone may well be deemed inaccurate in matters less obvious, and may possibly have evolved the odour of the mud out of the depths of their own consciousness. Dr. Folsom's statement that "there is no offensive smell except from the moist precipitate" does not agree with the declaration of the Rivers' Pollution Commissioners that "bad smells are always perceptible;" so that we cannot withdraw the compliment which we offered him. As concerns Leamington, whatever canards may have found their way into the papers, our statement is an indisputable truth. When we read the next paragraphs of Dr. Folsom's letter we began to fear that we had inadvertently made an unfounded accusation. But we turned to "page 335," and


Oct. 27, 1876.

Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.


found no mention whatever of Mr. Markham or of his report, not a word to prove that Dr. Folsom was aware even of his existence ! We turned next to "pages 344 and 345," and found matters very little better. Three lines are given to a notice of Mr. Smee's letter to the Times in 1873, but the more recent work of Mr. Smee, jun., to which we referred, is not noticed. The remainder of the "more than a page" consists of "opinions" and negative evidence, of very little value when opposed to actual experiments. As regards the "mephitic odour" on Breton's Farm, Dr. Folsom's attempt to explain it away is ingenious, but cannot be admitted for a moment. Settling-pits (not precipitation-pits, which would imply the use of a precipitant) were part and parcel of a system of irrigation. If abolished, the solid impurities which they were intended to retain would be scattered over the whole farm, and would produce a nuisance less concentrated but more general. If unassimilated fœcal matters can penetrate into living vegetable organisms at all, who dares to fix the time required to render them harmless? If there is anything wrong on a sewage farm it is always ascribed to "bad management." But if there is the slightest nuisance at any precipitation works it is charged as a fundamental error to all sewage processes. To M. Lefeldt's allegation, that an evil odour arises from precipitation-manure on drying, we may oppose the testimony of Mr. Keates, an authority no less eminent than impartial. We will merely add that Dr. Folsom's remarks on Leeds and Leamington could be refuted, if necessary, both by official documents and oral testimony sufficient to satisfy any court of justice.-Ed. C.N.]




To the Editor of the Chemical News. SIR,-My object in troubling you with my former letter was to do an act of justice to Prof. Dittmar, viz., to prevent the assailants of Prof. Dittmar from passing off their own private act as the public act of a Society which refuses to take part in it; and my position as one of the VicePresidents of that Society, and as chairman of the meeting which condemned the attack on Prof. Dittmar, made it my clear duty to interfere.

in the names of Mr. Wigner and Dr. Muter as proprietors, As I have already mentioned, the Analyst was registered and in the last resort the control of the paper and the legal responsibility rest with these two persons.

The six persons forming the Committee of Publication are the President of the Society (Dr. Redwood), myself, Dr. Muter, Dr. Dupré, Mr. Heisch, and Mr. Wigner. The editorship of the Analyst is in the hands either of Mr. Wigner or of some person in his employ.

I have the permission of the President (Dr. Redwood) to record that the article under discussion was published without his knowledge or consent. I take this opportunity knowledge or consent; and in his letter which appeared in of formally recording that it was published without my the CHEMICAL NEWS (vol, xxxiv., p. 162) Dr. Muter has disclaimed all knowledge or consent. I call attention to Mr. Heisch and Dr. Dupré those gentlemen omit to say the circumstance that in the letter signed conjointly by whether they were present at any committee meeting sanctioning the issue of the article on Prof. Dittmar, and confine themselves to a general expression of responsi bility and with all these facts before them I do not doubt be obvious to your readers.—I am, &c.,

THE PINK LIQUORS OF THE CHLORATE OF that the real character of the attack on Prof. Dittmar will


To the Editor of the Chemical News.

SIR,-It has often been said that the rose-red colour which appears upon the complete saturation of the lime with chlorine in the manufacture of chlorate of potash also appears in the absence of manganese, and as it is well known that this colour is due to permanganic acid, I was not a little surprised to find Dr. Mylius (CHEMICAL NEWS, vol. xxxiv., p. 139) giving even slight credence to the statement that this colouration could appear "in the absence of manganese." In the same paragraph it is also stated that the rose-red colour is also obtained in the absence of manganese at Messrs, Kunheim's works at Berlin, where Deacon's process is used for the preparation of the chlorine, leading one to suppose that the colouring matter was other than permanganic acid in this case.

In Dingl. Polyt. Journ., ccxv., p. 237, Opl states that an unfiltered chloride of lime solution becomes rose-coloured on boiling by the formation of ferric acid from the ferric oxide of the calcium hydrate employed. Now, from experiments made at intervals during the last five years, I find that the colour is always due to permanganic acid, and that the manganese is not carried over mechanically with the chlorine; but the permanganic acid is formed by the continued action of the chlorine upon the manganese compounds contained in the lime used in the process.

I have examined many samples of lime, limestone, and chalk, but have not met with one yet absolutely free from manganese; and, furthermore, all the pink liquors from the chlorate manufacture, bleaching-powders and bleachingliquors, made either by Deacon's process, Weldon's process, or the old process, have all yielded manganese on analysis, and the corresponding pink solutions, when examined by the aid of the micro-spectroscope, have all given the characteristic absorption spectrum of potassium permanganate-the five well-known bands in the yellow and green, I am, &c., GEORGE E. Davis.

30, Faulkner Street, Manchester.

J. ALFRED WANKLYN. 117, Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square, London, W. October 24, 1876.


NOTE.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwise expressed.


Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances, de l'Academie
des Sciences. No. 14, October 2, 1876.
Industrial Application of the Sun's Rays.-M. A.
Mouchot. The author presents to the Academy a small
"solar alembic," easy to set up and to remove.
mirror is 50 c.m. in diameter; the boiler contains 1 litre
of wine, which is brought to a boil by half an hour's
exposure to the sun. The vapour of alcohol enters a tube
placed in the centre of the boiler, traverses the foot of the
mirror, and descends into the worm, where it condenses.
The foot of the mirror is a gas-tap fitted with a groove and
a set-screw, which permit the boiler to be always turned
to the sun. If the boiler is filled with water, and if a re-
ceptacle full of leaves or odoriferous flowers is interposed
between it and the worm, all the essences procurable by
distillation may be obtained.

Influence of Temperature upon Magnetisation.-
J. M. Gaugain. Not suitable for abstraction.

Chemical Reactions of Gallium.-M. Lecoq de Boisbaudran.-Solution of pure gallium, mixed with acid acetate of ammonia, are not rendered turbid by sulphuretted hydrogen, but if zinc is present the sulphide of this metal is charged with gallium, but the liquid is not entirely freed from it. If the salts of zinc are not plentiful enough to draw down at once all the gallium precipitable by sulphuretted hydrogen, it must be added in small portions


Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

Oct. 27, 1876.

until these products no longer give the ray Ga a 417′0 in
the spectroscope. Only slight traces of gallium remain
then in the liquid. On proceeding thus, the amount in
the precipitates appears to remain at first almost constant,
or at least to decrease slowly, and then more and more
rapidly it does not, therefore, seem to be a function of
the amount of gallium in the liquid. Is there not here an
indication of a combination between the two substances,
or perhaps more probably a surface-attraction analogous
to the fixation of a colouring matter upon a mordant. It
is known that salts of zinc slightly acid are precipitated-Dingler's Polytechnisches Journal.
by sulphuretted hydrogen, the action being limited by the
quantity of strong acid set at liberty. If the experiment
is made with a chloride of zinc containing gallium, a
notable quantity of this metal falls along with the sulphide
of zinc. An ammoniacal solution of the salts of gallium
and zinc is precipitated by hydrosulphate of ammonia.
An excess of the reagent does not remove the gallium,
unless, indeed, the sulphide of zinc is in such small quantity
as to dissolve also. The case is different when the salt of
gallium is pure. The ammoniacal solution is not rendered
turbid by the sulphide of ammonium. If a neutral or
slightly acid solution of the chlorides of zinc and gallium
is submitted to fractionated precipitation with sulphide of
ammonium containing free ammonia, the gallium is con-
centrated in the first products. If an ammoniacal solution
of zinc and gallium is submitted to the same treatment,
the gallium, on the contrary, accumulates in the last

Quercitrin and Quercetin.-M. J. Lowe.-Quercitrin is generally regarded as a glucoside which is split up under the influence of acids into quercetin and sugar (the isodulcite of Hlasiwetz and Pfaundler). The author combats this view, and seeks to demonstrate that quercetin differs from quercitrin merely by containing two equivalents of water less.

M. H. Goebel.-A table showing how the hydrometric Density of Nitric Acid at Different Temperatures. value of nitric acid is affected by changes of temperature.

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Syphonment and "Migration" of Gases.-M. F. Bellamy. The phenomena classed here as "migration' are cases of gaseous osmose. The author has given them the name of migration" to distinguish them from osmose, properly so-called, which is effected through septa, conductors of large surfaces and very small length. In "migration" the conductor presents a narrow surface and a length relatively great.

Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de Paris,

Nos. 4 and 5, September 5, 1876. Transformation of Aromatic Carbides into Formenic Carbides.-M. Berthelot.-The author remarks that in effecting total hydrogenations with hydriodic acid and phosphorus, red phosphorus should not be used, since it dissolves completely at the temperature required, and gives rise to such a great formation of gas that the tubes cannot be preserved.

Thermo-chemical Researches on Lead and Thallium.-M. J. Thomsen.-(Journal fur Praktische Chemie.)

Thermo-chemical Researches on Copper and Silver.-M. J. Thomsen.-These two papers consist merely of columns of formulæ and figures.

Researches on the Kainite of Kalusz in Galicia. -M. H. Schwarz.-There are found at Kalusz deposits of pure sylvine (chloride of potassium) and of kainite. This latter is found in yellowish grey fragments, generally moist from the presence of chloride of magnesium. On analysis it is found to be a tolerably constant mixture of the double sulphate of potassium and magnesium (picromerite or schonite), chlorides of sodium and magnesium, and clay in variable quantities.

New Process of Dyeing with Artificial Alizarin.— M. R. Forster.-The author fixes first the aluminous mordant, and then a mixture of alizarin and of fatty acid, by operating as follows:-He dissolves a sufficient quantity of alizarin and of soap, and then neutralises the solution with sulphuric acid. The alizarin and the fatty acid are precipitated in very finely divided flocks, which attach themselves very readily to the mordanted tissues, giving very bright and solid colours.

Distinctive Reaction between Reds from Artificial Alizarin and those from Extract of Madder.-M. J. Wagner. The author finds that extract reds are very much injured by a mixture of soda and potassic ferricyanide, whilst artificial alizarin-reds are scarcely affected. This difference is doubtless due to the presence of purpurin in the extract which is destroyed by this reaction.— Bulletin de Mulhouse.

Solution of Damaged Albumen in Pepsin.-M. J. Wagner. The author utilises damaged lots of albumen by dissolving them in pepsin. The solutions thus obtained give, according to his account, colours almost as solid as albumen of the first quality. Nevertheless, the albumen thus re-dissolved is no longer coagulable by heat, and the degree of solidity of the colours fixed by its intervention is not comparable to that of colours fixed by unmodified albumen. The process, therefore, is only applicable in certain cases. Moniteur de la Teinture.

"Action of Mass " of Water.-M. W. Ostwald.-gradually decomposed by washing. This body presents The author has studied the decomposition of bismuth chloride by water increasing with the quantity of the latter.

Borates of Lithium.-M. F. Filsinger. The author has obtained a biborate and four other compounds, or possibly mixtures.

Crystalline Fluosilicates of Iron and Cobalt.-M. F. Stolba.-The author prepares the former of these two compounds by dissolving metallic iron in hydro-fluosilicic acid, and the latter by decomposing the carbonate of cobalt with the same acid.

Purification of Bisulphide of Carbon.-M. L. H. Friedburg. The author distils the sulphide over a pure vegetable fat, such as palm oil. To free the sulphide of carbon from a little fatty matter which it carries over, it is poured into fuming nitric acid, stirred, and allowed to digest for twenty-four hours. It is then mixed with cold water, distilled at 50° or 60°, mixed with water again, and re-distilled, when it is obtained perfectly pure. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin.'

Formation of Aniline-Black.-M. Rich. Meyer.—An acid solution of pure aniline sulphate gives, on the addition of a concentrated solution of MnO K, a deep olivegreen precipitate, verging upon black, but which cannot be totally deprived of sulphuric acid. The author considers that the original precipitate is a sulphate which is the general characters of aniline-black. It is insoluble in alcohol, ether, benzol, and acetic acid, to which, however, it still imparts a more or less olive tint. Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves it with a black-blue colour, but it is re-precipitated on the addition of water. If the sul phuric solution is heated SO2 escapes, and the liquid becomes a dirty brown. Further researches are required to ascertain if this black is identical with that of M, Coquillion and M. Goppelsræder.

On Litmus.-M. V. Wartha.-The blue colouring matter, indifferent to acids, often found in blocks of litmus, is simply indigo, which, in the author's opinion, is intentionally added to heighten the blue colour. It may, however, result from the fermentation of the lichens at the expense of the urine added.

County Analyst for Warwick.-On the 17th inst. Mr. A. Bostock Hill, M.D., was elected Analyst for the County of Warwick.

Oct. 27, 1876.


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Notes and Queries.

University of Oxford.—The following are the lectures to be delivered during the present term:-"Organic Chemistry (Phenic Compounds)," on Mondays and Thursdays, at noon, at the Museum, by the Waynflete Professor of Chemistry, Dr. W. Odling, M.A. Lectures "On Elementary Organic Chemistry are given by the Aldrichian Demonstrator of Chemistry, Mr. W. W. Fisher, M.A., of Corpus Christi College, on Wednesdays and Saturdays, at II a.m.; and lectures "On Elementary Inorganic Chemistry," by Mr. W. F. Donkin, M.A., of Magdalen College, on Tuesdays and Fridays, at 11 a.m. The instruction in the Laboratory of the University, which is open from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. daily, is given by the Aldri. chian Demonstrator, and by Mr. John Watts, D.Sc. A Course of Practical Intruction in Organic Chemistry is conducted by Mr. W. H. Pike, Ph.D. The Professor will be glad to hear from gentlemen who, having passed the necessary examinations for the degree of Bachelor of Arts, wish to carry on original work in the University Laboratory.


Fluoride of Potassium.-Having seen a question asked for a ready process for the production of fluoride of potassium I should feel obliged if you would kindly allow me to give the following process which might be found of some use to "Fluorine":-By using a small leaden vessel having a diameter at the bottom 34", and 24" at the top, to hold a pint, to which a cover is attached with two holes bored in it, one for putting the mixture through and the other for the delivery tube. 2000 grms. of fluor-spar is now placed in the leaden vessel in the state of small lumps, as it will be found to operate better in this state than powdered. 100 grms. of sulphuric acid to 20 grms. of water is then poured upon it; the hold is now plugged with a gutta-percha cork, and a tube put through a similar cork and placed in the other hole. Hydrofluoric acid is now given off by being allowed to pass into the



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By A. H. KOLLMYER, A.M., M.D.,

Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics at Montreal.
J. and A. CHURCHILL, New Burlington Street.

vessel containing the potassium, with which it forms a fluoride, as the FRANKLAND'S LECTURE NOTES for

potassium eliminates the hydrogen. P.S.-I may add, heat is applied matter of course it boils at 19'4° hydrofluoric.-LATENT.

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THURSDAY, Nov. 2nd.-Chemical, 8. "On some New Compounds of Potassium," by Sidney Lupton. "On certain Bismuth Compounds" (Part III.), by M. M. Pattison Muir. "On Phospho- and Arsenio-Cyanogen," by W. R. Hodgkinson. "On a Secondary Oxidised Product formed during the Reduction of Stannic Chloride," by W. R. Hodgkinson and G. C. Matthews. "Preliminary Notice on Pigmentum Nigrum, the Black Colouring Matter contained in

CHEMICAL STUDENTS. Vol. I., Fifth Thousand (Inorganic), 4s. Vol. II., Second Edition (Organic), 5s.

"These 'Notes' will, we believe, be found very useful for students, containing as they do exactly what is wanted, without being overloaded with any superfluous matter, and what is of no less importance in a constantly expanding science like chemistry, bringing up the information to the latest date, and in accordance with the most advanced views of English and Continental chemists.-Educational Times. London: JOHN VAN VOORST, 1, Paternoster Row. KING'S COLLEGE.-EVENING CLASSES. WINTER SESSION, 1876-77.

Hair and Feathers," by W. R. Hodgkinson The Evening Lectures commence on Monday,

and H. C. Sorby. "On Barwood," by the
late Dr. Anderson.


R. P. Davies. It was a printer's error. See erratum.

October 9th, and terminate in March.

CHEMISTRY-Mr. W. N. Hartley, at 7 o'clock. Mondays and
Thursdays. Fee, £1 11s. 6d.
ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY-Tuesday from 7 to 9. Fee, £2 28.


ERRATUM.-In No. 881, p. 155, col. 1, 1. 34 from top, for 28.88 per existing kinds), large Collections of Fine Hyacinths in all Colours, cent ZnO, read 28.88 per cent Fe,O,.

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and Saving Life from Fire, by Professor GARDNER. POLYTECHNIC SEANCE, conducted by the Polytechnic Medium and by Polytechnic Means. The WAR IN THE EAST, with a large number of Dissolving Views, by Mr. KING. Demonstration of a NEW THEORY of the ORBITAL REVOLUTION of the EARTH, by Mr. JOHN HARRIS, with Magnificent Models. PLATE SPINNING and THOUGHT TELEGRAPHY, by the TAYLOR FAMILY. The NEW FOREST, with Dissolving Views, by Mr. J. L. KING. Diving Bell, Cosmoramic Views, &c., &c. Concluding at 4.15 and 9.15 p.m. daily, with a Musical, Optical, and Scenic Entertainment, entitled The INVISIBLE PRINCE, WITH A NEW FEATHER IN HIS CAP; written by Mr. ELLIS REYNOLDS Open from 12 till 5 and 7 till 10. Admission to the whole 18. Schools and Children under io years, 6d.

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Newfall Tar Works, Carlton;

and Ammonia Works, Stockton-on-Tees.

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Manufacturer of Benzole, Toluole, Xylol, Published every Friday. Price 4d Annual Subscription, post free.

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All communications to be addressed to the offices at Middlesbrough.

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Licensed Maker, Commercial Street, Shoreditch, N.E. Also FINISH, FUSEL OIL and RECT. NAPHTHA.

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including Indices, £1


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A reduction made for a series of insertions. Cheques and Post-Office Orders, crossed "London and County Bank," payable to the order of William Crookes.




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The Class Rooms are open from 11 to 5 a.m. and from 7 to 10 p.m. daily.

Especial facilities for persons preparing for Government and other examinations.

Private Pupils will find every convenience.

Analyses, Assays, and Practical Investigations connected with Patents, &c., conducted.

Prospectuses and full particulars on application to Prof. Gardner at Berner's College, 44, Berners-street, W., or at the Royal Polytechnic Institution.

PATENTS.-Mr. Vaughan, F.C.S., British

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