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impure from the death of a kinsman, &c. one who is impure from the death of muha gooroo, (father and mother,) which impurity lasts for one whole year-these severally are unfit subjects for immolation, even though rendered pure by sacred texts. Let not a bramhun or a chŭndalŭ be sacrificed; nor a prince, nor that which has been already presented to a bramhŭn, or a deity; nor the offspring of a prince; nor one who has conquered in battle; nor the offspring of a bramhŭn, or of a kshůtriyů; nor a childless brother; nor a father; nor a learned person; nor one who is unwilling; nor the maternal uncle of the sacrificer. The day previous to a human sacrifice, let the victim be prepared by the text manŭshtůkŭ and three dévēē gŭndhů shŭktŭs, and the texts wadrůngů, and by touching his head with the axe, and besmearing the axe with sandal, &c. perfumes, and then taking some of the sandal, &c. from off the axe, and besmearing the victim's neck therewith. If the severed head of a human victim smile, it indicates increase of prosperity and long life to the sacrificer, without doubt; and if it speak, whatever it says will come to pass.'

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This work further lays down directions for a person's drawing blood from himself, and offering it to the goddess, repeating the following incantation: Hail! supreme delusion! Hail! goddess of the universe! Hail! thou who fulfillest the desires of all. May I presume to offer thee the blood of my body; and wilt thou deign to accept it, and be propitious towards me.'

A person's cutting off his own flesh, and presenting it to the goddess as a burnt-sacrifice, is another method of pleasing this infernal deity: Grant me, O goddess! bliss, in proportion to the fervency with which I present thee with my own flesh, invoking thee to be propitious to me.

Salutation to thee again and again, under the mysterious syllables ung, ung.'

A person's burning his body, by applying the burning wick of a lamp to it, is also very acceptable to Kalēē, &c. On this occasion this incantation is used: 'Hail! goddess! Salutation to thee, under the syllables ung, ung. To thee I present this auspicious luminary, fed with the flesh of my body, enlightening all around, and exposing to light also the inward recesses of my soulk.'

It is observed in this work, that the head or the blood of an animal, in its simple state, forms a proper offering to a goddess, but that flesh must be presented as a burnt-offering. Other Tuntrŭs observe, that the eating of the flesh of men, cows, and swine, and drinking spirits, after these things have been offered to an idol, must be done in secret; or the person will commit a great crime, and sink into poverty. I am credibly informed, that very many bramhuns in Bengal eat cow's flesh, and, after they have been offered to an idol, drink spirits, though none of them will publicly acknowledge it.

Thieves frequently pay their devotions to Kalee, and to all the goddesses to whom bloody sacrifices are offered, under the hope of carrying on their villainous designs with security and success'. A gang of ten persons, perhaps, agree to plunder a house; who meet together in a dark

See Mr. Blaquiere's translation of the Sanguinary Chapter, Asiatic Researches, vol. v.—— -The author hopes Mr. Blaquiere will excuse the liberty he has taken of altering his spelling of Sungskritŭ words, as he has done it merely to preserve uniformity throughout the work.

One of Jupiter's names, it is well known, was Prædator, because plunder was offered to him.


night, under a tree where an image of Siddéshwŭree is placed; and bring to the spot spirituous liquors, fish, and other offerings. One of the company, a bramhun, goes through the ceremonies of worship: at the close of which a bloody sacrifice is offered, and the instrument worshipped which is to cut through the wall of the house; at which time the following incantation from the Choru-punchashika is read: O! Sindhŭkatee! (the name of the instrument) formed by the goddess Vishaēē! Kalēē commanded thee to cut a passage into the house, to cut through stones, bones, bricks, wood, the earth, and mountains, and, through the blessing of Ŭnadyam, to make a way by cutting the earth from the house of the Malinee to that of Vidya", and that the soil brought out should be carried away by the wind. Haree-jhee and Chamunda have given

in A name of Kalēē, which means, without beginning.


Soondurů, the son of Goonu-sindhoo, raja of Kanchee-poorů, was overcome by the charms of Vidya, the daughter of Veērů-singhů, the raja of Burdwan. For the purposes of courtship he concealed himself at the house of a flower-seller (Malinëë) near the palace of Vēērů-singhů, and began to pay his devotions to the goddess Kalēē; who gave him this incantation, and the instrument Sindhŭkatee, that he might cut his way to his fair one. One night, however, Soondără was caught in the palace, and seized as a thief. As he was led from prison to the place of execution, he composed fifty verses in praise of the raja's daughter, which verses have since received the name of Chorů-půnchashika. The Hindoos add, that when they were about to execute Soondérů, the cords by which he was hound miraculously burst asunder, and the executioners fell senseless to the ground; in consequence, the execution was postponed, and the next night Kalēē appeared to Veeru-singhň in a dream, and directed him to marry his daughter to Soondŭrů; who was not a thief, but the son of the raja of Kanchee-poorů, a very proper person to become his son-in-law. The marriage was soon after celebrated in the most splendid manner.

• The Hindoos say, that a female of the Haree cast was once honoured with an interview by the goddess Kamakshya, who delivered to her a variety of incantations, now used by the lowest casts for the most ridiculous, as well as brutal and wicked purposes.

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this blessing, and Kamakshya (Kalēē) has given the command.' After the reading of this incantation, the thieve sit down to eat and drink the things that have been offered; and when nearly intoxicated, they gird their garments firmly round their loins, rub their bodies well with oil, daub their eyes with lamp-black, and repeat an incantation to enable them to see in the dark; and thus proceed to the spot: when they cut a hole through the wall, plunder the house, and sometimes murder the inhabitants.

Some time ago, two Hindoos were executed at Calcutta for robbery. Before they entered upon their work of plunder, they worshipped Kalee, and offered prayers before her image, that they might be protected by the goddess in the act of thieving. It so happened, that the goddess left these disciples in the lurch; they were detected, cried, and sentenced to be hanged. While under sentence of death, a native Catholic, in the same place and circumstances, was visited by a Roman Catholic priest to prepare him for death. These Hindoos now reflected, that as Kalee had not protected them, notwithstanding they had paid their devotions to her, there could be no hope that she would save them after death; they might as well, therefore, renounce their cast: which resolution they communicated to their fellowprisoner, who procured for them a prayer from the Catholic priest, translated into the Bengalee language. I saw a copy of this prayer in the hands of the native Catholic who gave me this account. These men at last, out of pure revenge upon Kalēē, died in the faith of the Virgin Mary: and the Catholics, after the execution, made a grand funeral for them; as these persons, they said, embraced the Catholic faith, and renounced their cast, from conviction.

Agum-vagēēshŭ, a learned Hindoo, about five hundred

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years ago, formed the image of Kalee according to the preceding description, and worshipped it monthly, choosing for this purpose the darkest nights in the month; he made and set up the image, worshipped it, and destroyed it, on the same night. At present the greater number of the worshippers of Kalee hold a festival to her honour on the last night of the decrease of the moon in the month Kartikŭ, and call it the Shyama festival.

A few persons celebrate the worship of Kalēē at the full moon in Kartiků; the ceremonies of which are performed before a picture of this goddess, drawn on a stiff mat of reeds seven or eight feet long. This festival lasts three days, and on the fourth the picture is thrown into the river.

Some also worship Kalee for one night on the 14th of the decrease of the moon, in the month Maghŭ; and a few rich men do so monthly, on the last night of the moon: while others worship this goddess in the month Jyoishť’hŭ, when it is called the Phůlů-hŭree festival, on account of the many mangoes, jak fruits, &c. offered to her.

A few years ago, I went to the house of Kaleē-shŭnkŭrůghoshu, at Calcutta, at the time of the Shyama festival, to see the animals sacrificed to Kalee. The buildings where the worship was performed were raised on four sides, with an area in the middle. The image was placed at the north end, with the face to the south; and the two side rooms, and one of the end rooms opposite the image, were filled with spectators: in the area were the animals devoted to sacrifice, and also the executioner, with Kalee-shůnkŭrů,

℗ A name of Kalēē, meaning black.

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