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Report of State Board of Health of Massachusetts.


O&. 27, 1876. For the quantitative determination of cellulose Dr. , absence of offensive smell. Here he contradicts one of Müller proceeds as follows :-Two grms. of the material the most preposterous assertions of the Rivers' Pollution in question are dried at 110° to 115° If resins, wax, &c., Commission, that · bad smells are always perceptible.'” are present, they are extracted with a mixture of strong My statement is—" There is no offensive smell alcohol and benzol, and the mass is then repeatedly boiled except from the moist precipitate(p. 349). with water or very dilute ammonia. The residue is then As to Leamington, I find my notes confirmed by the bruised in a mortar with a pestle of box-wood. In ope- London Standard of October 17, 1874, and by the London rating on woods fine plane-shavings are the most conve- Times of October 21, 1875. I am sure that the authorities nient form, and require no further preparation. The mass will not say that my expression of “costly and expensive is now placed in a large wide-mouthed stoppered glass, failures,” as applied to their experience with the precipi. with 100 c.c. of water. A solution of bromine, containing tating processes, is at all too strong, 2 c.c. of bromine to 500 c.c. of water, is then added, to You say—"No mention is made of the important results the extent of 5 or 10 c.c., according to the nature of the obtained by Mr. Smee, jun., who showed that milk and material. When the yellow colour of the liquid disap: 1 butter obtained from cows fed on sewage grass became pears a fresh portion of the bromine solution is added, and more rapidly offensive than that of cows fed upon normal so on until free bromine may be recognised in the liquid, herbage. No notice is taken of the important evidence of even after standing from twelve to twenty-four hours. Mr. Markham that irrigation, even with common river The mass is now filtered, washed with water, and heated water, and applied only when necessitated by dry weather, nearly to a boil, with about 500 c.c. of water to which injures the health of the surrounding districts in India. 2 c.c. of ammonia have been added. The mass is filtered, No less has Dr. Folsom left out of account the valuable washed with water, returned to the stoppered glass, and report of M. Lefeldt, the Prussian Commissioner, who again treated with water and solution of bromine, as be complains of the 'mephitic odours' on the model sewage fore. This alternating treatment with ammonia and farm, and who found the stems of grass from irrigated bromine is thus repeated three or four times, and finally, meadows full of unassimilated sewage matters.” on washing with water, and then with boiling alcohol- I have given more than a page to the consideration of pure cellulose is obtained as a mass, dazzling in its Mr. Smee's statement (pp. 344 and 345). I have diswhiteness. It may be considered pure if-after remaining tinctly stated the fact well known to Mr. Markham and for twenty-four hours in contact with very dilute solution others with regard to irrigation in India (p. 335). The of bromine, and subsequent treatment with warm dilute " mephitic odours" found by Lefeldt on" the model sewage ammonia-no coloration appears in the liquid.

farm,' (Breton's Farm) were due, as he says on page 6 of The author is of opinion that the determination of his Report, lines 24, 25, 26, not to the process of irrigacellulose will become of practical importance in the future, tion, but to the precipitating tanks, which he and I both as new fibrous materials will doubtless be introduced into condemned. His other statement, with reference to the the market, and as it will become necessary to ascertain Craigentinny Meadows, is that “when the rye-grass is the result of the various processes for their preparation. irrigated within two days of the time of cutting a rank

The remaining and larger portion of the work is devoted growth was produced which cattle do not eat, and which to an elaborate description of the vegetable fibres already was full of unassimilated sewage for a few inches above in use, and of those capable of industrial application, the the roots." This fact he did not consider of sufficient imnumber of which will surprise those who have not exam- portance (being due to bad management) to mention at all ined this subjea. Particular attention is given to a survey in his general resumé. Finally, Lefeldt says that sewage of materials suitable for the paper-trade, and to an account distribution, if properly managed, does not create more of the improved processes, mechanical and chemical, for stink than is ordinary on farms (pp. 13 and 54), and (p.48) its preparation.

that there was a horrible smell (Ein entsetzlicher Geruch
We must strongly recommend Dr. Müller's work to all war damit verbunden) from the drying of the precipitate
who take an interest in vegetable fibres and their applica- in the A B C process, even when special care was taken
tions, and especially to all concerned in textile manufac- at the time of his pre-arranged visit with the chief en-
tures, in the paper-trade, and in the development of the gineer.
resources of our colonies.

As to England, I have given my authorities, and there
I am content to let the matter rest.-I am, &c.,

Chas. F. FOLSOM.

Boston, September 1, 1876.

[In inserting Dr. Folsom's letter we cannot see that he

has in any way substantiated those statements upon REPORT OF STATE BOARD OF HEALTH of sewage precipitation which we denounced as grossly in.

accurate. As regards Leeds, surely the name which a MASSACHUSETTS.

local company has thought fit to assume, even if backed

by random newspaper articles, is a curiously feeble arguTo the Editor of the Chemical News.

ment to set against the official reports and certificates of My attention has recently been called to your issue of the responsible authorities, the analyses of a chemist like July 28, in which I find a review of the last report of the the late Dr. Letheby, and the observations of scientific State Board of Health of Massachusetts ; I rely on your men made during prolonged and reiterated visits of incandour and courtesy to give equal prominence to my spection! The informants who misled Dr. Folsom into reply.

speaking of six tanks of iron in place of twelve of stone First, as regards Leeds, my statements are, in the main, may well be deemed inaccurate in matters less obvious, corroborated by the prospectus of " The Clarifying and and may possibly have evolved the odour of the mud out Utilisation of Sewage Company” (asknowledging by their of the depths of their own consciousness. Dr. Folsom's very name that they do not assume to purify the sewagę), statement that “there is no offensive smell except from the by authorities whom I have quoted, and by articles in the moist precipitatedoes not agree with the declaration of Leeds Mercury and the Yorkshire Post, of December 23, the Rivers' Pollution Commissioners that “ bad smells 1874, although I may have misunderstood my informant, I are always perceptible ;" so that we cannot withdraw the who was an intelligent man, familiar with the details of compliment which we offered him. As concerns Leamingthe work, as to some unimportant matters. I do not know ton, whatever canards may have found their way into the how the error occurred by which I made the number of papers, our statement is an indisputable truth. When tanks six instead of twelve, unless by mistake in copying we read the next paragraphs of Dr. Folsom's letter we or proof-reading, which I failed to detect; it does not began to fear that we had inadvertently made an unappear in my notes. You say-" The author admits the founded accusation. But we turned to " page 335," and


Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources. o&. 27, 1876.

183 found no mention whatever of Mr. Markham or of his PROF. DITTMAR AND THE “ANALYST.” report, not a word to prove that Dr. Folsom was aware even of his existence! We turned next to “pages 344 and 345," and found matters very little better. Three

To the Editor of the Chemical News. lines are given to a notice of Mr. Smee's letter to the Sir, -My object in troubling you with my former letter Times in 1873, but the more recent work of Mr. Smee, jun., was to do an act of justice to Prof. Dittmar, viz., to prevent to which we referred, is not noticed. The remainder of the the assailants of Prof. Dittmar from passing off their own " more than a page” consists of “opinions" and negative private act as the public act of a Society which refuses to evidence, of very little value when opposed to actual ex

take part in it; and my position as one of the Viceperiments. As regards the “mephitic odour" on Breton's Presidents of that Society, and as chairman of the meeting Farm, Dr. Folsom's attempt to explain it away is in which condemned the attack on Prof. Dittmar, made it my genious, but cannot be admitted for a moment. The clear duty to interfere. Settling-pits (not precipitation-pits, which would imply in the names of Mr. Wigner and Dr. Muter as proprietors,

As I have already mentioned, the Analyst was registered the use of a precipitant) were part and parcel of a system ) and in the last resort the control of the paper and the legal of irrigation. If abolished, the solid impurities which they were intended to retain would be scattered over the responsibility rest with these two persons. whole farm, and would produce a nuisance less concen

The six persons forming the Committee of Publication trated but more general. If unassimilated fæcal matters

are the President of the Society (Dr. Redwood), myself, can penetrate into living vegetable organisms at all, who Dr. Muter, Dr. Dupré, Mr. Heisch, and Mr. Wigner. The dares to fix the time required to render them harmless ? editorship of the Analyst is in the hands either of Mr. If there is anything wrong on a sewage farm it is always Wigner or of some person in his employ. ascribed to " bad management.” But if there is the

I have the permission of the President (Dr. Redwood) slightest nuisance at any precipitation works it is charged to record that the article under discussion was published as a fundamental error to all sewage processes. To M. without his knowledge or consent. I take this opportunity Lefeldt's allegation, that an evil odour arises from pre knowledge or consent ; and in his letter which appeared in

of formally recording that it was published without my of Mr. Keates, an authority no less eminent than impartial. the Chemical News (vol, xxxiv., p. 162) Dr. Muter has We will merely add that Dr. Folsom's remarks on Leeds disclaimed all knowledge

or consent. I call attention to and Leamington could be refuted, if necessary, both by Mr. Heisch and Dr. Dupré those gentlemen omit to say

the circumstance that in the letter signed conjointly by official documents and oral testimony sufficient to satisfy whether they were present at any committee meeting any court of justice.--Ed. C.N.)

sanctioning the issue of the article on Prof. Dittmar, and confine themselves to a general expression of responsi.

bility: and with all these facts before them I do not doubt THE PINK LIQUORS OF THE CHLORATE OF that the real character of the attack on Prof. Dittmar will POTASH MANUFACTURE.

be obvious to your readers. I am, &c.,

J. ALFRED WANKLYN. To the Editor of the Chemical News.

117, Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square, London, W.

October 24, 1876. SIR,—It has often been said that the rose-red colour which appears upon the complete saturation of the lime with chlorine in the manufacture of chlorate of potash also appears in the absence of manganese, and as it is well known that this colour is due to permanganic acid, I was CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN not a little surprised to find Dr. Mylius (CHEMICAL News,

SOURCES. vol. xxxiv., p. 139) giving even slight credence to the statement that this colouration could appear “in the absence of manganese.". In the same paragraph it is also Note:-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwino

expressed. stated that the rose-red colour is also obtained in the absence of manganese at Messrs. Kunheim's works at Berlin, where Deacon's process is used for the preparation Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances, de l'Academic of the chlorine, leading one to suppose that the colouring

des Sciences. No. 14, October 2, 1876. matter was other than permanganic acid in this case. Industrial Application of the Sun's Rays.-M. A.

In Dingl. Polyt. Fourn., ccxv., p. 237, Opl states that an Mouchot.—The author presents to the Academy a small unfiltered chloride of lime solution becomes rose-coloured “ solar alembic,” easy to set up and to remove. The on boiling by the formation of ferric acid from the ferric mirror is so c.m. in diameter; the boiler contains 1 litre oxide of the calcium hydrate employed. Now, from ex- of wine, which is brought to a boil by half an hour's periments made at intervals during the last five years, I exposure to the sun. The vapour of alcohol enters a tube find that the colour is always due to permanganic acid, placed in the centre of the boiler, traverses the foot of the and that the manganese is not carried over mechanically mirror, and descends into the worm, where it condenses. with the chlorine ; but the permanganic acid is formed by the foot of the mirror is a gas-tap fitted with a groove and the continued action of the chlorine upon the manganese a set-screw, which permit the boiler to be always turned compounds contained in the lime used in the process. to the sun. If the boiler is filled with water, and if a re

I have examined many samples of lime, limestone, and ceptacle full of leaves or odoriferous flowers is interposed chalk, but have not met with one yet absolutely free from between it and the worm, all the essences procurable by manganese; and, furthermore, all the pink liquors from distillation may be obtained. the chlorate manufacture, bleaching-powders and bleaching. liquors, made either by Deacon's process, Weldon's pro- J. M. Gaugain.—Not suitable for abstraction.

Influence of Temperature upon Magnetisation.cess, or the old process, have all yielded manganese on analysis, and the corresponding pink solutions, when ex

Chemical Reactions of Gallium.-M. Lecoq de Boisamined by the aid of the micro-spearoscope, have all given baudran.--Solution of pure gallium, mixed with acid the characteristic absorption spectrum of potassium per.

acetate of ammonia, are not rendered turbid by sulphuretted manganate-the five well-known bands in the yellow and hydrogen, but if zinc is present the sulphide of this metal green.--I am, &c.,

is charged with gallium, but the liquid is not entirely freed GEORGE E. DAVIS,

from it. If the salts of zinc are not plentiful enough to 30, Faulkner Street, Manchester.

draw down at once all the gallium precipitable by sul.. phuretted hydrogen, it must be added in small portions

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Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources. { ,

O&. 27, 1876. until these products no longer give the ray Ga a 417'0 in Quercitrin and Quercetin.-M. J. Loewe.-Quercitrin the spectroscope., Only slight traces of gallium remain is generally regarded as a glucoside which is split up under then in the liquid. On proceeding thus, the amount in the influence of acids into quercetin and sugar (the isothe precipitates appears to remain at first almost constant, dulcite of Hlasiwetz and Pfaundler). The author comor at least to decrease slowly, and then more and more bats this view, and seeks to demonstrate that quercetin rapidly: it does not, therefore, seem to be a function of differs from quercitrin merely by containing two equivathe amount of gallium in the liquid. Is there not here an lents of water less. indication of a combination between the two substances,

Density of Nitric Acid at Different Temperatures. or perhaps more probably a surface-attraction analogous -M. H. Goebel.-A table showing how the hydrometric to the fixation of a colouring matter upon a mordant. I value of nitric acid is affected by changes of temperature. is known that salts of zinc slightly acid are precipitated -Dingler's Polytechnisches Fournal. by sulphuretted hydrogen, the action being limited by the

Researches on the Kainite of Kalusz in Galicia. quantity of strong acid set at liberty. If the experiment is made with a chloride of zinc containing gallium, a

-M. H. Schwarz.—There are found at Kalusz deposits notable quantity of this metal falls along with the sulphide of pure sylvine (chloride of potassium) and of kainite. of zinc. 'An ammoniacal solution of the salts of gallium This latter is found in yellowish grey fragments, generally and zinc is precipitated by hydrosulphate of ammonia. moist from the presence of chloride of magnesium. On An excess of the reagent does not remove the gallium, ! analysis it is found to be a tolerably constant mixture of unless, indeed, the sulphide of zinc is in such small quantity i the double sulphate of potassium and magnesium (picroas to dissolve also. The case is different when the salt of merite or schoenite), chlorides of sodium and magnesium, gallium is pure. The ammoniacal solution is not rendered and clay in variable quantities. turbid by the sulphide of ammonium. If a neutral or New Process of Dyeing with Artificial Alizarin.slightly acid solution of the chlorides of zinc and gallium M. R. Forster. The author fixes first the aluminous moris submitted to fractionated precipitation with sulphide of dant, and then a mixture of alizarin and of fatty acid, by ammonium containing free ammonia, the gallium is con operating as follows :-He dissolves a sufficient quantity centrated in the first products. If an ammoniacal solution of alizarin and of soap, and then neutralises the solution of zinc and gallium is submitted to the same treatment, with sulphuric acid. The alizarin and the fatty acid are the gallium, on the contrary, accumulates in the last precipitated in very finely divided flocks, which attach precipitates.

themselves very readily to the mordanted tissues, giving Syphonment and “Migration” of Gases.-M. F. very bright and solid colours. Bellamy.—The phenomena classed here as “ migration' Distinctive Reaction between Reds from Artificial are cases of gaseous osmose. The author has given them Alizarin and those from Extract of Madder.-M. J. the name of migration” to distinguish them from osmose, Wagner.—The author finds that extract reds are very properly so-called, which is effected through septa, con- much injured by a mixture of soda and potassic ferriductors of large surfaces and very smal length. In cyanide, whilst artificial alizarin-reds are scarcely affected. "migration” the conductor presents a narrow surface and This difference is doubtless due to the presence of pura length relatively great.

purin in the extract which is destroyed by this reaction.

Bulletin de Mulhouse.
Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de Paris,

Solution of Damaged Albumen in Pepsin.-M. J.
Nos. 4 and 5, September 5, 1876.

Wagner.-The author utilises damaged lots of albumen Transformation of Aromatic Carbides into For by dissolving them in pepsin. The solutions thus obtained menic Carbides.-M. Berthelot.—The author remarks give, according to his account, colours almost as solid as that in effe&ing total hydrogenations with hydriodic acid albumen of the first quality. Nevertheless, the albumen and phosphorus, red phosphorus should not be used, since thus re-dissolved is no longer coagulable by heat, and the it dissolves completely at the temperature required, and degree of solidity of the colours fixed by its intervention gives rise to such a great formation of gas that the tubes is not comparable to that of colours fixed by unmodified cannot be preserved.

albumen. The process, therefore, is only applicable in Thermo-chemical Researches

Lead and

certain cases.-Moniteur de la Teinture. Thallium.-M. J. Thomsen.-(Fournal fur Praktische

Formation of Aniline-Black.-M. Rich. Meyer.-An Chemie.)

acid solution of pure aniline sulphate gives, on the addi. Thermo-chemical Researches on Copper and

tion of a concentrated solution of Mno, K, a deep oliveSilver.-M. J. Thomsen. These two papers consist | be totally deprived of sulphuric acid. The author con

green precipitate, verging upon black, but which cannot merely of columns of formulæ and figures.

siders that the original precipitate is a sulphate which is “Action of Mass" of Water.-M. W. Ostwald.-gradually decomposed by washing. This body presents The author has studied the decomposition of bismuth the general characters of aniline-black. It is insoluble in chloride by water increasing with the quantity of the alcohol, ether, benzol, and acetic acid, to which, however, latter.

it still imparts a more or less olive tint. Concentrated Borates of Lithium.-M. F. Filsinger,—The author sulphuric acid dissolves it with a black-blue colour, but it has obtained a biborate and four other compounds, or is re-precipitated on the addition of water. If the sul. possibly mixtures.

phuric solution is heated SO2 escapes, and the liquid beCrystalline Fluosilicates of Iron and Cobalt.-M.

comes a dirty brown. Further researches are required to F. Stolba.—The author prepares the former of these two

ascertain if this black is identical with that of Mi Coquil.compounds by dissolving metallic iron in hydro-fuosilicic | lion and M. Goppelsroeder. acid, and the latter by decomposing the carbonate of

On Litmus.M. V. Wartha.-The blue colouring cobalt with the same acid.

matter, indifferent to acids, often found in blocks of litmus, Purification of Bisulphide of Carbon.-M. L. H. is simply indigo, which, in the author's opinion, is intenFriedburg:—The author distils the sulphide over a pure tionally added to heighten the blue colour. It may, howvegetable fat, such as palm oil. To free the sulphide of ever, result from the fermentation of the lichens at the carbon from a little fatty matter which it carries over, it expense of the urine added. is poured into fuming nitric acid, stirred, and allowed to digest for twenty-four hours. It is then mixed with cold water, distilled at 50° or 60°, mixed with water again, County Analyst for Warwick.–On the 17th inst, and re-distilled, when it is obtained perfectly pure. Mr. A. Bostock Hill, M.D., was elected Analyst for the Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft xu Berlin. County of Warwick.




Notes and Queries.

185 OA. 27, 1876. MISCELLANEOUS.


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given to Inventions relating to Chemistry, Mining, and Metallurgy.

Guide to Inventors" Free by Post.-Ofhces, 67, Chancery Lane, 48, ESSEX STREET, STRAND, W.C. London, W.C., and 8, Houndgate, Darlington. Catalogues Free


Apparatus and Chemicals for Scientific Pursuits. Laboratory Fitter and Furnisher. Photographic Apparatus and Materials.


Chemical Black Lead (Registered) SULPHURIC ACID AND BLEACHING-POWDER and the cleanliness of application makes this one of the marvels of

creates no waste or dust by its magnetic adherence to the stove, CHAMBERS,

household economy.- Sold by all respectable grocers and oilmen in AND OTHER CHEMICAL PLANT,

blocks id., 20., 4d., and is. boxes. Works, 91, Little Compton Street,

Soho, London. Circular Roofs, Building, &c., contracted for by






Sole Agents for England, Ireland, and Wales :BOILER MAKERS, ENGINEERS, AND TOWNSON & MERCER, MILL-WRIGHTS,


Balances are exhibited at the South Kensington Museum, and ST. HELEN'S FOUNDRY, LANCASHIRE. 1. & M. will forward complete Illustrated Catalogue on receipt of

postage stamp id. Makers of every description of Chemical,

Colliery, Copper Ore, Gold Mining and Gent , Machinery soluciones de representano Sheet, and Water-glass, or Soluble Silicates of Soda

and Potash, in large or small quantities, and either solid Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.

u in solution, at ROBERT RUMNEY'S, Ardwick Chemical Makers of the latest Improved Revolving Black Ash Furnace Works, Manchester. with Siemens's Patent Gas Arrangement, and as used in the Manufac.

INDIA-RUBBER SPECIALLY PREPARED FOR ture of Soda. Improved Valveless Air Engines, and Pumps or Acid Forcing, Air

Agitators, Compressors for Collieries, and Weldon's Patent Chlorine

Boots, Gloves, Gauntlets, Aprons, Pure Tube and Caustic, Chlorate, Decomposing, and Oxalic Pans.

Hose, all Warranted Best Quality.
Gas Producers for Heating Furnaces.
Pyrites Burners for Irish, Norwegian, and Spanish Ores.

Retorts, Acid Gas, Nitre, Nitric Acid, and Vitriol Refining.
Improved Steam Superheaters for Resin Refining, &c.

Manufacturers of Mechanical, Surgical, Chemical, and Improved Steam Sulphur Pans.

all other Vulcanised India-Rubber Goods. Photographs, and other information, supplied on receipt

The London India-Rubber Works, Hackney Wick, E., of Orders.



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