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párèl, and sprinkling their heads with the water of the Ganges to purify themselves, present flowers, &c. to Yúmŭ by the side of this small pit, repeating an incantation. Each day they put a single koureep in an earthen pot, and at the end of the ceremony present the thirty kourees to the person who'dug the pit. They perform this ceremony to procure from Yümŭ either husbands, or sons, or happiness, and also that they may escape punishment after death.

I have heard of some Hindoos, who, rejecting the wor. ship of other gods, worship only Yumŭ; alleging that their future state is to be determined only by Yumů, and that they have nothing therefore to hope or to fear from any beside him.

Yumŭ is judge of the dead. He is said to hold a court, in which he presides as judge, and has a person to assist him, called Chitrŭ-gooptă !, who keeps an account of the actions of men. A number of officers arē also attached to the court, who bring the dead to be judged. If the deceased persons have been wicked, Yumŭ sends them to their particular hell; or if good, to some place of happiness. The poor Hindoos, at the hour of death, sometimes fancy they see Yumŭ's officers, in a frightful shape, coming to fetch

them away.

Yumŭ is said to reside at Yúmalúyú, on the south side of the earth'. All souls, wherever the persons die, are supposed to go to Yumŭ in four hours and forty minutes; and a dead body cannot be burnt till that time have elapsed.

p Shells from the Maldive islands, which pass for money in Bengal. More than six thousand of these shells may be bought for a roopee.

9 That is, he who paints in secret; or, he who writes the fates of men in secret.

r One Hindoo sometimes jokes with another, by asking him where he is going, as he seems to be proceeding southwards.

The following account of Yumalúyŭ, and of Voitúrūnēē, the river to be crossed after death, is taken from the Muhabharůtě:-After Brúmha had created the three worlds, viz. heaven, earth, and patulū, he recollected that a place for judgment, and for the punishment of the wicked, was wanting. He therefore called Vishwủkůrma, the architect of the gods, and gave him orders to prepare a very superb palace. Opposite the south door Vishwŭkúrma made four píts for the punishment of the wicked. Three other doors were reserved for the entrance of the good, that they might not see the place of punishment when they went to be judged. Brúmha, taking with him the gũndhŭrvės, the giants, &c. went to see the place, and gave it the name of Sūnjēē-vủnēē. The gúndhŭrvės asked Brúmha to give them this beautiful palace. Brúmha asked them if they were willing to inflict the punishments on the wicked : to which they replied in the negative. The giants were next about to seize the place by force; to prevent which Brúmha ordered Vishwŭkurma to form a vast trench around, and to fill it with water, which became the river Voitărănea. Brůmha next ordered Ognee to enter the river, and the waters became hot. Having thus surrounded the hall of judgment with a river of boiling water, the creator ordered, that after death each one should be obliged to swim across. This, however, subjected the good to punishment: to prevent which it was ordained, that the offering of a black cow to a bramhŭn should cool the river, and render the person's passage easy. It was still necessary, that some

I do not find that the Hindoos have any ferryman, like Charon, or boat to cross this river; though they talk of crossing it by laying hold of

one should occupy this place, and judge the dead; and Brúmha assigned this work to Yūmů.

The Ramayúnŭ contains the following story about Yŭmů:—Soon after Gunga came down to the earth, Yumŭ was very angry with the gods, as she left him nothing to do in his office of judge; all the people, however sinful, through her power ascending to heaven. His officers, in a rage, were about to give up their places, and leave him. On applying to Indrŭ, he advised him not to place his messengers in any situation where the wind, passing over Gũnga, blew; for that all persons touched even by the wind of this sacred river had all their sins removed, and would go to heaven!

Many other stories are to be found in the pooranŭs, some of them supposed to be related by persons who have been at Yŭmalŭyú: the two following are of this description.-In a certain village lived two persons of the same name; one of whom had lived out his whole time, the other had many years to live. Chitră-gooptă, examining his register, sent Yumu's messengers to fetch the person whose appointed time was expired: the messengers went, but brought the wrong person. On re-examining his records, Chitrŭ-gooptŭ found out the mistake, and directed the officers to hasten back with the soul before the relations had burnt the body. While at Yŭmalŭyŭ, this person looked all around, and saw, in one place, the punishments

the tail of the black cow which they offered in order to obtain a safe passage. It is very common in Bengal for a herdsman to cross a river by taking hold of a cow's tail.

· Whatever the Hindoos may think of Gũnga's taking away their sins, it is acknowledged by all, that the inhabitants who live on the banks of the Ganges are the most corrupt and profligate of all the Hindoos.

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inflicted on the wicked: Yămŭ's officers were chastising some, by casting them into pits of ordure; others, by throwing them into the arms of a red hot image of a woman"; others, by making their bellies immensely large, and their mouths as small as the eye of a needle; others, by feeding them with red hot balls; others, by throwing them into pits filled with devouring worms and insects, or with fire. In other places he saw those who had practised severe mortifications living in a state of the greatest magnificence; and women who had been burnt on the funeral pile, sitting with their husbands, enjoying the greatest delights. As he was coming away, he saw preparations making for the reception of some one in the highest style of grandeur, and asked the messengers who was to enjoy this. The messen. gers replied that it was for one of his neighbours, a very holy man, whose appointed time was nearly expired; and who, in fact, died soon afterwards.

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A story very similar to this is often related of a person named Bŭlúramů, of the voidyŭ cast, who lived some years ago at Choopēē, near Núdēēya. This man, to all appearance, died ; and was lying by the side of the Ganges, while his relations were collecting the wood and other materials to burn the body. Before the fire was lighted, however, the body began to move, and in a little while the dead man arose, and told his friends of his having been carried by mistake to Yumalúyŭ, where he saw terrific sights of the punishments of the wicked. This man lived fifteen years after this journey to Yumŭ's palace.

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* This instrument is used for the punishment of adulterers. Whex Ravůnů was carrying off Sēēta by force, she reminded him, that for this crime he would have to go into the burning arms of this image after death.

The following story was invented, no doubt, in order to check excessive sorrow for deceased relations. A rich bramhŭn had only one son, who grew up to manhood, and was loved almost to distraction by his parents. This son, however, died in his youth, and his wife was burnt with him on the funeral pile. The father and mother were so overwhelmed with distress, that for years they refused all com. fort. During this time an old servant, who had served the bramhŭn many years, and had eaten of his foody, died, and, for his merit, was made one of Yumŭ's officers,

This man was going one day to fetch the soul of some one from the village where he had once lived, and saw his former master weeping by the side of the road for the loss of his son. Assuming his old form, he raised up his master, and endeayoured to comfort him, but in vain. He then told him, that he was become one of Yúmů's officers, on account of the merit he had obtained by serving him (the brainhủn), and eating of his food; and that now, to remove his sorrow, he would take him and shew him his son, The old man got on his back, and the officer immediately carried him to the residence of Yumŭ, and shewed him his son and daugh, ter-in-law in the greatest happiness, surrounded with every delight, playing at chess. But the son, having lost all affection for his parent, would not even look at him, ihough exhorted to it by his wife. He replied, that in numerous transmigrations it was very likely that this old man might

* The Hindoos in general carry their attachment to children, especi. ally to sons, to the greatest excess. They are amazed at the supposed want of affection in Europeans, who leave their parents in order to traverse foreign countries; some of them without the hope of ever seeing them again.

y It is a very meritorious action for a shoodrů to eat the leavings of a bramhŭn. Hence a shõõdrů will serve a bramhún for rather less wages than another person,

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