Obrazy na stronie




. British Association for the Advancement of Science.

Sept. 15, 1876. gous behaviour of the glycolate, when it is treated in determidation of lithium by diluting a solution of the succession with one and afterwards with another molecule metal till a drop, when ignited, ceases to give the of perbromide, and whereby it becomes converted first of chracteristic spectrum. Two or three months ago I made all into oxyglycolyl-bromide,

a series of experiments with potassium and the alkaline H202

earths, with the idea of estimating them in solution, by F0202,2F002Br,

diluting till a measured quantity, generally o‘3 c.c., inand subsequently into bromo-glycolyl-bromide,

troduced into the flame, ceased to give the most characF02Br2,2F002Br,

teristic line of the metal em loyed. I attached to I proceed upon the hypothesis that the product of the platinum wires pellets of cotton wool, or filter papers action of the first molecule of perbromide on the gly-folded as if for burning, which were made to absorb the oxylate is the dioxyglycolyl-bromide, as expressed by the quantity of solution, then introduced into the edge of the formula

Bunsen flame. After the drying and burning of the comH202.

bustible matter, the ash, which is left in the state of a fine F0202,2F004Br,

network impregnated thoroughly with the salt introduced, where the molecular changes consist in the replacement gets strongly ignited, and gives the desired spearum. I by bromine of that particular hydroxyl molecule which found, however, that by diluting the spectra lost their belongs to the oxyformate of water group; again, that brilliancy so imperceptibly that it was very difficult to fix the product of the action of a second molecule of per- the point at which they disappeared, especially so with bromide on the latter derivative-namely, the above the alkaline earths. It is possible thus to estimate the mentioned bromoxyglycolyl-bromide-is expressed by the amount of potassium in a solution, the error allowed being formula F02Br2,2F004Br, where the molecular changes about ten times the quantity of metal to be estimated. consist in the replacement by bromine of that particular I also tried diluting the solution till the line was equal hydroxyl molecule which belongs to the colligated in intensity to that produced by the ignition of a measured formylic alcohol group. But as regards the mode of quantity of a very dilute solution of the metal of known formation of the third derivative, since, as our formula strength, but met with no better success. implies, there is no more hydroxyl to replace, it becomes The results of these experiments, and the strain upon manifest that the reaction must of necessity take a dif- the eyes, produced by repeatedly looking attentively for a ferent course. This course, I venture to say, will consist very faint line, or by looking for a line which you think in the previous conversion of the bromoxyglycolyl- ought to appear, induced me to give up this method of bromide into the isomeric dibromacetate

experimenting. H2O2.

I would add that a filter paper (as before described) Fo2Br2,2F003.

with so much solution of potassic chloride as contained Thanks to this perfectly natural and intelligible meta

0'0000006 grm. of metal, when ignited gave the Ka line morphosis our molecule has now put itself in possession distinctly. Roscoe gives o'00000032 grm. of potassium as of the much-coveted hydroxyl, so that the replacement the minimum observable quantity; but by the nature of of the latter by bromine can be accomplished without his experiment that quantity was introduced every second, difficulty.

whereas in the other case the minute portion was introIn reliance upon the general correctness of the fore- duced once for all.-I am, &c., going, and I trust sufficiently lucid, explanations, I shall

Henry C. Jones. now proceed to contemplate the effects of temperature on

Highbury, September 4, 1876.
the various brominated derivatives before us, and for that
purpose direct the reader's attention to the second part of
my programme.

To be continued.)

British Association for the Advancement of

Science.-The meeting of the British Association for 1877 will be held at Plymouth, and will commence on the

15th August. Dr. Allen Thomson, F.R.S., has been NEW PROCESS FOR THE QUALITATIVE DETECTION AND THE DETERMINATION OF chosen are the Earl of Mount Edgecumbe, the Earl of

nominated President-elect, and the Vice-Presidents POTASSA.

Devon, Lord Blackford, W. Spottiswoode, F.R.S., W.

Froude, F.R.S., and C. Spence Bate, F.R.S. The meeting To the Editor of the Chemical News.

for 1878 will be held at Dublin. The following is a Sir,-In a paper on the above subject M. A. Carnot, in the complete list of the papers brought before the Chemical CHEMICAL News (vol. xxxiv., p. 85), describes a new

Science Section of the Glasgow Meeting, under the Presimethod for the quantitative estimation of potassium, and dency of Mr. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S.; they will be published towards the end of the paper he says :“ The weight of the potassa is found on multiplying the Chemical News:

in full or in abstract, according to their importance, in the weight of the sulphide of bismuth by3KO

M. M. P. Muir, F.R.S.E.-On Essential Oil of Sage. =0'549." Bi2S3

7. A. R. Newlands.-On Relations among the Atomic I think he must have calculated it by some new method, C. H. W. Biggs.—On a New Voltaic Battery;

Weights of the Elements. as it appears to me when calculated in the usual way to 7.7. Coleman.—On a Gas Condensing Machine for the be3KO

Liquefaction of Gases by Combined Cold and Pres. Bi2S3 = 0'320,

W. Ramsay:-On Picoline. -I am, &c.,

R. P. D. 7. E. Stoddart.-Lead Desilverising, by the Zinc Process. September 4, 1876.

Dr. Corfield.-Report of Sewage Committee.

A. H. Allen.-Report on Commercial Phosphates and DETERMINATION OF LITHIUM BY MEANS OF Potash Salts. THE SPECTROSCOPE.

7. Banks.-Sewage Purification and Utilisation.

7. 7. Coleman.-Experimental Researches on the CheTo the Editor of the Chemical News.

mical Treatment of Town Excreta. SIR,- In the Chemical News (vol. xxxiv., p. 94) there is Professor Gamgee.-On the Physiological Action of Pyro-, a short notice of a paper by M. H. Ballmann on the Meta., and Ortho-phosphoric Acids.



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CHEMICAL, NEWS,} British Association for the Advancement of Science. 1876.

123 F.H. 1. Allan.-On a Safe and Rapid Evaporating Pan. I Professor Green, “ Geological Features of the neighProfessor Thorpe, F.R.S.-Report on Specific Volumes of bourhood of Leeds." Liquids.

G. Dove, jun,, " The North Lincolnshire Iron District." Dr. Atkinson.-- Report of Committee for the purpose of Henry Kirk, “Some Features of Revolving Puddling

Collecting and Suggesting Subjects for Chemical Furnaces and their Products.”

Bashley Britten, “Glass from Blast-Furnace Slag."
Walter Weldon.-On the Means of Suppressing Alkali R. Howson, “On Welding Iron."

G. J. Snelus, Further Information as to the use of Dr. Macvicar, F.R.S.E.-On the Possible Genesis of the Molten Iron direct from the Blast Furnace.” (Discussion.)

Chemical Elements out of a Homogeneous Cosmic John Jones, “ Technical Education in connection with Gas or Common Vapour of Matter.

the Iron Trade." 7. Emerson Reynolds, M.D.-On Glucinum : its Atomic

“ Chymistry" and Force.- Professor Tait, in his Weight and Specific Heat.

discourse a few nights ago upon Force," instanced G. Johnstone Stoney, F.R.S.-On the Atomicity of Oxygen

as one of the things that force cannot accomplish the and on the Constitution of Basic Salts.

inability of the Times to make scientific men spell E. H. W. Biggs.-On a New Voltaic Battery.

“chemist " with a “y." Those who have remarked the W. H. Perkin, F.R.S.-On New Anthracen Compounds. persistency with which the Times adheres to “ chymist,” 7. B. Brown.-On Anthracen Testing.

may have reflected on hearing this that forces in this Professor Guthrie, F.R.S.-On Solid Water. Dr. C. R. A. Wright.--On the Alkaloids of the Aconites. respect are evenly matched, and that if the journal cannot

coerce men of science, they in turn are powerless to alter On New Cotarnine Derivatives.

the practice of the journal. Professor Tait, however, has C. T. Kingzett.On the Oxidation of Terpenes. Part IV. succeeded where the combined forces of chemists and Professor Crum Brown.-On the Action of Pentachloride grammarians have failed. The Times reported his speech, of Phosphorus on Turpentine.

and his speech would have been incomplete without his A.C. Letts.-On Two New Hydrocarbons from Turpen- illustration. The illustration would have been fruitless tine.

unless chemist was spelt with an “e," and with an "e" 7. V. Buchanan.-On some Instruments Used in the accordingly the Times spells it, for the first time, pro“Challenger.”

bably, within the memory of man. It is true that the Professor Gladstone, F.R.S.-The Influence of Condition offending orthography appears within inverted commas,

and Quantity of the Negative Element on the Action but the fact remains, nevertheless, that Professor Tait has

of the Copper-Zinc Couple. w. N. Hartley:-On the Critical Point of Liquid Car. developed a force to which the leading journal has

succumbed. He has compelled the Times to spell bonic Acid in Minerals.

chymist” with an “e.”-Glasgow News. R. D. Silva.-On the A&ion of Hydriodic Acid on Mixed

Ethers of the General Formula CnH2n+10.CH3. Now ready, crown 8vo., 500 pp., cloth, price 12s.6d. (postage 8d.) Dr. Cameron.-On Ammonic Seleniocyanide.

: 7. A. R. Newlands.-On the Alum Process in Sugar CIAL HANDBOOK of); or Practical Instructions for the Refining.

Determination of the Intrinsic or Commercial Value of Substances

used in Manufactures, in Trades, and in the Arts. By A. NORMANDY, E. M. Dixon.-On an Apparatus for the Analysis of Im

Author of " Practical Introduction to Rose's Chemistry," and Editor purities in the Atmosphere.

of Rose's “Treatise of Chemical Analysis." New Edition. Enlarged, W. Henderson.—History of Copper Extraction in the Wet and to a great extent re-written, by Henry M. Noad, Ph.D., F.R.S.

With numerous Illustrations. Way.

“Will be found to be essential to the analysts appointed under the 7. Mactear.-Soda Manufacture.

In all cases the most recent results are given, and E.C.C. Stanford.-Iodine and Associated Products. the work is well edited and carefully written.”Nature. 7. Dunnachie.Fire-Brick, &c.

"In a book of nearly 500 pages, we have simple yet scientific in

struction how to examine almost every article of consumption."T.L. Patterson.-Sugar.

Metropolitan. D. Swan.-Zinc.

CROSBY LOCKWOOD and CO., 7, Stationers' Hall Court, 7. Macrobarts.-Dynamite.

London, E.C. F. Ward. On the Prevention of Fraudulent Alterations in Cheques, &c.

F. ;

Apparatus and Chemicals for Scientific Pursuits. Labora. Anderson Smith.-On Sodium.

tory Fitter and Furnisher. Photographic Apparatus and Materials. M.M.P. Muir.-On the Action of Dilute Saline Solu- | 8, KINGSLAND Green (West SIDE), London.

W. A. Tilden, D.Sc.-On the Nitroso Derivatives of the

Terpenes.- Preliminary note on a new Isopurpurine.
W. Dittmar.-On the Proximate Analysis of Coal Gas.

CLASSES are held at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in each year,

for the convenience of gentlemen who are preparing for the Matricu- Remarks on Reboul's paper on Pyro-Tartaric Acid. | lation Examination at the University of London-from October to W. Thomson, F.R.S.E.-On the Action of different Fatty January and from March to June. Oils upon Copper.-On the Growth of Mildew on

1. Classics, French-Malcolm Laing, M.A., Trin. Coll., Camb.

2. English, Modern Geography, and English History-W. J. Craig, Grey Cloth.

M.A., Trin. Coll., Dublin. A. Fergusson.-White Lead.

3. Mathematics and Natural Philosophy- The Rev. J. T. Bell, M.A., Col. Hope, V.C.-On the Purification of the Clyde. late Fellow of St. Catherine's Coll., Camb.

4. Chemistry-T. Eltoft, F.C.S. W.C. Sillar.-On the Utilisation of Sewage.

Fee for the course of Three Months, £10 ios.

The Class is not Rev. R. Thomson.-The Prevention of the Pollution of confined to Students of the Hospital. Rivers.

PRELIMINARY SCIENTIFIC EXAMINATION. The total number of tickets sold during the Meeting

A Class in the subjects required for the Preliminary Scientific Exwas 2731. Of these 211 were to old life members, 31 to

amination is held from January to July, and includes all the subjects new life members, 318 to old annual members, 208 to required, as follows :new annual members, 1243 to associates, 696 to ladies,

Chemistry-H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., F.R.S. and 24 to foreign members. The total amount of receipts to the Hospital.

Botany, The Rev. G. Henslow, M.A. Cantab., Lecturer on Botany up to Tuesday evening was £2983.

Zoology and Comparative Anatomy - Norman Moore, M.D. Cantab.,

Lecturer on Comparative Anatomy to the Hospital. Iron and Steel Institute.-A meeting of the Iron and Mechanical and Natural Philosophy-W. Graham, M.A., Trin. Steel Institute will be held at Leeds on the 19th, 20th, Coll., Dub., Demonstrator of Mechanical and Natural Philosophy to 21st, and 22nd inst. The following is a list of papers and

the Hospital.

Fee to Students of the Hospital, £8 8s.; to others, £10 10s.; fee for subjects for discussion :

any single subject, £3 35.

new Act.


, Dewar. Transformation of Chinoline into Aniline. Classes for the UNIVERSITY of LONDON.


Advertisements. The

he London Hospital and Medical College. Royal School of Mines.



, 1876.

Department of


During the Twenty-sixth Session, 1876-77, which will commence
Consulting Physician-Dr. Herbert Davies.

on the 2nd of October, the following COURSES of LECTURES and Mr. Luke, F.R.S.

Consulting Surgeons Mr. Adams.

1. Chemistry. By E. Frankland, Ph.D., F.R.S.
Mr. Curling, F.R.S.

2. Metallurgy. By John Percy, M.D., F.R.S,

3. Natural History. By T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S.
Dr. Andrew Clark.
Mr. Hutchinson.

4. Mineralogy. By Warington W. Smyth, M.A., F.R.S., Dr. Ramskill. Mr. Maunder,

5. Mining.

Dr. Langdon Down.
Mr. Couper.

6. Geology. By John W. Judd.
Dr. Hughlings-Jackson.
Mr. Rivington.

7. Applied Mechanics. By T.M. Goodeve, M.A. Dr. H. G. Sutton. Mr. Jas. Adams.

8. Physics. By Frederick Guthrie, Ph.D., F.R.S. Dr. Fenwicks. Mr. W. Tay.

9. Mechanical Drawing. By Rev. J. H. Edgar, M.A.

The Lecture Fees for Students desirous of becoming Associates ASSISTANT-PHYSICIANS.

ASSISTANT-SURGEONS. are £30 in one sum, on entrance, or two annual payments of £20, Dr. Woodman.

Mr. McCarthy.

exclusive of the Laboratories. Dr. Stephen Mackenzie.

Mr. Reeves.

Tickets to separate Courses of Lectures are issued at £3 and £4 Dr. A. E. Sansom.

each. Dr. Charlewood Turner.

Officers in the Queen's Service, Her Majesty's Consuls, Acting Obstetric Physician-Dr. Palfrey.

Mining Agents, and Managers may obtain Tickets at reduced prices. Assistant-Obstetric Physician- Dr. Herman.

Science Teachers are also admitted to the Lectures at reduced fees. Surgeon-Dentist-Mr. A. W. Barrett.

For a Prospectus and information apply to the Registrar, Royal

School of Mines, Jermyn Street, London, S.W.

Medicine-Dr. Davies and Dr. Fenwick.
Surgery--Mr. Couper.

Operative Surgery-Mr. Maunder.

Anatomy-Mr. Rivington.

Practical Anatomy-Dr. Wilson.
Physiology and Practical Histology-Mr. McCarthy.

The Winter Sessional Course of Instruction will commence on
Chemistry-Dr. C. M. Tidy.

Comparative Anatomy-Dr. Ed. B. Aveling.

The chair will be taken by R. W. Gaussen, Esq., and the Intro.
Midwifery-Dr. Palfrey.

ductory Address delivered by Professor Pritchard, at ip.m. Forensic Medicine-Mr. Rodgers and Dr. Tidy.

Lectures, Clinical and Pathological Demonstrations, and General Materia Medica-Dr. Prosser James.

Instruction are given on Pathology and Diseases of the Horse and Botany–Mr. Baker.

other Domesticated Animals, including Epizootics, Parasites, and Pathology-Di. Sutton.

Parasitic Affections; also on Anatomy, Physiology, Histology, CheDiseases of Throat-Dr. Morell Mackenzie.

mistry (General and Practical), Materia Medica, Toxicology, Botany, Anatomy and Pathology of the Teeth-Mr. Barrett.

Therapeutics and Pharmacy, Hospital Practice, Obstetrics, Operative Surgery, the Principles and Practice of Shoeing, &c.

Students are required to attend two Summer and three Winter The next Winter Session will commence on Monday, October 2nd,

Sessions before being eligible for examination for the diploma of the when the Introductory Lecture will be given by Ds. Andrew Clark, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Senior Physician to the Hospital.

A Scholarship, of £25, per annum, tenable for two years, will be The Perpetual Fee to Lectures and Hospital Practice, with two

awarded at the close of the Summer Session of 1877. years' Practical Anatomy, is 90 guineas it paid in one sum, or 100 Annual Exhibitions, Gold and Silver Collegiate Medals, a Cattle guineas if paid by three instalments. Special entries can be made to

Pathology Silver Medal, and Certificate of Merit will also be awarded Lectures or Practice. The Hospital contains about 800 beds. The

in addition to the Coleman Prize Medals. Class Prizes will be given in-patients during 1875 were 5804, and the out-patients 40,717.

in each division of the student's studies. Certificates of Distinction 1, 2. Two Entrance Science Scholarships, value £60 and £40. will likewise be conferred on students who pass a superior examina3,4. And Two Burton Scholarships, value £30 and £20, will be

tion for the Diploma of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. offered for competition at the end of September. Entries for

Graduates who obtain Certificates of Distinction will be entitled to the above must be made on or before the 20th September. 5. A Scholarship, value £20, in Human Anatomy, foi first year proficiency of knowledge of the diseases affecting Cattle, Sheep, and

compete for the Prizes offered by the Royal Agricultural Society for Students.

Pigs. The Prizes consist of a Gold Medal and £20, Silver Medal and 6. A Scholarship, value £25, in Anatomy, Physiology, and Che.

£10, and a Bronze Medal and £5. mistry, for first and second year students.

College Entrance Fee 25 Gs., the payment of which confers the 7. A Hospital Scholarship, value £20, for Clinical Medicine.

right of attendance on all the Lectures and Collegiate Instructions, 8. A Hospital Scholarship, value £20, for Clinical Surgery.

with the exception of Practical Chemistry. 9. A Hospital Scholarship, value £20, for Clinical Obstetrics.

The Matricular Examination will be held on the 30th of September, A Prize of £5 to the student who has attended most Midwifery cases

at 10 a.m. Fee £i Is. Candidates for the Scholarship, as well as during the preceding twelve months.

those who select any of the voluntary subjects as an addition to the The Duckworth Nelson Prize, value £10, for Practical Medicine and

obligatory ones, are requested to inform the Principal of their Surgery (Biennial).

intention, and to name the subjects at least a week previously to the Money Prizes to the value of £60 given annually by the House Com

Examination. mittee for zeal in Dressing Out-Patients and knowledge of Minor

A Prospectus containing the Regulations of the College, and copies Surgery.

of the Matriculation Examination Papers set last Session will be for. For particulars as to appointments, &c., see the Prospectus, which

warded on application. will be forwarded on application to the Secretary, Turner Street,

JAMES B. SIMONDS, Principal. Mile End, E.

August, 1876. Greatly increased facilities are now offered by adjacent railways and tramways for rapid transit from the neighbourhood of the Hospital to other parts of London. The East London Railway Company Station

EXPERIMENTAL MILITARY and NAVAL SCIENCES, is directly opposite thc Hospital. Lodgings can be obtained in

under the direction of Professor E. V. GARDNER, F.E.S., &c. healthy localities in the immediate vicinity of the Hospital, at a very

of the late Royal Polytechnic Institution and the Royal Naval College. reasonable charge.

The Laboratory and Class Rooms are open from 11 to 5 a.m. and Medical School,

from 7 to 10 p.m. daily.

Especial facilities for persons preparing for Government and other opex SCHOLARSHIPS and EXHIBITIONS in

examinations. NATURAL SCIENCE.

Private Pupils will find every convenience.
The Examination for 1876 will be held on Tuesday, the 3rd of Analyses, Assays, and Practical Investigations conneAed with
October, and following days. Candidates are requested to call upon Patents, &c., conducted.
the Dean, at 49, Seymour Street, Portman Square, on the morning of for prospectus, &c., apply to Prof. E. V. G., 44, Berners-street, W
Monday, October 2nd, between the hours of 10 and 1, and to bring with
them the necessary certificates.
For further particulars apply to the Registrar, at the Hospital, or to OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE, NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE.
A. B, SHEPHERD, M.B., Dean of the School.

Sixth Session.
Medical School. The Examinations for Admission and for Exhibitions will commence
Paddington, W.

on MONDAY, the 2nd OCTOBER. Three Exhibitions of the value OPENING of WINTER SESSION, October 2nd, 1876.-Intro

of £15 each will be awarded to entering students who show sufficient ductory Address by Dr. Wiltshire.

merit in the above Examinations. Candidates for these Exhibitions SCHOLARSHIPS in Natural Science, Classics, and Mathematics,

must send in their names to the Secretary on or before Saturday, the varying in value from £120 to £20. For further particulars apply to

23rd September. the Dean.

Pruspectus and conditions to be had on application.
A, B. SHEPHERD, M.B., Dean of the School.



St. Mary's Hospital


St. Mary's Hospital


Chemical Treatment of Town Excreta,

125 Sept. 22, 1876.

with an equal weight of carbonised shale powder. The THE CHEMICAL 'NEW S. powerful odour of the fresh fæces was rapidly destroyed,

the mixture became odourless, and I preserved samples

in partially closed wide-mouthed bottles. During 10 days VOL. XXXIV. No. 878.

and at a temperature of 60° F. no foetid or unpleasant smell was noticeable, and the mass being somewhat pasty I mixed it with more shale powder, so as to bring it to a

pulverulent state suitable for sowing by hand as a manure, RESEARCHES ON THE CHEMICAL TREAT

and the sample has been kept until this date without MENT OF TOWN EXCRETA."

emitting the least smell of organic putrefaction. Subse

quently to this and in the month of June, 1875, experiBy J. J. COLEMAN, F.C.S., Assoc. Inst. Eng. Scot.

ments were made with the object of comparing its action

with that of bone and wood charcoal. The same mixture Present methods of dealing chemically with sewage of fæces and urine was used. As the general result of resolve themselves into, first, treatment with lime; these experiments it was found that whether animal charsecondly, treatment with metallic oxides or salts; and, coal or carbonised shale were used the proportion of one thirdly, treatment with carbon.

part of carbon to two of excrementitious matter was inIn reference to the lime process chemists are familiar sufficient to prevent a slight putrefa&ive smell, after the with the literature upon the subject.

lapse of two or three weeks, but that equal parts of exThe second method, viz., the use of a metallic oxide or crementitious matter and carbon formed a permanently salt has certain advantages when the precipitant can be odourless mass, whether animal charcoal or carbonised oil obtained cheaply and the sewage to be dealt with is shale were used. It appears therefore that for deodorising largely contaminated with refuse from dye-works, as is the

excreta carbonised oil shale requires to be used in the case at Leeds and Coventry. Subsulphate of alumina has

same proportion as excreta charcoal is recommended to be been used in such cases. The third method of dealing / used by Mr. E. C. C. Stanford. Experiments were also with sewage, viz., by the agency of carbon, appears to me made with urine alone, in the proportion of one part of to be most generally useful, for whilst possessing the carbonised shale powder tu 4 of urine. The latter was power of abstracting noxious matter from the sewage in gradually changed into a liquid smelling purely of ammonia at least as great a ratio as any chemical that can be used, and without the slightest putrefactive smell' although it the carbonaceous deposits are not liable to subsequent was kept some weeks. noxious decomposition, and the manurial value of the In order to make experiments with sewage the City mud is not interfered with. In practice carbon is used in Statute Labour Trust' of Glasgow supplied sewage processes such as the A B C, where alum is an essential collected from the following points : part of the system.

1. Sandyfaulds Street, Caledonia Road ; 2. Duke The efficiency of carbon for these purposes is doubtless Street; 3. Great Hamilton Street ; 4. Gloucester Street ; dependent upon its being in a fine state of division, and in

5. Sauchiehall Street. practice a cheap form of carbon, suitable for deodorising, These samples were mixed so as to get a fair average, has not been by any means easy to get. Common coke, and coming from water-closet districts in dry weather, the peat charcoal, carbonised street sweepings, and, as pro. smell was most offensive. It was divided into two porposed by Mr. Stanford, carbonised excreta, have been pro.. tions. The first portion was agitated for ten minutes posed or actually used, but all these forms of charcoal with finely divided bone-black in the proportion of require expensive and cumbrous plant in the form of

100 grains to the gallon, and the mixture was then thrown retorts, and condensing arrangements for vapours evolved

upon a funnel partially plugged with sponge, the liquid in the distillation, and involve a large consumption of fuel being collected.' The second portion was agitated with a for carbonisation, so that I have never known of any kind similar quantity of carbonised oil shale in ihe same pro. of charcoal being obtainable under at least 1os. per ton portion and manner. Both these filtrates came through prime cost, the market price being generally from 2os. to deodorised, and have kept sweet to the present time. bos. per ton. My attention has been directed to a waste Examined some months afterwards after being kept in product produced largely-in fact, to the extent of 500,000 closely stoppered bottles, the unfiltered sample contained or 600,000 tons annually in Scotland alone. I mean the

4'210 free ammonia in 100,000 parts, and the sample, carbonised shale after removal from the retorts of our

filtered through the carbonised shale, contained 0-428 free mineral oil works. The quantity of fixed carbon it con- ammonia. tains ranges about 10 per cent, and its state of

In regard to albuminoid ammonia the unfiltered sample division no doubt is similar to that contained in bone: contained o'333 part and the filtered sample 0-285 part. black, the carbon in the former case being associated with In reference to the adaptability of the material for the drysilicates of alum, lime, and magnesia, and, in the la ter, closet system, the ease with which it can be reduced to a with phosphates and carbonates of lime. An analysis of soft charcoally powder is a great recommendation. Since the mineral constituents shows the following composition, these laboratory experiments have been made they have the material having been dried at 60° F.:

been confirmed by experiments on a large scale, and more Silica


particularly with the refuse from the water-closets and Alumina..


surgical wards of the Glasgow Royal Infirmary-the Oxide of iron..


excrementitious matter from which is about as repulsive Phosphoric acid


as any that can be met with. It is semi-liquid in charLime


acter, and an experiment conducted by the author in conMagnesa

junction with the medical superintendent proved that on Fixed carbon and water 16:24

mixing about 2 cwts. of this material with the same weight of the carbonised shale, it was, in the course of a

few minutes, completely deodorised. I have made a number of experiments as to its power of Experiments have been also made by the Sanitary deodorising. In the month of May, 1875, I prepared Inspector of the City of Glasgow. His report to the several mixtures of human fæces with the materiál. “The Police Board, dated January of the present year, includes fresh fæces were first diluted with half their weight of description of experiments made with about 7 tons of the urine.

ground material in three of the public privies of the A weighed portion of the mass w taken, and mixed city, and extending over a period of fifty-seven days.

The Sanitary Inspector fully endorsed the conclusions Read before the British Association, Glasgow Meeting (Section B.) arrived at by the author as to the powerful deodorising


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Chenical Treatment of Town Excreta.


Sept. 22, 1876. effect of the substance, and strongly recommended its | solid matters to subside, and afterwards filtering the preregular use by the city authorities.

pared liquid through prepared filters to be used interGlasgow public conveniences are, however, most of mittently, I believe that the whole of the sewage of the them on Macfarlane's water-trough system, and the diffi- City of Glasgow might be discharged into the Clyde culty of adapting, self-acting mechanical arrangements to without causing a nuisance to the neighbourhood.” them prevented the adoption of a dry method, as also the The adoption of a chemical method is condemned for fact that a Royal Commission on the subject of dealing the following reasons :with Glasgow sewage was then sitting,

(1.) It is argued that, assuming the daily flow of Glas. In treating sewage with the material upward filtration might be resorted to, or the carbonised shale might be

gow sewage to be 48,000,000 gallons, the solid employed in constructing, upon the sandy foreshores of

matters in the sewage suitable for carting would

probably amount to 186,000 tons per annum. the river, filters to be eventually converted to soil, or the

(2.) That the lime used for precipitation would probably material could be used as an adjunct to earth intermit. tent filters, or as an ordinary filter, combined, if neces

increase the weight of this mud to between sary, with depositing tanks.

400,000 or 500,000 tons annually. Perhaps the best plan of utilising it would be the latter,

(3.) That on information received from Mr. J. B. Lawes

and Mr. Caird, that the annual consumption of the material being ground to a fine powder, and poured

artificial manures in the United Kingdom does into the main sewer about 100 yards from the outfall, so

not exceed 800,000 tons, he does not see how as to establish thorough mechanical agitation; the mixture could then be allowed to deposit in ianks, and the clear

Glasgow could dispose of 400,000 or 500,000 overflow filtered through a filter of the same material in a

(4.) That judging from the balance sheets of the sewage coarsely powdered or crushed state. It will be in the recollection of members of this Section

works at Leeds the cost of dealing with Glasgow that our distinguished past President, Sir John Hawk.

sewage chemically would be £80,000 per annum shaw, has been acting as Royal Commissioner appointed Now in respect to the first argument. Glasgow sewage to inquire as to the purification of the River Clyde. was analysed by the Rivers Pollution Commissioners

The report of the Royal Commissioner, which deals with under the superintendence of Dr. Frankland in 1870 the whole valley of the Clyde, recommends, however, (“Riv. Poll. Com.,” Fourth Report, p. 26). It contains, chemical processes or irrigation for some of the smaller in round numbers, 142 parts of solids per 100,000, which towns of the valley only, and goes on to express an is equal to about 100 grs. per gallon. Again, Dr. Hofopinion that he can see no other course in dealing with mann, in his Report on, London Sewage, estimates its the sewage of Glasgow than running it to the sea with average composition as 100 grs. solids per gallon. Glas. engineering works, estimated to cost 24 millions sterling, gow sewage, owing to the plentiful rainfall and abundant and including a tunnel 30 or 40 miles long.

water supply from Loch Katrine, is weaker than that of The Royal Commissioner, however, appears conscious other towns; so that it is impossible that 48,000,000 himself that chemical science may eventually solve the diffi- gallons per day of sewage could give more than 100,000 culty, for towards the close of his report he remarks these tons per annum of solids, supposing the effluent be disengineering works would not be thrown away by improved charged as pure as distilled water. methods of treatment at the outfall. If chemical science From this quantity must be deducted the soluble saline can suggest a means of lessening the enormous expendi- constituents, reducing it, say, four-tenths, or to 60,000 ture of two and a half millions Sir John appears to think tons; and there must be added the moisture contained in necessary, I feel no doubt the Royal Commissioner would artificial manures, say 25 per cent, which gives us as the be gratified. The tunnel scheme is a suggestion : the probable correct figure 80,000 tons as the annual probable absolute recommendations of the Royal Commissioner quantity of solids separable from Glasgow sewage in the being statesmanlike proposals for organising a Board of form of manure. Sanitary Commissioners for the Clyde Valley, with certain That this figure is correct is confirmed by Prof Way'st definite powers, leaving it with local townships to carry report on the sewage of towns, which would bring out the out any particular plan of purification that may be agreed quantity 91,000 tons. Mr. J. B. Lawes's estimates would upon and approved of by the central authority he proposes bring out 89,000 tons according to the ratio of 2 to 3 lbs.

solids per ton. Finally, the experiments of Mr. Keatest at Sir John Hawkshaw, in the course of his enquiry, in Crossness showed that 142 tons of prepared manure was vestigated the chemical processes in use in other towns, obtained from 11,672,751 gallons of London sewage ; and discussed with much care the problem of dealing with 61 tons representing the mud precipitated from the sewage. the sewage of the second city of the Empire, which This would indicate 80,000 tons per annum for Glasgow amounts in dry weather to 48,000,000 gallons daily.* sewage, which I assume to be correct in place of the

Whilst approving of dry-closet systems in regard to 186,000 tons assumed by Sir John Hawkshaw. public works and in particular circumstances, the Royal In regard to the next argument of the Royal Commis. Commissioner does not see how such a revolution can be sioner, that the solids would be more than doubled by the effected in large towns as the abolition of water-closets. lime process, this is difficult to see, as lime is only added

After dismissing irrigation as impracticable from want as a fraction of the solids. It may be correct as regards of suitable land, and a strong objection to making experi- carbon processes, but even then the annual production of ments with ratepayers' money in farming, the report enters manure would be 160,000 to 200,000 tons instead of the into the discussion of chemical processes versus gravitation 400,000 or 500,000 tons estimated by Sir John. to the sea.

In reference to the third argument that the manure The arguments Sir John uses, independently of any could not be disposed of. If sewage mud be classed with bearing they have on the author's proposals, are of interest artificial manures of several pounds value, which appears generally in regard to the question of dealing with the to be what Messrs. Lawes and Caird include in their sewage of any large city, and I may also add particularly figures of 700,000 or 800,000 tons annual consumption of to irrigationists, in respect to the dealing with the sewage the United Kingdom, then I agree with the Royal Commud, which it is impossible to deliver over square miles missioner. But this is not the case. Sewage mud manure of land by the pipes employed in irrigation.

has only a few shillings value, and should be compared The Royal Commissioner uses these words—"By the with city street sweepings manure, of which the City of addition of suitable deodorising and precipitating agents, such as alum, clay, lime, and charcoal, then allowing the * Hofmann and Witt, “ Report on London Sewage;" also “Corfield

on Sewage," 179 to 184 inclusive. * Bateman and Bazalgette's "Report," 1868. Sir John Hawkshaw's + Sec Reports of Sewage of Towns Commissioners." "Report," 1876,

* See Mr. Keates's “ Report to the Metropolitan Board of Works."

to create.

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