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IN THE

Oct. 6, 1876.

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Practical Chemistry in the University of Virginia.

147 zolated hydrogen of known composition. In all cases the | EVOLUTION OF ANTIMONY FROM STIBNITE acid was found to act on the ethylen as well as on the

BY NASCENT HYDROGEN. benzol; no doubt with formation of Kekulé's

By WILLIAM SKEY,

Analyst to the Geological Survey of New Zealand.
(NO3'
;

The fact that Prof. Storer* has based a method for the and equally unfavorable results were obtained when 14 direct determination of lead in galena upon the deportacid was substituted for the 1'5. For a time I thought an

ment of this ore with zinc and hydrochloric acid, disapproximate separation, at least, could be effected with covered by me in 1870+, induced me to further investigate fatty oils or heavy paraffin-oils, but it turned out an illu- decompositions of this nature, and the results of this show sion; a considerable quantity of ethylen always accom

that stibnite, in contact with zinc and hydrochloric acid, panied the benzol in its absorption by these liquids.

The last substance I tried was non-vulcanised india- instead of evolving HS as when zinc is omitted, evolves rubber, and, if I may trust a few preliminary trials, it does time in which decomposition is going on. Mispickel, in

HSb only, that is, at least, during the earlier part of the seem to have the power of abstracting the benzol from a gas without condensing much of the ethylen. I have,

like manner, first gives off HAs.

It will be seen, therefore, that metallic sulphide can be however, not yet found the time for trying exact quantita- directly tested for either of these metals in the way inditive experiments. In order to form an idea of the proximate composition moistened with a lead salt, and other slips moistened with

cated above, in conjunction, of course, with slips of paper of the olefine portion of Glasgow gas, a current of it was

a silver salt. made to pass (1) over dry chloride of calcium, (2) over a coil of sheet india-rubber, and (3) through a long slanting weak, the zinc amalgamated, and the ore coarsely crushed

For experiments of this kind it is best to use the acid tube charged with bromine. The bromine soon got almost entirely converted into a liquid bromide, which was washed with dilute caustic soda, dried with fused chloride of calcium, and distilled. A considerable portion distilled NOTES OF WORK BY STUDENTS OF below the boiling-point of propylen bromide (1424). The

PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY percentage of bromine was found to be 83.52, whence, assuming the composition to be C,H2«Brz, we have

LABORATORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CnH2n=31:6; C2H4=28; C3H6=42.

VIRGINIA. When a weighed quantity was treated on a water-bath

No. V. with alcoholic potash, a large precipitate separated out, which was found to contain more than half of the

Communicated by J. W. MALLET, bromine originally present in the substance.

Professor of General and Applied Chemistry in the University. These experiments clearly show that the substance consisted substantially, not of mono-bromo-benzol (CfH Br, (1.) Analysis of the Ash of the Ground-Pea (Arachis which is not decomposable by alcoholic potash), but of Hypogæa) as Cultivated in Virginia. By WILLIAM bromides, CnH2n Bra, in which the lowest term, C2H4Br2, G. Brown, of Albemarle Co., Virginia. must have been very largely represented. From the foregoing it is clear that, contrary to Berthe

The pea-nut, also known by the trivial names groundlot's assertion, the constitution of the heavy carburetted pea, gouber.pea, and pinda, is a plant cultivated pretty hydrogen portion in coal-gas is pretty much what it has largely in the south-eastern counties of Virginia, near the always been supposed to be.

sea-coast, and in the adjoining part of North Carolina. I have to thank my friend Mr. W. J. Curphey for the

The nuts, developed on a slender underground stem, are excellent manner in which he has assisted me in this shipped to various parts of the country and sold to be little investigation.

eaten as a sort of cheap luxury after they have been

roasted like chestnuts. In France they are extensively Anderson's University, Glasgow,

employed in making by expression a fine, bland oil, the September, 1876.

supply being brought chiefly, if not solely, from the West Coast of Africa and Algiers. The haulm forms excellent forage for cattle. The oil has been the subject of chemi

cal examination by Goessmann and others, but the only NOTE ON A NEW CORNISH MINERAL.

record of any study of the plant itself seems to be that By FREDERICK FIELD, F.R.S.

contained in the "Report of the United States Department of Agriculture" for 1870 (p. 92), with the quotation there

made from the “Transactions of the Highland and Agri. MR. TALLING, of Lostwithiel, Cornwall, called my atten-cultural Society of Scotland” (vol. vi., p. 556).

Dr. tion to a highly crystallised and very beautiful Cornish Antisell, Chemist to the Department of Agriculture, gives mineral which is quite new to mineralogical science. Its merely the proximate composition of the seed and husk in crystallisation appears to be rhombic; it is transparent but a rough sort of way, since albuminoid matter and and brilliant, of a clear green colour; hardness about 3.5. starch are reported together, and the figures given for seed It is perfectly soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid, forming and husk separately will not agree arithmetically with a nearly colourless solution. On heating a little over those for the two together, and puts the ash at 1877 per 100° C., the crystals lose water, and at a low red heat at cent (seed) and 11'90 per cent (husk); saying only as to once become brilliantly black. They decrepitate strongly. its composition, that in the case of the seed it consists of

Analysis proved the existence of phosphoric acid, salts wholly soluble in water, being phosphates of the ferrous oxide, and water in the proportions that would alkalies with traces of alkaline chlorides and sulphates, lead to the formula

while the ash of the husk contains, chiefly common salt 3FeO,P2O5,4H20.

and phosphates of lime and magnesia. The quoted

analysis is by Dr. Anderson, also approximate, and applies From the great scarcity of the mineral only small to the cake or marc after expression of the oil. He gives quantities can be obtained for analysis, and this brief the amount of ash as 3.29 to 3178 per cent, and says that description must be regarded merely as a preliminary it contains l'14 to 1'17 of phosphates and o'08 to 0-52 of note on a mineral of great beauty and interest.

* "Select Methods of Analysis," by W. Crookes, F.R.S., P. 214. October 3, 1876.

+ Phil. Trans. o New Zealand Institute, vol. iii., p. 222.

II22

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100'000

100'000

148
Practical Chemistry in the University of Virginia.

CHEMICAL NEWS, .

Oct. 6, 1876. phosphoric acid. A good and complete analysis of the

TABLE III. ash of the different parts of the plant seeming to be worth

(In 100 parts Pure Ash, including Fe2O3.) making, Mr. Brown undertook the work with material

Root. Stem. Leaves. Husk. Seed, obtained by the obliging help of Mr. Jos. van Holt Nash, K2O..

22'255 25.603 15:466 36.265 36.940 of Petersburgh, Va.

Na20 18.174 3'027 2-830 3*740 3325 The plants were carefully taken from the earth when

Cao..

27'168 42-938 52'313 19-537 3731 the nuts were just ripe, and sent to the laboratory as

Mgo

8.408 13'143 4717 13'098 14°187 gathered. For analysis the root, stem, leaf, husk, and Fe2O3

3'420 I'155 2.607 3'010 0-520 seed were separated, and all visible traces of adhering P2O5

3'558 I'572 4'557 4'909 sand and clay as fully possible removed by, brushing soz".

28.950

12'570 10'491 14:838 17'212 II.681 and sifting. The seeds used were only such as had ci

1'483 2.467 0'472 0'344 ripened perfe&ly, all shrivelled or unsound kernels being Si02..

3.578 o'922 0'771 I'943 0-399 rejected. The method of analysis adopted was uniformly applied to all the parts. The material, air-dried at 150 to

100-253 20° C., was cut into small pieces, and, after weighing, | Deduct 0)

100'334 100 566 100'196 100'077 burned in a partially covered porcelain crucible sur

to 0'253 0'334 0.566 0.196 0'077 rounded by one of sheet-iron, the latter serving as an ci air.bath. The heat was gradually applied, and not allowed to attain redness.

100'000 The amount of crude ash so obtained, not entirely free from remains of charcoal, was found as follows:

As the iron may to a considerable extent have come in

with the sand as an accidental constituent, the analyses TABLE I.

have also been re.calculated, excluding Fe2O3--giving the (In 100 parts of Air-dried Substance.)

figures inRoot. Stem. Leaves. Husk. Seed

TABLE IV. Crude ash .. 6.750 7915 9'932 1'532 19721

(In 100 parts Pure Ash, excluding Fe2O3.) From one portion of this crude ash, carbon dioxide and

Root. Stem. Leaves. Husk. Seed. chlorine were determined. Another portion was treated | K20.. 23'043

25.902 15.880 37-395 37134 with dilute hydrochloric acid and evaporated to dryness Na2O 18.816 3.063 2.897 39763 3342 over the water-bath to render silica insoluble ; the residue Cao 28.130 43'440 539712 20.145 3749 treated again with hydrochloric acid, warmed with water, MgO 8.706 13.296 4:844 13.506

14'262 and filtered. The residue on the filter consisted of char- | P205 3:684 1'590 4.679 5*062 29'102 coal, silica, and sand; the first was burned off at a low S03: 13'015 10.613 15235 17*749 II°742 heat, and the second dissolved out by solution of sodium ci

•162 I'501 2'533 0-486 0*346 carbonate. From a portion of the filtrate sulphuric oxide SiO2

39705 0'933 0'791 2'003 0:401 was determined as barium sulphate, and after removing this the alkalies were obtained and separated. Another

100'261 100-338 100'571 100-109 100'078 portion of the filtrate was used to determine ferric oxide Deduct O (precipitated as phosphate from acetic acid solution), and equiv. to 0.261

0'338

09571 0*109 0'078 the liquid left on removing this was divided into two parts--one being used to obtain phosphoric oxide by a solution of uranium, while the other gave lime and

100'000 magnesia. The following results of analysis were obtained :

It appears from the above results that after deduction

of CO2 basic constituents predominate over acid in the TABLE II.

ash of all parts of the plant, largely so in most; and (In 100 parts of Crude Ash.)

hence salts of organic acids have to a large extent been Root. Stem. Leaves. Husk. Seed. K20.. 14'057

destroyed during the combustion. Of inorganic salts the 17'069 TO'948

23.692

36-380 sulphates and phosphates of the alkaline and alkalineNa20

11'480
2'019 I'995 2384

3.274 earthy metals are the principal—the sulphates being the CaO..

17.160
28.626

37'027 12.763 3.673
Mgo
5'311 8.762

more abundant in every case except that of the seed. 3'338

13792 The comparatively small amount of potassium and very Fe2O3

2:160 0°770 1.845 1'973 0.512 large amount of calcium in the leaves is remarkable, P2O5 2'247 I'048 3'225 3'207 28.511 SO3.. 7'940

as is the unusually large proportion of sodium in the root; 6.994

10:503 II245 11.504 this, too, unaccompanied by a corresponding amount of СІ O'708 0'989

14746 0*308 O‘339 chlorine. Several duplicate determinations were made SiO2.. 2'260 0615 0'545 I'269 CO2..

0-393 in the case of the ash of the seed, and these showed as 17.934 23.893 24'380 26.286

0.868 usual that the percentages of the different constituents Sand and 9'432 5'098 8.695

0.963 are subject to a little (but no great) variation ; this

chiefly extend to the relative proportions of calcium

and magnesium, while the united amount was nearly fixed, 100'033 100*217 100-650 100-379 100-209 and to the sulphuric oxide, which, in one instance, fell Deducto

considerably below the average quantity. equiv. to 0:160

0'223 0'393 o'обу 0'076 ci

In order to reduce the material examined to a definite condition of dryness, a specimen of each part of the plant

was kept at 100° C. as long as it continued to lose weight, 99-873 99994 100-257 100-310 100*133 with the following results : The whole of the potassium and sodium having been

TABLE V. calculated as oxides, while a part exists combined with chlorine, a deduction of oxygen equivalent to the chlorine

(In 100 parts Air-dried Substance (as burned.) present has been made as above.

Root. Stem. Leaves. Husk. Seed. The large amount of sandy residue in the roots was

Moisture owing to the difficulty of thoroughly cleaning their knotted

lost

9°783 11'484 9:483 9'041 4:892 and contorted fibres.

100°C... Omitting from the above results the CO2 and insoluble If, now, the water thus found, together with the sand, residue, and calculating the thus purified ash to 100 parts, charcoal, and carbon dioxide,' be deducted from the we get

amount of crude ash, we have,

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Root.

Stem.

Seed.

ON THE

TABLE VI.

reactive power of the bromides as compared with the (In 100 parts dried at 100°C.)

iodides, the inferior brilliance of the colours produced Leaves. Husk.

with the aid of the former, the difficulty of recovering the Pure ash.. 11.830 13'288 7*747 2.586 1'818

bromine as completely as iodine in consequence of its

volatility, have prevented bromine from effectively comBesides thus examining the ash, the percentages of oil peting with iodine in this department. Still the hope and of nitrogen were determined in the seed—the former that bromine may on further investigation attain importby repeated and thorough extraction with ether, using atmo- ance in tinctorial chemistry has not been abandoned. spheric pressure to force the liquid through a tall per. Certain manufactories, both English and German, use a colating tube into a partially exhausted flask, the latter mixture of brom-ethyl, which boils at about the same by combustion with soda-lime.

temperature as iod-methyl and brom-methyl. The reporter Two specimens of air-dried seed gave 47'34 and 47'44 is informed on good authority that the colour works of per cent of oil respectively. This amount is greatly in Huddersfield and of Barmen still draw large supplies of excess of the figures given in the Agricultural Depart. | bromine from Stassfurt. ment's Report above referred to, Dr. Antisell having found The use of bromine as a disinfectant in the form of only 16 per cent in the Virginia seed, while that of an aqueous solution, introduced during the North Algerian growth, it is said, on the authority of Dr. | American and Franco-Prussian wars, has remained very Anderson, "furnishes 25 to 27 per cent,” to which is limited although it possesses several advantages as com. probably to be added 6.78 to 12-75 per cent found in the pared with chloride of lime. In hospitals the use of cake.

bromine occasions much less irritation in the respiratory The nitrogen in the air-dried seed amounted to 3.415 organs than that of chlorine. per cent, representing about 22 per cent of albuminoid Although, as has been stated, bromine finds scarcely matter, or nearly the same as in the common pea or any application in great manufacturing operations, its bean.

production' is still important, as appears from the report (To be continued.)

of Chandler.* According to this authority 62,500 kilos were annually obtained in North America alone in 1869 and 1870, principally in Tarentum, Sligo, Natrona,

Pomeroy, Ohio, and Kanawha. Stassfurt produced in REPORT

the year 1873, 20,000 kilos.; and England and France

together about the same quantity. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHEMICAL ARTS

From the foregoing it will be readily inferred that there

is little novelty in the methods of extracting bromine. DURING THE LAST TEN YEARS.*

Leislert took out an English patent for a method of By Dr. A. W. HOFMANN.

obtaining bromine and iodine. He decomposes the

bromiferous lyes with a mixture of hydrochloric acid and (Continued from p. 139.)

bichromate of potash in an iron still furnished with a

capital of lead or stoneware. The vapours of bromineChlorine, Bromine, Iodine, and Fluorine. along with water are led into a receiver containing iron By Dr. E. MYLIUS, of Ludwigshafen.

turnings. Bromide of iron is formed, which dissolves in When, in consequence of the extensive opening of manu

the water, and is either converted into other metallic factories for the utilisation of the "abraum" salts, an

bromides by the customary methods, or is treated for free over-production of the salts of potash occurred, other bromine with sulphuric acid and bichromate of potash. establishments felt induced to enter upon the preparation This process has never been reduced into practice, and for of bromine, but without accomplishing anything worthy Germany at least appears too expensive. of note in this direction.

In Stassfurt, therefore, the method has been followed Rich sources of bromine were also discovered in North which had been used for the extraction of bromine in the America, and have been worked with great success.

salt works of Schönebeck, Artern, and Neusalz, consisting The product, however, does not arrive in Europe as

of the following operations :—The mother-liquor of carliquid bromine, since ships do not generally receive it nallite at 35° B. freed as far as possible from chloride of among their cargo. It is exported chiefly as bromide of calcium by refrigeration, is concentrated to 40° B. by potassium. But considerable as is the quantity of further evaporation. According to Frank the concentrabromine produced in North America there is no foundation cannot be carried so far, as, in consequence of the tion for the fear that it may occasion any appreciable partial overheating of the lye at the bottom of the pan, depression of the Stassfurt trade, since bromine is 06- bromine is inevitably wasted in the form of hydrobromic tained in America as a main product, whilst in Stassfurt it acid. On cooling to 25° a quantity of chloride of magplays merely the part of a by-product of the potash manu- nesium, MgCl2+6H20, and the remaining mother-liquor facture.

contains from o'3 to O'5 bromine as bromide of magnesium. The demand for bromine and its compounds depends on

It is placed in a sandstone apparatus resembling those its applications in medicine, photography, and scientific used for the preparation of chlorine with the corresponding chemistry. The hope of seeing its hydrocarbon com quantity of manganese and hydrochloric acid, and heated pounds extensively employed in the manufacture of coal. by the introduction of a current of steam. The red tar colours in place of the corresponding iodides has not vapours which are evolved about a quarter of an hour been fulfilled, in spite of the present greatly increased after the steam is turned on are condensed in a lead price of iodine. One obstacle which stood in the way of worm, cooled, in water, and are collected as liquid the application of brom-ethyl and brom-methyl for the

pur- distilled in glass retorts for further purification. A sand.

bromine in Woolff's bottles. The crude bromine is re. pose in question, i.e., the great volatility of these compounds, has been overcome by Dr. A. W. Hofmann,+

who stone apparatus can be charged six times in twenty-four proposes to cause bromamyl-which boils at the far hours. In order to obtain the bromine free from chlorine higher temperature of 120°—to act upon the coloured it is agitated with a solution of bromide of potassium, bases, to be ethylated or methylated simultaneously with from which bromine is liberated equivalent to the chlorine methylic or ethylic alcohol, thus forming brom-ethyl or present, whilst chlorine of potassium is formed (Falières). brom-methyl along with amylic alcohol. Still the small

To be continued.)

* H. Chandler, CHEMICAL News, 1871;No: 586. P.Wagner Jahros* " Berichte über die Entwickelung der Chemischen Industrie + L. Leisler, Dingl. Pol. Journ., clxxix., 386. Während des Letzten Jahrzehends."

bericht, 1866, 179. A. W. Hofmann, Ber. Chem. Ges. 1869, 441.

# F. Michel, Wagner Jahresbericht, 1867, 194.

ON THE

150
Physical Properties of Gallium.

{,

Od. 6, 1876. NICKEL AND SILVER ALLOY.

established by M. Mendeleef for a hypothetic body, which By Major W. A. ROSS.

seems to correspond to gallium (at least according to many of its properties), would lead to the number 5'9.

Gallium crystallised under water decrepitates sometimes Messrs. Johnson and Matthex, of Hatton Garden, gave when heated. Perhaps my first metal contained in. me for analysis by the blowpipe some fragments of the terstices filled with air or water. I am ignorant if this result of a fusion together of the metals silver and nickel, cause of error is combined with others so as to falsify my in which the silver (a) was on one side, apparently per- first determination. However this may be, I avoided it fectly white and pure, and nickel at the other, of a dark subsequently by heating the metal strongly and solidifying grey colour (6).

in a dry atmosphere. I then obtained higher densities, 1. A minute speck of (a), treated at the bottom of a varying from 5'5 to 6-2, although the weight of the trial

phosphoric acid bead in P.P.,* afforded a nearly samples did not exceed a few centigrammes.
colourless transparent bead, which, treated with a I finally operated with 58 centigrammes of gallium
momentary H.P.,* became covered with the semi-

derived from the union of six samples mentioned above. metallic coating on the surface, which shows 5 per Density at +23° (and referred to water at +23o)—

cent of the bead to be silver solution. 2. (b), in a similar fragment and bead, gave the same

First experiment ..

5.900 reaction, but was also nut-brown hot, and orange

Second experiment

5*970 cold, showing a large proportion of nickel. It seems, therefore, that nickel in fusion will take up

Mean..

5.935 silver to a considerable extent, but that silver refuses to The same gallium was afterwards maintained for half combine similarly with nickel.

an hour between 60° and 70° in nitric acid diluted with its O&ober 4, 1876.

own volume of water, washed, very strongly heated, and finally solidified in dry air.

Density at + 24 45° (and with respect to water at

+24:45°) = 5'956. There is no occasion to insist, I PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GALLIUM.

think, on the extreme importance which attaches to the

confirmation of the theoretic views of M. Mendeleef con. By M. LECOQ DE BOISBAUDRAN.

cerning the density of the new element.—Comptes Rendus. I HAVE recently prepared rather more than half a grm. of pure gallium. In the liquid state this metal is of a beautiful silver-white, but on crystallising it takes a very

NOTICES OF BOOKS. decided bluish tint, and its lustre notably diminishes. On properly effecting the solidification of superfused gallium isolated crystals are obtained : these are based The Mineralogical Magazine and Journal of the Mineral. octahedra, which I am engaged in measuring.

ogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. No 1, On a first trial (April, 1876) the point of fusion was August, 1876. Truro : Lake and Lake. found between 29° and 30°, or near +29.5°. I have just we have great pleasure in welcoming the appearance of examined six samples of gallium successively electrolysed a magazine specially devoted to mineralogy-a science from one and the same solution. The foreign metals, sup- hitherto not adequately represented in our periodical liteposed to be present, ought to distribute themselves un.

rature. equally among the different fractions collected :

The present issue contains the Rules of the Society as

Points of Fusion.
Gallium, No. 1.

adopted at its first meeting, on February 3rd, 1876, and an -+-30-14°

account of the papers read at the Ordinary Meeting held 30-16

on February 4th, and at the Local Meeting of the Cornish 30'14

members at Redruth, July ist.
4.
30'15

These pages comprise a note, by Mr. Marshall Hall, 5.

30:16

upon a portion of basalt from the Mid-Atlantic, fished up 6.

30:16

by the steamer Faraday whilst grappling for a broken

telegraph-cable. The question arises whether the fragMean

+ 30'150

ment has been wrenched off some submarine ridge, or The sample No. 4 was afterwards placed for two hours whether it is an ice-borne mass deposited by an iceberg. in boiling water, and the innumerable globules formed

Mr. W. W. Stoddart contributes a paper on the “Ocwere united by compression. The point of fusion had not currence of Celestine in the Keuper Marls, and its Influence varied. The metal was therefore very free from potassium. on the Composition of Plants.". The author has discoThe six samples of gallium having been mixed, a fragment vered strontia in the ash of eight plants, including the was taken (weighing 21 centigrammes), which was kept common dandelion and groundsel, found growing on the for half an hour in nitric acid diluted with

its own volume Keuper maris, on the north-eastern side of Cotham Hill, of water at a temperature of 60° to 70°. The loss only near Bristol. reached a fraction of a milligramme. The point of

Mr. C. Le Neve Foster read a paper on “New Minerals fusion remained fixed, for the metal melted very slowly and Mineral Localities in Cornwall and Devon.” The at +30o16°, and crystallised very slowly at +30'06”. Ishall species described are-Henwoodite ; Pyrophyllite, found shortly have the honour of submitting to the Academy for the first time in England at Brookwood Mine; Eny: the new process which served for preparing this gallium, site, from St. Agnes ; Actinolite, with green garnets; and of which the constant point of fusion denotes a very Aximite, from S. Terras and South Brent. satisfactory purity.

Mr. Collins also described Henwoodite and Enysite, In May, 1876, I tried to determine the density of gal and gave a notice of the occurrence of Scorodite, Phar. lium on a sample of 6 centigrammes : I obtained 4'7 at

macosiderite, and Olivenite, in the greenstone at Terras 15° (and with reference to water at 15°). The mean of the Mine, St. Stephens. densities of aluminium and indium being 48 to 5*1, the Formations of Carbonate of Lime and Oxide of Iron,

Mr. Vivian communicates a note on "Paragenetic provisional specific weight found for gallium appeared to agree tolerably well with a theory placing this metal be- and of Quartz and Oxide of Iron, at the Mwyndy Irontween indium and aluminium. However, the calculations Mines, Glamorgan." Mr. J. H. Collins also furnishes an

additional note on the species described by Mr. Vivian. * See " Pyrology," pages 56 to 58.

Mr. C. Le Neve Foster describes and figures a new form

2.

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,} Od. 6, 1876. Calculus in Horses.

115 of blowpipe lamp suitable for travellers, and Mr. Dudgeon DR. LUNGE'S APPARATUS FOR MAKING gives "Historical Notes on the Occurrence of Gold in the

CHLORATE OF POTASH.
South of Scotland."
We believe there is ample scope both for the Mineral-

To the Editor of the Chemical News.
ogical Society and for its Journal, and we wish them a
successful career.

Sir, In the translation of Dr. Mylius's “ Report on
Chlorine, &c." (CHEM. News, vol. xxxiv., p. 139) there is

a quotation from a paper of mine, published nearly ten Stanley's Metre-Diagram, Illustrating the Metric System years ago, which might mislead your readers as well as

with Explanations, Tables of Length, Surface Capacity those of the original German Report. Dr. Mylius quotes and Weight, Rules, Approximate Equivalents, &c. A. my description of a small apparatus for making chlorate and T. W. Stanley, New Britain, Connecticut.

of potash as if I had stated that form of apparatus to be This is a useful pocket companion intended to facilitate in general use in England, whilst the contrary will at once an understanding of, and prepare for the introduction of, be apparent to any reader of my original paper in the metric system of weights and measures. On a folding Dingler's Polytechnisches Fournal. The apparatus in slip of “ artificial parchmont," which, by the way, appears question would only suffice (as stated by me) for making to be an excellent material for plans, maps, and the like, 7 cwts. of potassium chlorate per week. requiring to be folded up, is engraved at full size the Dr. Mylius also quotes a proposal of mine for obtaining standard yard of England and America divided into inches powdered potassium chlorate by disturbed crystallisation. and tenths of an inch, Parallel with it is a meter, gradu. I do not now think that that proposal is worth very much, ated into decimetres, centimetres, and millimetres, so that for, in the first instance, the powder thus obtained would the conversion of any lineal measure from the one stan

not be anything like fine enough for the users of that dard into the other can be effected at a glance. Another article, and would thus have to be passed through a mill diagram, all on the same slip, shows one decimetre with anyhow; secondly, manufacturers of that article have its subdivisions placed side by side with the approxi- always a considerable quantity of siftings from the coarser mately equal measure of four inches. The remainder of crystals on hand, which can only be advantageously the space is utilised for a brief exposition of the advant- worked up by grinding them to powder. The danger of ages of the metric system, an account of its units, with grinding potassium chlorate-which I apprehended at tables of approximate equivalents, and rules for conversion that time to be very considerable-I have not, after some The back of the slip is occupied with views of the Phila- years' practical experience, found to be very great, prodelphia Exhibition building, wiih the dimensions stated vided the material is kept clear from splinters of wood or on both systems.

bits of iron, and the mill is not allowed to get hot.We heartily wish that some unanimous decision con. I am, &c., cerning weights and measures could be reached by the

GEORGE LUNGE. civilised world. As regards the metric system England

Zürich, October 4, 1876. and America seem each to be waiting for the other. A commission of engineers, &c., entrusted by the Franklin

CALCULUS IN HORSES. Institute with the task of examining into the question, reported against the new weights and measures. One of

To the Editor of the Chemical News. their arguments was, that as something like three-fourths Sir, I have been investigating the nature of the concreof the entire foreign trade of America was carried on with tions found in the large intestine of horses, and I trust to Great Britain and its dependencies, the introduction of be able in a short time to communicate to your journal the metric system would rather hinder than facilitate the full details and analyses of these calculi. business.

In the meantime allow me to observe that we lose a considerable number of valuable horses every year by this

terrible disease, particularly those devoted to labour in the CORRESPONDENCE.

iron districts, which animals are generally very fine and powerful, and highly fed. One of my relatives has lost

in this way no less than five splendid horses within a PROF. DITTMAR AND THE " ANALYST.”

short space of time, and millers' horses are very liable to

the disease both here and on the Continent. To the Editor of the Chemical News.

The calculi are formed in the large intestine (cæcum); SIR, -The subject of the recent attack on Prof. Dittmar they begin often by being triangular, or sometimes per was brought before the notice of the Glasgow Meeting of finally circular. In all cases they are formed of highly

fectly square, with rounded edges and corners, and become the Public Analysts, and the attack was condemned by crystalline concentric layers, and attain to 18 or 20 inches those present at the meeting. So decided was the expression of condemnation that a vote of censure on the in diameter, that is, as large as an ordinary gas-lamp Committee of Publication was even mentioned; but in globe. I believe that this is the greatest size they can place of so extreme a course (which in my opinion ought arrive at, and that when so large as this, they already to have been followed) an indirect vote of censure was

press out the sides of the intestine, producing inflammation carried, the resolution being to the effect that before com

and violent pain, which causes the animal to roll about in mentaries on adulteration-cases are inserted in the Analyst agony, and sooner or later kills him. I have met recently the chemists implicated should be communicated with.

with two calculi of this enormous size, both cases being I observe that the current number of the Analyst pur

Staffordshire horses. ports to give an account of the Glasgow Meeting of the

The usual reniedy, as far as I have ascertained, has Society, but does not in any way record the resolution been, hitherto, some powerful purgative, chiefly aloes ; passed at that meeting. I observe also an editorial com

and when the calculi are small or recently formed-not

But when mentary on Mr. Dittmar which is in direct opposition to larger than walnuts—this appears to answer. the resolution passed by the meeting; and I take this large such treatment only increases the evil. opportunity of making known that the Society of Public

I find that the greater bulk of these calculi, large or Analysts has no real control over the Analyst, which is small, consists of phosphate of ammonia and magnesia, the property of Mr. Wigner and Dr. Muter, who alone are

and when a portion of the pulverised calculus is heated responsible for the contents of the paper.-I am, &c.,

over a spirit-lamp on a platinum dish, it shows that very J. ALFRED WANKLYN.

curious phenomenon of incandescence, or rather phosphoLaboratory, 117, Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square,

rescence, peculiar to this salt at a certain temperature. October 2, 1876.

The amount of organic matter is not great, but I have

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