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service, reads the whole of the Chủndēē, a poem relating to the wars of Doorga. On the 13th of Phalgoonŭ, the milkmen paint the horns and hoofs of their cattle yellow, and bathe them in the river. Persons strict in their religion worship the cow daily: after bathing, they throw flowers at her feet, and feed her with fresh grass, saying, 'Q Bhúgúvŭtee ! eat;' and then walk round her three or seven times, making obeisance.

If you speak among Hindoos of eating the flesh of cows, they immediately raise their hands to their ears: yet milkmen, carmen, and farmers, beat the cow as unmercifully as a carrier of coals beats his ass in England; and many starve them to death in the cold weather, rather than be at the expense of giving them food. Thus is the cow at once a beast of burden and a goddess. Some of the poor think themselves happy if they can support a cow, as by serving this aifimal they expect reward in a future state. If a man

the shastrŭs threaten him with the torments of hell during as many thousand years as there are hairs on her body. If any one neglect to burn cow-dung, &c. in the cow-house, whereby smoke is raised, and the musquitoes prevented from hurting the cows, he will descend into the hell of musquitoes and gad-flies. The gift of a cow to a bramhŭn is an act of great merit.

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The dung of the cow is gathered and dried as fuel amongst the Hindoos. Some cows are of more value for their dung than for their milk; for the Bengal cow gives very little milk indeed, compared with the European cow.

• In the year 1812, a bramhắn was convicted before the magistrate of Serampore, of stealing from a relative a cow in calf, and offering this goddess for sale to a butcher.

SECT. II.-The Monkey.

The black-faced monkey, Húnooman', the son of the god Půvůně, by Onjúna, a female monkey', is believed to be an incarnation of Shivă.

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The Hindoos worship Húnooman on their birth-day to obtain long life, which they suppose this monkey can bestow, as he is immortal. In some temples his image is set up alone, and in others with that of Ramŭ and Séēta, and worshipped daily. The worship of Ramŭ is always preceded by a few ceremonies in honour of Húnooman.

Stone images of Húnooman are kept in the houses of some of his disciples, and worshipped daily. The worshipper of this animal is promised every gratification he can desire.

Many Hindoos receive the initiating incantation by which this monkey becomes their guardian deity. The mark which these disciples make on their foreheads is the same as that made by the followers of Shivă.

About twenty years ago, Eeshwŭrŭ-chủndrũ, the raja of Núdēěya, spent 100,000 roopees in marrying two monkeys, when all the parade common at Hindoo marriages was exhibited. In the marriage procession were seen elephants, camels, horses richly caparisoned, palanqueens, lamps, and flambeaus; the male monkey was fastened in a fine palanqueen, having a crown upon his head, with men standing by his side to fan him; then followed singing and dancing girls in carriages; every kind of Hindoo music; a grand display of fireworks, &c. Dancing, music, singing, and every degree of low mirth, were exhibited at the bridegroom's palace for twelve days together. At the time of the marriage ceremony, learned bramhŭns were employed in reading the formulas from the shastrús !

b Húnooman broke his cheek-bone by a fall from the sun's orbit; and his name is derived from húnoo, the cheek bone.

• There is nothing too filthy for idolatry : here the god of the winds pays his addresses to a monkey, as Jupiter is said to have done to a


d At this time none of these monkeys were to be seen about Nůdēēya; now they are so nụmerous that they devour almost all the fruit of the orchards; as the inhabitants are afraid of hurting them.

Amongst men of sense the performance of the ceremonies of worship before the image of this monkey is attended with a degree of disgrace. I have heard of a quarrel between two bramhŭns, one of whom was paid by a rich Hindoo to repeat the ceremonies of Hindoo worship before the image of Húnooman, daily, at his house: amidst the quarrel the other said, “Thou refuse of bramhŭns! thou gainest a subsistence by worshipping a monkey.'

Stories of this god. When Hŭnooman first saw the rising sun, thinking it a ripe fruit, he leaped up to the residence of the god of day, and seized his chariot : Indrŭ fearing Húnooman would swallow the glorious luminary, with his thunderbolt smote him to the earth, where he lay lifeless, His distracted mother applied to his father Púvónů, who, enraged at the loss of his son, retired into an inaccessible chasm, and bound up the wind, till both men and gods began to perish. Brúmha, Vishnoo, Shivă, and other gods now petitioned Půvůnŭ ; but he refused them the privilege of breathing, unless they would make Hŭnooman immortal. Brúmha then bestowed on Húnooman the water of life, and

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Půvủnŭ restored to men and gods the vital air.-When ten years old, Húnooman was possessed of immense strength. He brought a stone, from a mountain, sixteen or twenty miles in circumference, and threw it into a pool of water where a number of sages were at worship. This raised the water, so that the sages, who had closed their eyes in the act of meditation, began to sink. After a few struggles they regained the land, and again sat down with closed eyes to their work. Húnooman next took out the stone, and the waters retired ; and when the sages put out their hands to take up water for worship, they were again disappointed. Opening their eyes, they saw the water had sunk exceedingly; and following it, again closed their eyes, and sat down. Hủnooman again flung in the stone, and the sages began to sink. He continued to repeat these frolics, till the sages, discovering the culprit, took away his strength. The sagacious monkey now began to flatter the sages; brought them fruits, &c. from the forest, and performed, with agility, every act of menial service. After three years they blessed him, and assured him that, when he should see Ramŭ upon mount Rishyümööků, he should obtain twice his former strength.-On a certain occasion Hŭnooman was resolved to put the strength of Bhēēmŭ to trial, as he was reputed to be so tremendous a giant: and lengthening his tail, he threw it across the path. As the Hindoos never stride across a person's body, or even his shadow, Bhēēmŭ requested Hŭnooman to take up his tail: but he complained he was grown old and could not. At last Bhēēmů stooped to lift it out of his way; he tried at the end, and then at the middle, but found, giant as he was, he could not lift up this monkey's tạil. Overcome with astonishment, he began to praise Hủnooman, and at length prevailed on him to promise that he would help the Pandŭvės in their expected war with Dooryodhủně.

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SECT. III.- The Dog

Carries Kalú-Bhoirůvă, a form of Shivă, and therefore receives the worship of the Hindoos whenever his master is worshipped I have heard also that there are many Hindoos in the west of Hindoost'hanŭ, who pay their devotions to the dog, and become his disciples. Though the dog is thus placed amongst the objects of worship, he is mentioned in the Múhabharůtě as an unclean animal : every offering which he approaches is rendered unacceptable to the gods, and every one who touches him must purify himself by bathing.

SECT. IV. - The Shackal.

The Túntrús mention an incarnation of Doorga in the form of the shackal, when she carried the child Krishnů over the Yŭmoona, in his flight from king Kủngsů. - All the' worshippers of the female deities adore the shackal as a form of this goddess, especially the 'vamacharēēs, who present offerings to him daily. Every worshipper lays "the offerings on a clean place in his house, and calls the god to come and partake of them. As this is done at the hour when the shackals leave their lurking places, one of these animals sometimes comes and eats the food in the

presence of the worshipper: this will not appear wonderful when it is considered, that the same animal finds food placed for him in this place every day. In temples dedicated to Doorga and other deities, a stone image of the shackal is

• The dog, it will be remembered, was consecrated to Mars.

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