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,} British Association - Mr. Perkin's Address. Sept. 8, 1876.
107 Looking at these reactions, it appears rather remarkable, but this has passed away, and now the consumption o that Graebe and Liebermann should have succeeded in that dye is as great as ever ; certainly its price is much preparing alizarin from dibromanthraquinon. It can only lower than it used to be, but this is due to a variety of be explained on the assumption that the hydrogen atoms causes, especially the great increase in the cultivation of replaced in the disulpho-acid are different in position from the insect at Teneriffe. And perhaps this want of influthose replaced in the dibromanthraquinon; and of course ence is not so very remarkable when we consider the it is possible that a disulpho-acid isomeric with that now aniline colours are entirely new products, differing in comknown may be discovered that will yield alizarin as a first position and properties from the old colouring matters, product on treatment with alkali.
and therefore could only displace them to a certain extent. In the reaction which takes place when monoxyanthra- But whilst this is the case, the aniline colours have quinon or isoanthraflavic acid become oxidised and change been more and more used, until at present it is computed into alizarin and anthrapurpurin nascent hydrogen is that their annual sale in the United Kingdom and on the formed; and this causes a reverse action to take place- Continent exceeds £2,000,000. This is probably due to ordinary anthraquinon, or its hydrogen derivative, being new applications and increase of trade. formed, and a loss of colouring matter resulting. A small When, however, we come to consider the influence of amount of potassic chlorate is now used with the caustic | the anthracen colours, alizarin and anthrapurpurin, more alkali, just sufficient to overcome the reducing action, generally known as “ artificial alizarin,” we find we have which has resulted in an increased yield of colouring a very different tale to tell. matter, the percentage obtained being now not very much Here, in the case of alizarin, we have a competition not below the theoretical quantity.
between two colouring matters, but the same from differWhen the process for making commercial artificial ali- ent sources—the old source being the madder-root, the zarin by treating anthraquinon with sulphuric acid was new one coal-tar. And when we introduce the considerafirst adopted, the product from that treatment was a mix. tion of anthrapurpurin, which produces such magnificent ture of the mono- and disulpho-acids of anthraquinon. reds, much brighter than alizarin or ordinary purpurin, we Consequently, the colouring matter prepared in this man see we have not only a replacement but an improvement, ner was a mixture of alizarin and anthrapurpurin; and so that these new colouring matters throw the old ones the reason why dichloranthracen, when used in place of into the shade. The products being purer, the clearing anthraquinon, yields a product very rich in anthrapurpurin, processes for goods dyed with them are also necessarily is on account of the readiness with which it forms a easier and simpler. disulpho-acid of dichloranthracen, which afterwards It will be interesting to examine into the statistics of the changes into the disulpho-acid of anthraquinon.
madder and garancin trade in a brief manner, to see what At first it was supposed by many that the quantity of has been the influence of artificial alizarin on their concoal-tar produced would not yield a sufficient supply of sumption. The following figures are mostly calculated anthracen for the manufacture of artificial alizarin. from the Board of Trade returns. Experience has, however, proved that this supposition was During the ten years immediately preceding the introgroundless, as now the supply is greater than the demand. duction of artificial alizarin the average annual imports
Moreover, some very interesting experiments have lately of madder into the United Kingdom were 15,292 tons, and been made, by which anthraquinon and its derivatives have of garancin 2278 tons. Estimating the value of the former been obtained without the use of anthracen. The most in- at £2 2s. 6d., and the latter at £8 per cwt., which were teresting are those in which phthalic anhydride is employed about the average prices during that period, the annual with benzolic derivatives: for example, this anhydride gives value in round numbers was about one million sterling. with hydroquinon a colouring matter having the same com- The introduction of artificial alizarin, however, has so position, as well as most of the other properties of alizarin. infuenced the value of madder that its price is now less İt is called quinizarin Baeyer and Caro have also than one-half; and thus a saving of over half a million obtained from phthalic anhydride and phenol oxyanthra- sterling per annum has been effected to the manufacturers quinon, and by using pyrocatechin in place of phenol they of the United Kingdom, one-half of which may be put got alizarin itself.
down to Glasgow. Although these products have not been obtained in So much for its effect in reducing prices; but what has sufficient quantities by these processes to be of any practi- been its influence on the consumption of these dye-stuffs ? cal value, we do not know what further research may do. I have already stated the average quantity of these subAlready one of the substances used is being prepared on stances imported per annum prior to the discovery of the the large scale for the manufacture of that beautiful artificial product, and will now compare it with the imports colouring matter "eosin;" I refer to phthalic anhydride. of last year and this. That for the present year of course
Now, with reference to the origin of the products which is an estimated quantity, and calculated from the returns are used for the manufacture of artificial alizarin, we find for the first seven months. the first researches made in reference to anthracen were by
Average Annual Imports. Dumas and Laurent in 1832; subsequently, Laurent further
1859-1868. 1875. 1876. Tons.
Tons. Tons. worked upon this subject, and obtained, by the oxidation
Madder of this hydrocarbon, a substance which he called anthra.
15,292 5014 3653
Garancin cenuse; he also obtained dichloranthracen. Dr. Anderson
2278 1293 also made an investigation on anthracen and its com- These figures speak for themselves. pounds in 1863, and assigned to it its correct formula ; he The money value, which was formerly £1,000,000 per re-examined its oxidation product, which Laurent called annum, is now, calculating from the estimated quantity anthracenuse, and named it oxyanthracen, the substance for the year, only £138,105, say £140,000, taking garancin we now know as anthraquinon.
at £4 per cwt. and madder at £i per cwt., prices slightly All these substances were without any practical value in excess of their present value. until 1868 ; but we now find them of the greatest import- At the present prices the cultivation of madder-roots is ance, and used daily in immense quantities.
unremunerative ; and it is to be expected that madderBut to bring out more clearly the practical importance growing will soon be a thing of the past, thousands of of these fruits of scientific research, it will be well perhaps acres of land being at the same time liberated for the to see what has been their influence on the colouring growth of those products which we cannot produce artifimatters which were in use before them, and also the ex- cially, and without which we cannot exist. "The quantity tent of their present consumption.
of madder grown in all the madder-growing countries of The influence of the so-called aniline colours on dye- the world prior to 1868, was estimated to be 70,000 tons woods, &c., has been remarkably small. It is true that at per annum; and at the present time the artificial colour first magenta had a depreciating influence upon cochineal ;' is manufactured to an extent equivalent to 50,000 tons, or
Sept. 8, 1876. more than two-thirds of the quantity grown when its cul- | this respect tripolite has many imitations in commerce, tivation had reached its highest point.
but it can be recognised at once by analysis, and also by I might have referred to other subjects besides the coal- the microscope. Below I give my analysis of a Barbadoes lar colours which have resulted from scientific research; sample (a fair sample from many cwts. of this wonderful but I know of no other of such interest and magnitude deposit) and that of a Swedish sample, together with two From the brief history I have given, we see that the origin kinds of imitation tripolite met with in London :of these colouring-matters is entirely the fruit of many researches made quite independently by different chemists,
Dagesfors, who worked at them without any knowledge of their future importance ; and on looking at the researches
71050 78.00 which have thus culminated in this industry, it is interest
Oxide of iron and alumina 2-32) ing to notice that many, if not most of them, were con
Carbonate of lime ..
10.60 ducted for the purpose of elucidating some theoretical
Combined water, with These facts certainly ought to be a great encourage
minute quantity of organic 9.84 ment to chemists, and stimulate them to greater activity.
15.85 It would be very pleasing to see more work emanating
5.66) from the chemical schools of the United Kingdom; and I think no student should consider his chemical curriculum finished until he has conducted an original research. The
Imitations. knowledge obtained by a general course of instruction is of course of very great value ; but a good deal of it is
8497 carried on by rule. In research, however, we have to
CaOCO2 depend upon the exercise of our judgment, and, in fact, of
5-6 4:8 all our faculties; and a student having once conducted
4'4 even one, under the guidance of an efficient director, will find that he has acquired an amount of experience and knowledge which will be of the greatest value to him afterwards.
A sample of genuine tripolite from the Puy de Dome It is hoped these remarks will encourage young chemists (France) gave :-Fournier : Silica, 87'2 ; water, 10'0 ; to patiently and earnestly work at whatever subject they alumina, oxide of iron, &c., 2.8. Another sample from may undertake, knowing that their results, although some- Algiers gave :-Salvétat: Silica, 80:0; water, 9:0; oxide times apparently only of small interest, may contain the of iron, alumina, lime, &c., 10*0. In all cases the silica is germ of something of great scientific or practical import. mostly soluble in strong boiling alkaline ley. ance, or may, like a keystone in an arch, complete some The genera most easily recognised in these deposits, subject which before was fragmentary and useless.
with the aid of a moderately powerful microscope (200 to 260 diameters) are Desmidium, Euastrum, Xantidium,
Peridinium, Gomphonema, Hemanthidium, Pinnularia, The following is a list of the Officers of Section B Navicula, Actinocyclus, Pixidula, Gallionella, Synedra, (Chemical Science) :
and Bacillaria. I have italicised those which appear to President-W. H. Perkin, F.R.S., Secretary of [the Gallionella, Desmidium, Bacillaria, and Navicula are
me most prominent in the Barbadoes deposit. Of these, Chemical Society.
Vice-Presidents-Prof. J. Ferguson, M.A.; Prof. Edmund supposed to be plants, all the others to be animals. The 1. Mills, D.Sc., F.R.S. ; Prof. T. Andrews, F.R.S. ; Prof. great resemblance of these fossil animalcules to some of Crum Brown, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.; is very striking.
the active little beings in our ditches and stagnant waters Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S.; W. Crookes, F.R.S. Secretaries-W. Dittmar; W. Chandler Roberts, F.R.S.; tripolite has been applied latterly, we may mention that,
Among other useful purposes to which the Barbadoes John M. Thomson ; W. A. Tilder, D.Sc.
Committee --J. Attfield, Ph.D.; R. H. Bosanquet ; P. having been found a bad conductor of heat, it has been Braham; Prof. Brazier; J. Y. Buchanan; J. Campbell tripolite will displace the aniline colours from their solu
used with advantage for covering boilers. Boettger says Brown, D.Sc.; J. G. Coleman; Alfred E. Fletcher; J. H. tion in spirit and fix them so that after awhile the solution Gilbert, F.R.S. ; W. N. Hartley; J. F. Hodges, M.D.; filters colourless. c. T. Kingzett; Stevenson Macadam, M.D., F.R.S.E; J. Mactear, Prof. M.Leod; M. M. P. Muir, F.R.S.E.; Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, J. Napier; Benjamin H. Paul, Ph.D.; W. Ramsay, Ph.D.;
THERMOCHROMATISM, OR HEAT liams; C. R. A. Wright, D.Sc.
ON THE TRIPOLITE OF BARBADOES. Many months ago, soon after the South Kensington
Museum purchased a copy of my work, “ Pyrology, or
formed me in the chemical laboratory of that Museum A most remarkable deposit of tripolite exists in the island that Mr. Ackroyd (one of his pupils) was “examining" of Barbadoes, where it is mixed with a certain quantity of my "ingenious ” hypothesis published in that work as to carbonate of lime. Under the microscope it is found to the cause of the colours assumed by some heated subbe exceedingly rich in remains of fossil infusoria, the forms of which are very well preserved. The silica is I have just seen in the CHEMICAL News (vol. xxxiv., hydrated and soluble to a great extent in potash solution, p. 75) the result of this examination in an article called and, like tripolite from other localities, it constitutes an " Metachromatism,” in which, however, my name is not excellent polishing material. On account of its value in mentioned, and ask you to do me the justice to publish
Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources. Sept. 8, 1876. T
109 similarly in your valuable paper the following examina.
Black tion of his examen.
Brown (!) (1.) The term "metachromatism" applied to a tempo
Red rary alteration of colour, is obviously a misnomer, for,
Orange without that adjective, it implies a chronic change; a Heating or Yellow
Cooling or substitution, in fact, of one colour for another, which Expanding Green
Contracting phenomenon does not take place in the majority of these
Blue cases, while the principal producing agent-heat-re
Indigo mains in it utterly unrepresented. But while the term
Violet “metachromatism” is, as applied to heated bodies, in
White itself erroneous, what are we to think of the derivative "metachrome" with which, Mr. Ackroyd tells us, it will chromatism arises from increased absorption of light, with
“From the foregoing observations we learn (I) that meta. be "convenient ” to label all “colour-changing” bodies ? elevation of temperature, the more refrangible increment I should think, on the contrary, such a phraseology increasing at a greater rate than the less refrangible ; would be highly inconvenient, and might lead to serious (2) that the only necessary cor.comitant is alteration results, if, for instance, a young gentleman, about to pop of atomic potentiality; a change from the violet towards the question," were to call the blushing “ object of his the red end of the metachromatic scale signifying atomic affections” a' metachrome;" while the analogous mis. recession (pores expanding), and a change from the red use of classical derivatives would lead us to call a man
towards the violet, atomic approach (pores contracting)." a“ poudinerement," because he has temporarily increased his weight by eating roast beef and plum pudding:
(4.) In my work “ Pyrology," above referred to, I have (2.) The term "thermochromatism” would therefore shown, both literally and graphically, how a solution of seem more suitable for this class of phenomena than that gold in phosphoric acid passes, in cooling, through all the proposed by Mr. Ackroyd, while I cannot but think that prismatic colours from yellowish orange to bluish violet, the intolerable confusion between ideas of function and of and yet Mr. Ackroyd tells us he was the first " to see, at form, implied by his other term "metachrome," should be an early stage of study, that nearly all the changes take carefully avoided.
place in the order of the spectrum colours.” (!) (3.) Although Mr. Ackroyd has not made the faintest
(5.) I fear Mr. Ackroyd will find few scientific men, reference to the article on colour in my published work now-a-days, willing to confirm or allow his extraordinary above mentioned, which, according to Mr. Valentin, led assertion that " vibratory motion has little or nothing to io his investigations, he has, notwithstanding, done me do with the increased absorption of light by hot bodies," the honour, under the disguise of a cloud of high-sounding or that " black” is “a colour," or that “ brown but rather pedantic and frothy phrases, as“ atomic poten- spectrum (prismatic) colour.” tiality,” &c.—to come in the end to precisely the same Stahl is evidently, though unadmittedly, cited by Mr. A. conclusions as those recorded in my work; and to make at second-hand, but I should feel obliged by information this fact apparent, I make the following quotations :- as to what part of his works "connects colour change "PYROLOGY," p. 114 (1875).
with the varying amounts of phlogiston a body contains
when heated." The observations of Stahl, with reference " Substances whose particles can be agitated by vibra. to the colours of heated bodies, seem to have been con. tions of any kind, however minute, must have spaces befined to iridescence (“ evanescens colores variosa circa tween these, or pores; and if we can imagine vibrations capellam formet qui ultimo iridis speciem præbebunt," &c. having different amplitudes, it would not be difficult to _" Fundamenta Chymiæ,” vol. i., p. 162), and to the assume the fact of pores having a corresponding magni-change of colour metals experience in alloys (“: Per fusitude, into some of which, for instance, waves of a com- onem variæ mixturæ metallicæ formantur, et interdum paratively greater amplitude, as red, could not pass, while quidem pro certi coloris gradu obtinendo," &c.-Ibid., violet vibrations would be freely admitted. If, then, we vol. iii., p. 187). But has Mr. A. neglected to cite, in his conceive an expansion of such light pores of heat, the historical account, the observations of Boyle, a much rays of greater amplitude (of vibration) would pass into greater man than “Stahl and followers” on this subject : the hot body, and be gradually excluded as that cooled. 2“ Minerals also, by the action of the fire, may be brought It is a curious fact, with regard to this hypothesis, that to afford colours very different from their own,” &c. oxide of bismuth-a metal which expands in cooling-(Boyle's Works, vol. ii., p. 72), or Bacon—" Metals give proceeds in the other chromatic direction in cooling, viz., orient and fine colours in dissolutions” &c. (“ Sylva from De, or yellow, to white.” This description is illustrated Sylvarum,” Century III., p. 75), merely because they were by a coloured lithograph (Plate II. of the work) represent. Englishmen, or because he is ignorant of their writings ing a circular chromatic scale of the prismatic colours, with reference to this matter? with Frauenhofer's lettering, in which A, or red, exhibits the limit of coloured expansion, and Ho, or violetish red, the limit of coloured contraction; and these limits are surrounded by dotted arrows, showing the procedure of CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN heated metallic oxides in either direction. White (as
SOURCES. being the combination of all colours) concludes the scale at the limit of expa.ision, and black (as an absence of light) at that of contraction.
Note.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwise
expressed. MR. ACKROYD (1876). “Hence when, at an early stage in its study, I saw that Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances, de l'Acadenie
des Sciences. No. 6, August 7, 1876. nearly all metachromatic changes take place in a definite order—the order of the spectrum colours—I was under the
Experimental Critique on Glycæmia.-M. Claude impression, even after much reading, that the subject was
Bernard.— The author shows that the existence of quite unworked. Expansion by heat is an all but saccharine matter in the blood is not an accidental fact universal law, so far as we at present know. ... Both dependent upon alimentation, but constitutes a constant classes (of oxides) alike owe their change to increased and permanent physiological phenomenon. absorption of light, with elevation of temperature.
Observations of M. Thenard with reference to the Reflecting upon these facts, we see that it is possible to above Communication. The author maintains the arrange the colours in order, and this I have done as 'existence of a special affinity, named by M. Chevreul follows:
Sept. 8, 1876. Alteration of Urine.—M. L. Pasteur.—A continuation / soda; this volume, multiplied by 2, gives the weight of of the discussion on abiogenesis.
the carbonic acid. The author generally operates on Reply to the Last Communication of M. Hirn.- litre of water. M. A. Ledieu.—The author maintains that M. Hirn's re. New Process for the Qualitative Detection and the searches lead merely to condemn the system of emission Determination of Potassa.-M. Ad. Carnot.-Inserted as an explanation of the movements of the radiometer of in full. Mr. Crookes.
Different Rotatory Powers of Cane-Sugar AcOn Intensity Radiometers.-M. W. de Fonvielle.- cording to the Method used for their Measurement. Up to the present time the radiometers presented to the -M. L. Calderon.—The author finds a mean difference Academy differ merely as to the colour or the nature of the of 6'3°, according, as he employs the process of Biot, or two contiguous faces of the discs. However, the dis- the monochromatic flame according to Jellet and Cornu symmetry of action necessary for rotation may be equally Process for the Determination of Hydrocarbons, obtained by giving to the instrument a play of perfectly and in particular the Fire-damp of Coal Mines.-M. similar discs, the two faces of which may be of the same J. Coquillion.— The author makes use of a wire of pallasubstance and the same colour; but in this case the discs dium heated to redness by the battery. The results must be of a helicoid form, whether convex or concave, or enable him to estimate with a certain amount of accu. merely inclined to the axis of rotation; in a word, the racy the amount of fire-damp present in a give atmo. dissymmetry of material or of colour must be replaced by sphere. dissymmetry of form. We may imitate the arrangement Use of Chloride of Calcium for Watering Roads, of the feather-mills, which we have seen at the toy dealers ; | &c.-M. Couste.-The author has experimented with this that of cup anemometers; that of helices set in action by process as early as 1854. an aërial current; or that of orreries which are readily caused to turn by the electric currents of a Holtz machine. The axle itself does not require to remain vertical is
PATENTS. whilst giving it a horizontal or inclined position-care be taken not to create an exaggerated friction, for the radiometer will turn under the influence of the motor ray if ABRIDGMENTS OF PROVISIONAL AND COMPLETE the passive resistances do not exceed the fraction of the
SPECIFICATIONS. total impulsion which produces the rotation in the system An improved process of removing phosphorus from iron ores, and adopted. Whatever may be the system adopted all the refining slag, or scoriæ. G. Velge, Liège, Belgium. May 26, 1875.
No. 1924.- This invention consists in mixing with the phosphorus discs will collect a motor effort, forming an assignable
ores, or the slag or scoriæ, a quantity of alkaline bases or salts. fradion of the total impulsion, and the dynamic formulæ mixture being brought to a red-heat, a phosphate is formed, soluble in by means of which this element will be determined will water or in water slightly acidulated, and the phosphorus may be be independent of any hypothesis as to the cause of the separated from the iron by washing. movement. These calculations will be closely analogous electric telegraph wires, and other purposes. . Field, Upper Marsh
Improvements in the preparation of insulating compounds for coating with those to which turbines and windmills have given Lambeth, Surrey, and R. Talling, Lostwithiel, Cornwall. May 27, scope. They cannot be executed with radiometers moving 1875.-No. 1938. This invention relates to insulating compounds prein virtue of the different colour of their discs. The author
parer by the mixture of ozokerit, or the residue obtained from the dis
tillation thereof with india-rubber, gutta-pereha, and other insulating proposes to give to such apparatus the name of radio- materials, as described in Matthiessen's Specification, No. 3778, of meters of intensity.
1869. According to the present inven'ion, instead of incorporating
the ingredients by the application of heat, as described in the said Determination of the Carbonic Acid contained in Specification, whereby the resulting compound is rendered brittle, the Waters (Waters of Irrigation, Drainage, Springs, ingredients are incorp rated either by dissolving them by means of Rivers, &c.).—M. A. Houzeau:-The method proposed by masticating them together by any known mechanical means. consists in disengaging successively, in a gaseous state,
Improvements in the treatment of alunite, or of natural products conthe free and the combined carbonic acid, absorbing it in taining the same, so as to obtain aluminous compounds therefrom. 5 c.c. of standard solution of soda containing noooth part). H. Johnson, Lincoln's Inn Fields, Middlesex. (A communication of oxide of zinc. The carbonic acid is then determined 1946. The essential features of this invention consist in the treatment by a method which the author has previously published of what is known as alunite, or of minerals containing alunite, so as to (Annales de Chimie et de Physique). The apparatus is obtain potassic alum therefrom, which is effected by the employment composed of a flat-bottomed bottle, holding 750 c.c., and of sulphuric acid, chloride of potassium, and alunite, or of minerals closed by a stopper which gives passage to two tubes. chloride of potassium may be converted into sulphate of potash, and One of these, bent into the shape of an S, serves for the potassic alum be obtained from the result of calcination. introduction of the sulphuric acid destined to liberate Improvements in the treatment of the excreta of towns. J. J. Colethe combined carbonic acid after that which is free has man, F.C.S., Glasgow, Lanark, N.B. May 28, 1875.-No. 1954. The
feature of novelty which constitutes this invention is treating the been expelled by prolonged boiling. The other tube serves
excreta by mineral oil works' spent shale in the manner set forth. to conduct the carbonic acid gas into a flask, of the
Improvements in the treatment of ferric, and aluminous and ferric capacity of 210 c.c., where it meets with a portion matters, for the purpose of obtaining useful substances therefrom. P. of the standard soda solution, the remainder being and F. M. Spence, Newton Heath, Manchester, Lancaster.' May 28, in a Wills's tube connected with the flask by a
1875.-No. 1961. This invention relates to the manufacture of ferric, caoutchouc stopper. When all the carbonic acid has
and aluminous and ferric compounds, consisting of sulphate of iron
and sulphate of alumina and iron. been disengaged by boiling the water for a sufficient length of time, which takes place in ordinary cases when
ERRATUM.-A transposition occurs on page 73, line 20 from top. about 170 c.c. of water have been condensed in the flask
For "wool from grease" read "grease from wool." containing the standard soda, the alkaline contents of this flask and of the Will-tube are poured into a test-glass
NOTICE. on a foot, having a mark at 200 c.c., a neutral solution of chloride of barium is added in excess, and the liquid is The STUDENTS' NUMBER of the Chemical News made up to 200 c.c. with the washing-waters. The car. will be published on Friday next, September 15th. bonate of baryta settles so rapidly that after it has stood Gentlemen holding official positions in the Universities, for a few minutes 50 c.c. may be taken from the clear Medical Schools, &c., of the United Kingdom, where part of the liquid and its value determined with an acid re. Chemistry and Physical Science form a part of the presenting exa&ly 2.0 of CO2 per c.c. The difference education, who have not yet forwarded the necessary between the strength of the soda solution before and after information to our Office for publication in that the absorption of the carbonic acid gas shows the volume Number, will confer a favour by sending it with the of the standard acid corresponding to the carbonated least possible delay.
} Sept. 15, 1876. Schools of Chemistry.
provided that on receiving each instalment the Exhibi. THE CH'EMICAL NEWS. tioner declares his intention of presenting himself either
at the two Examinations for B.A., or at the two Examina
tions for B.Sc., or at the First LL.B. Examination, or at Vol. XXXIV. No. 877.
the Preliminary Scientific and First M.B. Examinations, within three academical years* from the time of his passing the Matriculation Examination.
Under the same circumstances, the fourth among such UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES. Candidates will receive a prize to the value of ten
pounds in books, philosophical instruments, or money ;
and the fifth and sixth will each receive a prize to the UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.
value of five pounds in books, philosophical instruments, Candidates for any Degree granted by this University or money. are required to have passed the Matriculation Examina- Any Candidate who may obtain a place in the Honours tion, to which no candidate is admitted unless he has Division at the Matriculation Examination in January is produced a certificate showing that he has completed his admissible to the First B.A. or to the First B.Sc. Exsixteenth year.
amination in the following July. But such Candidate will The Fee for this examination is £2.
not be admissible to the Second B.A. or to the Second The Examination will be held on Monday, January B.Sc. Examination in the ensuing year, unless he has 8th, 1877: It is conducted by means of Printed Papers; attained the age of eighteen years. but the Examiners are not precluded from putting, for the Several important changes have been made in the purpose of ascertaining the competence of the Candidates regulations relating to the Degrees in Science. These to pass, viva voce questions to any Candidate in the sub. revised regulations relating to the First B.Sc. Examina. jects in which they are appointed to examine.
tion will come into force at the Examination in July, 1877. Candidates are not approved by the Examiners unless Candidates presenting themselves at the Second B.Sc. they have shown a competent knowledge in each of the Examination in O&tober, 1877, will be allowed an option following subjects :-1. Latin. 2. Any two of the fol- between the old and the revised regulations. lowing Languages:--Greek, French, and German. 3. The
First B.Sc. EXAMINATION.
The First B.Sc. Examination will commence on the 6. Chemistry.
third Monday in July, 1877. The Papers in Latin and Greek will contain passages
No Candidate (with the exception of such as have to be translated into English, with questions in Grammar obtained Honours at the Matriculation Examination in and in History and Geography arising out of the subjects the preceding January) is admitted to this Examination of the book' selected. Short and easy passages will
within one academical year of the time of his passing the also be set for translation from other books not so selected. Matriculation Examination. A separate paper will be set containing questions in Latin
The Fee for this Examination is £5. Grammar, with simple and easy sentences of English to
The Examination embraces the following subjects :be translated into Latin.
Pure and Mixed Mathematics, Inorganic Chemistry, ExThe papers in French and German will contain pas. perimental Physics, and General Biology. sages for translation into English, and questions in Gram
In place of the superficial acquaintance with both mar, limited to the Accidence.
Zoology and Botany, formerly required at the first B.Sc. The Latin subjects for 1877 and 1878 are
examination, there will be a single examination (written For January 1877:–Virgil, Georgics, Book IV., and
and practical) in General Biology, in which a more tho. Æneid, Book IV.
rough knowledge will be required of the simplest forms For June 1877:—Horace, Odes, Books III. and IV.
and elementary phenomena of Animal and Vegetable For January 1878 :-Livy, Book II.
Life, such as is now made the basis of the teaching of For June 1878 :-Ovid, Epistolæ ex Ponto, Book II.
some of the most distinguished professors in each depart. Special stress is laid on accuracy in the answers to the
ment. Candidates will therefore be examined in the fol. questions in Latin Grammar.
lowing subjects :The Greek subjects for 1877 and 1878 are
Structure, functions, and life-history of simple Unicel. For January 1877:-Xenophon, Hellenics, Book I.
lular Plants, such as Torula and Protococcus, as types of For June 1877:—Homer, Odyssey, Book XII. Vegetable Life. For January 1878:--Homer, Iliad, Book X.
Structure, functions, and life-history of Penicillium, For June 1878:-Xenophon, Hellenics, Book II.
Mucor, or some other simple Fungus. Candidates may substitute German for Greek.
Structure, functions, and life-history of Chara or Nitella. The Questions in Natural Philosophy are of a strictly
Morphology, histology, and history of the reproduction elementary character; they include Mechanics, Hydrosta- of a Fern, tics, Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Optics, and Heat.
Morphology and histology of a Flowering plant; strucThe Examination in Chemistry is-Chemistry of the
ture of a flower; homologies of leaves and floral elements; Non-Metallic Elements; including their compounds- histology of ordinary vegetable tissues, such as epidermis, their chief physical and chemical characters-their pre-parenchyma, fibro-vascular tissue, and their arrangement paration-and their characteristic tests.
in the stem, branches, and leaves. A Pass Certificate, signed by the Registrar, will be
Growth of a Flowering plant; formation of wood and delivered to each Candidate who applies for it, after the bark; nature of cambium. Report of the Examiners has been approved by the Senate.
Reproduction of a Flowering plant; structure of ovule; If in the opinion of the Examiners any Candidates in methods of fertilisation ; development of ovule into seed. the Honours Division of not more than Twenty years of
* By the term "Academical Year” is ordinarily meant the period age at the commencement of the Examination possess intervening between any Examination and an Examination of a sufficient merit, the first among such Candidates will higher grade in the following year ;, which period may be either receive an Exhibition of thirty pounds per annum for
more or less than a Calendar year. Thus the interval between the
First Examinations in Arts, Science, and Medicine, and the Second the next two years; the second among such Candidates Examinations of the next year in those Faculties respeAively, is will receive an Exhibition of twenty pounds per annum for about sixteen months, whilst the interval between the Second B.A. the next two years; and the third will receive an Exhibi. Examination and the M.A. Examination of the next year, or between tion of fifteen pounds per annum for the next two years ;
the Second B.Sc. Examination and the D.Sc. Examination of the
pext year, is less than eight months. Nevertheless, cach of these such exhibitions are payable in quarterly instalments, intervals is counted as an Academical Year."