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rů, an ŭsoorů. Gŭnga-dhŭrů, he who caught the goddess Gunga in his hair". Vrishů-dwůjů, he whose standard is a bulli. Shōōlēē, he who wields the trident. St'hanoo, the everlasting. Shŭrvů, he who is every thing. lord of the hills, he who dwells on the hills.


The following account of the heaven of Shivŭ is translated from the work called Krityŭ-tŭtwů. This heaven, which is situated on mount Koilasů, and called Shivŭpoorů, is ornamented with many kinds of gems and precious things, as pearls, coral, gold, silver, &c.-Here reside gods, danŭvůs ', găndhŭrvůs ", upsŭrus", siddhús, charůnus, brùmhurshees, dévůrshees', and mŭhurshees; also other sages, as Sŭnatănă, Sunůtkoomarů, Sănŭndů, Ügůstyŭ, Ungira, Poolŭstyů, Poolŭhů, Chitrů, Angirůsů, Goutůmů, Bhrigoo, Půrashŭrů, Bhŭrůdwajŭ, Mrikůndů, Markůndéyů, Shoonushéphů, Üshtavŭkrů, Dhoumyů, Valmēēkee, Vůshisht❜hů, Doorvasa, &c. These persons constantly perform the worship of Shivŭ and Doorga, and the upsŭrus are continually employed in singing, dancing, and other festivities.-The flowers of every season are always in bloom here: among which are, the yōōthēēt, jatēē", mŭllika*, malŭtēē, dorů3, tugurů, kůrůvēērů, kůlharů, kůrnikarů, késhůrů,

h In Gunga's descent from heaven, Shivů caught her in the bunch of hair tied at the back of his head.

Shivu's conduct, on the day of his marriage with Parvŭtēē, puts us in mind of Priapus. The Indian god rode through Kamŭ-rõõpŭ on a bull, naked, with the bride on his knee.

* Here Shivů appears with Neptune's sceptre, though I cannot find that he resembles the watery god in any thing else.

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A particular kind of giants. "The heavenly choiristers, " Dancers Gods who act as servants to some of the other gods. Great sages. 'Jasminuni

and courtezans.

Sacred sages. auriculatum.

z Unknown.

Divine sages. "J. grandiflorum.

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* J. zambae.

Tabernæmontana coronaria,

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Y Gætnera racemosa.

b Nerium odorum.

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poonnagů, drona, găndhŭrajů, shéphalika, chůmpůků, bhōōmee-chŭmpŭků1, nagu-késhŭrů, moochŭkoondŭ', kanchŭnům, pioolee", jhintēē, nēēlŭ-jhintēē”, rŭktů-jhintēē, kŭdŭmbŭ', růjŭnēēgŭndhů, tŭrku', tŭroolŭta", parijatu*, &c. &c. Cool, odoriferous, and gentle winds always blow on these flowers, and diffuse their fragrance all over the mountain. The shade produced by the parijatŭ tree is very cooling. This mountain also produces the following trees and fruits: shala, talu, tumalůa, hintalů, kŭrjōōrů, amrŭa, jùmvēērŭo, goovakŭ1, pŭnůsů, shrēēphůlŭ”, draksha1, ingoodēē, vůtů1, ŭshwŭt'hŭTM, kŭpitt'hŭ", &c. A variety of birds are constantly singing here, and repeating the names of Doorga and Shivů, viz. the kakŭo, shooků, paravŭtů, tittiree', chatuku3, chasŭ', bhasŭ", kõkilů, sarasŭ3, datyōōhů, chŭkrůvakŭa, &c. &c. The waters of the heavenly Ganges (Mundakinēē) glide along in purling streams. The six seasons are uninterruptedly enjoyed on this mountain, viz. vŭsŭntu (spring), grēēshmů (summer), vărsha (rainy), shŭrŭt (sultry), shishiră (dewy), and shēētů (cold). On a golden throne, adorned with jewels, sit Shivă and Doorga, engaged in conversation.

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Phoenix sylvestris.
Borassus flabelliformis.

The citron or lime tree.


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f Areca catechu. • Artocarpus integrifolia.

Egle marmelos. The grape vine. k Unknown.

Ficus religiosa. The pigeon.


Ficus Indica. • The crow. P The parrot.

Feronia elephantium.

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The partridge.

The sparrow.

Coracias Indica.

y The Siberian crane.

• The

"Unknown. * The Indian cuckow gallinule. . Anas casarca.

The Shree-bhagŭvută contains another description of the heaven of Shivu:-Sixteen thousand miles from the earth, on mount Koilasů, resides this god, in a palace of gold, adorned with jewels of all kinds. This palace is surrounded with forests, gardens, canals, trees laden with all kinds of fruit, flowers of every fragrance. The kŭlpů tree also grows here, from which a person may obtain every kind of food and all other things he may desire. In the centre of a roodrakshů" forest, under a tree, Shivů frequently sits with his wife Parvutee. The fragrance of the parijatŭ flowers extends 200 miles in all directions; and all the seasons are here enjoyed at the same time. The winds blow softly, filled with the most refreshing odours. At the extremities of this heaven southwards and northwards Shivů has fixed two gates, one of which is kept by Nundee, the other by Mŭha-kalŭ. A number of gods and other celestial beings constantly reside here, among whom are Kartikéyŭ and Gunéshů, the sons of Shivă; also the female servants of Doorga, Juya, and Vijŭyar, eight nayikas, and sixty-four yoginēēs, with bhōōtus, pishachus, Shivů's bull, and those disciples of Shivů (shaktŭs) who have obtained beatitude. The time is spent here in the festivities and abominations of the other heavens.




Sonini, during his travels in Greece and Turkey, made a journey into ancient Macedonia, and paid a visit to mount Olympus, the abode of the gods. It was the middle of July when this excursion was made, and although the heat was extreme towards the base of the mountain, as well as in the plain, vast masses of snow rendered the summit inaccessible. "It is not astonishing," says Sonini, "that the Greeks have placed the abode of the gods on an eminence which mortals cannot reach." The monks of the convent," who have succeeded them in this great elevation,” confirmed what has been sometimes disputed, the perpetual permanence of ice and snow on the top of the mountain. With the exception of chamois and a few bears, there are hardly any quadrupeds to be seen beyond the half of the height of Olympus. Birds also scarcely pass this limit.

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As has been already mentioned, Brumha, Vishnoo, and Shivă derived their existence from the one Brůmhů. The Hindoo pundits do not admit these to be creatures, but contend that they are emanations from, or parts of, the one Brůmhů.

Brumha first produced the waters, then the earth; next, from his own mind, he caused a number of sages and four females to be born: among the sages was Kushyŭpů, the father of the gods, giants, and men. From Uditee were

born the gods; from Ditee the giants; from Kŭdroo the hydras; and from Vinŭta, Guroorů and Uroonů. After creating these sages, who were of course bramhůns, Brumha caused a kshůtriyů to spring from his arms, a voishyŭ from his thighs, and a shōōdrů from his feet. In this order, according to the pooranus, the whole creation arose. The Hindoo shastrus, however, contain a variety of different accounts on the subject of creation. I have thought it necessary to give this brief statement, as it seems connected with the history of this god.

Brumha is represented as a man with four faces, of a gold colour; dressed in white garments; riding on a goose. In one hand he holds a stick, and in the other a kůmŭndŭloo, or alms' dish. He is called the grandfather (pitamuhů) of gods and mens. He is not much regarded in the reigning superstition; nor does any one adopt him as his guardian deity.

'Jupiter was called the father and king of gods and men. VOL. I.


The bramhuns, in their morning and evening worship, repeat an incantation, containing a description of the image of Brumha; at noon they perform an act of worship in honour of this god, presenting to him sometimes a single flower: at the time of a burnt offering clarified butter is presented to Brůmha. In the month Maghŭ, at the full moon, an earthen image of this god is worshipped, with that of Shivă on his right hand, and that of Vishnoo on his left. This festival lasts only one day, and the three gods are, the next day, thrown into the river. This worship is accompanied with songs, dances, music, &c. as at all other festivals; but the worship of Brumha is most frequently celebrated by a number of young men of the baser sort, who defray the expences by a subscription. Bloody sacrifices are never offered to Brùmha.

Brůmha, notwithstanding the venerable name of grandfather, seems to be as lewd as any of the gods. At the time that intoxicating spirits were first made, all the gods, giants, gundhŭrvůs, yŭkshŭs, kinnŭrus, &c. were accustomed to drink spirits, and no blame was then attached to drunkenness but one day Brŭmha, in a state of intoxication, made an attempt on the virtue of his own daughter, by which he incurred the wrath of the gods. Some time afterwards, Brumha boasted in company, that he was as great a god as Shivů. Hearing what Brumha had been saying, the latter, inflamed with anger, was about to cut off one of Brumha's heads, but was prevented by the intercessions of the assembled gods. Brůmha complained to Doorga, who appeased him by saying, that Shivă did not attempt to cut off his head because he aspired to be greater than he, but because he (Brůmha) had been guilty of a great crime in endeavouring to seduce his daughter. Brumha was satisfied with this answer, but pronounced a curse on what

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