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advantage, it would have appeared sufficient to republish merely the edition in two voL umes, without any farther improvement. The Messrs. Harper, however, thought differs cntly on the subject. They wished a Classical Dictionary iu as complete and useful a form as it could possibly be made; and, with this view, notwithstanding the large amount which had been expended on tho purchase of the-work, ihs stereotype plates were dc. stroyed, though btill perfectly serviceable, and tho editor was employed to prepare a work, which, while it should er.ibriica all that was valuable in the additions that had from time to time been made by him, was to retain but a very small portion of the old matter of Lempriere, and to supply its plaee with newly-prepared articles. This has now, accord, ingiy, been done. A new work 'n the result; not an improved edition of the old one, but a work on which the patient labour of more than two entire years has been faithfully ex. pended, and which, though comprised in a single volume, will be found to contain much mere than even the edition of Lempriere in two volumes, as published by the Messrs. Carvill. Whatever was worth preserving among the additions previously made by the editor, he has here retained; but, in general, even these are so altered and improved as, in many instances, to be difficult of recognition; while, on the other hand, all the old articles of Lempriere, excepting a few, have been superseded by new ones.

Such is a brief history of the present work. It remains now to give a general idea of the manner in which it has been executed. The principal heads embraced in the volume are, as tho titlo indicates, the Geography, History, Biography, Mythology, and Fine Arts of the Greeks and Romans. The subject of Archaeology is only incidentally noticed, as it is the intention of the author to edit, with all convenient speed, a Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, which will contain an abstract of all the valuable matter connected with these subjects that is to be be found in the writings of the most eminent German philologists. Only a few, therefore, of the more important topics that have a bearing on Archaeology, are introduced into the present volume, such as the Greek Theatre, and theatrical exhibitions in general, the national games of Greece, the dictatorship and agrarian laws of the Romans, and some other points of a similar kind.

If the author wer^ asked on what particular subject, among the many that are discussed in the present volume, the greatest amount of ear6 had been expended, he would feel strongly inclined to say, that of Ancient Geography. Not that the others have been by any means slighted, and tho principal degree of labour concentrated under this head. Far from it. But. the fact is, that in a work like the present, the articles which relate to Ancient Geography are by far the most numerous, and, in some respects, the most important, and require a large portion of assiduous care. In what relates, therefore, to the Geography of former days, the author thinks he can say, without the least imputation of vanitv, that in no work in the English language will there be found a larger body of valuable information on this most interesting subject, than in that which is here offered to the American student. In connexion with the geography of past ages, various theories, moreover, are given respecting tho origin and migration of different communities, and some of the more striking legends of antiquity are referred to concerning the changes which the earth's surface has from time to time undergone. Some idea of tho nature of these topics may be formed by consulting the following articles: ^■Egyptus, Atlantis, Gallia, Gracia, Lectonia, Meditcrraneum Mare, Meroe, Ogi/grg, Pelasgi, and Phcnicia. Nor is this all. Books of Travels have been made to contribute their stores of information, am the student is thus transported in fancy to the scenes of ancient storv, and wanders, as it were, amid the most striking memorials of the past.

The historical department bas also been a subject of careful attention. Here, again, the origin of nations forms a very attractive field of inquiry, and the student is put in possession of the ablest and most recent speculations of both German and English scholarship. The Argonautic expedition, for example, the legend of the Trojan war, events dimly shadowed forth in the distant horizon of " gray antiquity;" the origin of Rome, the early movements of the Doric and Ionic races among the Greeks; or, what may prove still more interesting to some, the origin of civilization in India and the remote East; all these topics will be found discussed under their respective heads, and will, it is hoped, teach the young student that history is something more than a mere record of dates, or a chronicle of wars and crimes.

Particular attention has also been paid to the department of Biography. This subject will be found divided into several heads: biographical sketches, namely, of public men, of individuals eminent in literature, of scientific characters, of physicians, of philosophers, PREFACE.

erary biographies, in particular, will, it is conceived, be found both attractive and useful to the student, since we have no work at present in the English language in which a full view is given of Grecian and Roman literature. The sketches of ancient mathematicians, and of other individuals eminent for their attainments in science, will not be found without interest even in our own day. Nor will the medical man depart altogether unrewarded from a perusal of those biographies which treat of persons distinguished of old in the healing art. In the accounts, moreover, that are given of the philosophers and philosophic systems of antiquity, although half-learned sciolists have passed upon these topics so sweeping a sentence of condemnation, much curious information may nevertheless be obtained, and much food for speculation, too, on what the mind can effect by its own unaided powers in relation to'subjects that are of the utmost importance to us all. The ecclesiastical biographies will also be found numerous, and, it is hoped, not uninteresting. None of them fall properly, it is true, within the sphere of a Classical Dictionary, yet they could not well have been omitted, since many of the matters discussed in them have reference more immediately to classical times.

The subject of Mythology has supplied, next to that of Ancient Geography, the largest number of articles to the present work. In the treatment of these, it has been the chief aim of the author to lay before the student the most important speculations of the two great schools (the Mystic and anti-Mystic) which now divide the learned of Europe. At the head of the former stands Creuzer, whose elaborate work (Symbolik und Mythologie der alien Volker) has reappeared under so attractive a form through the taste and learning of Guigniaut. The champion of the anti-Mystio school appears to be Lobeck, although many eminent names are also marshalled on the same side. It has been the aim of the author to give a fair and impartial view of both systems, although he cannot doubt but that the former will appear to the Btudent by far the more attractive one of the two. In the discussion of mythological topics, very valuable materials have been obtained from the excellent work of Keightley, who deserves the praise of having first laid open to the English reader the stores of German erudition in the department of Mythology. The author will, he trusts, be pardoned for having intruded some theories of his own on several topics of a mythological character, more particularly under the articles Amasoncs, Asx, lo, Odinus, and Orpheus. It is a difficult matter, in so attractive a field of inquiry as this, to resist the temptation of inflicting one's own crude speculations upon the patience of the reader. In preparing the mythological articles, the greatest care has been also taken to exclude from them everything offensive, either in language or detail, and to present such a view of the several topics connected with this department of inquiry as may satisfy the most scrupulous, and make the present work a safe guide, in a moral point of view, to the young of either sex.

The department of the Fine Arts forms an entirely new feature in the present work. The biographies of Artists have been prepared with great care, and criticisms upon their known productions have been given from the most approved authorities, both ancient and modern. The information contained under this head will, it is conceived, prove not unacceptable either to the modern artist or the general reader.i

In a work like the present, the materials for which have been drawn from so many sources, it would be a difficult task to specify, within the limits of an ordinary preface, the different quarters to which obligations are due. The author has preferred, therefore, appending to the volume a formal catalogue of authorities, at the risk of being thought vain in so doing. A few works, however, to which he has been particularly indebted, deserve to be also mentioned here. These are the volumes of Cramer on Ancient Geography; the historical researches of Thirlwall; and the work of Keightley already referred to. From the Encyclopaedia also, published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, numerous excellent articles have been obtained, which contribute in no small degree to the value of the present publication. In every instance care has been taken to give at the end of each article the main authority from which the materials have been drawn, a plan generally pursued in works of a similar nature, and which -was followed by the author in all the editions of Lempriere prepared by him for the press. A fairer mode of proceeding cannot well be imagined. And yet complaint has been made in a certain quarter, that the articles taken from the Encyclopaedia just mentioned are not duly credited to that work, and that the title of the work itself has been studiously changed. Of the fallacy of the first charge, any one can satisfy himself by referring to the pages of the present volume where those articles appear; while, with regard to the

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of Useful Knowledge" for the more vulgar one of " Penny Cyclopaedia," he always conceived that he was doing a service to that very publication itself. At all events, tho change of title, if it were indeed such, appears to have been a very proper one, since it met with the tacit approbation of certain so-called critics, who would never have allowed this opportunity of gratifying personal animosity to have passed unheeded, had they conceived it capable of furnishing any ground of attack.

The account of Coins, "Weights, and Measures, which accompanied the edition of Lempriere in two volumes, has been appended to the. present work in a more condensed and convenient form. It is from the pen of Abraham B. Conger, Esq., formerly one of the Mathematical instructors in Columbia College, but at present a member of the New-Tf ork bar. The very great clearness and ability which characterize this essay have been fully acknowledged by its republication abroad in the Edinburgh edition of Potter's Grecian Antiquities, and it will be found far superior to the labours of Arbuthnot, as given in the Dictionary of Lempriere.

Before concluding, the author must express his grateful obligations to his friend, Francis Adams, Esq., of Banchory Ternan, near Aberdeen (Scotland), for the valuable contributions furnished by him under the articles Aetius, Alexander of Tralles, Aretceus, Celsus, Dioscorides, Galenus, Hippocrates, Nicander, Oribasius, Paulus jEgineta, and many other medical biographies scattered throughout the present work. Mr. Adams is well known abroad as the learned author of " Hermes Philologicus," and the English translator of "Paul of jEgina." Whatever comes from his pen, therefore, carries with it the double recommendation of professional talent and sound and accurate scholarship.

With regard to the typographical execution of the present volume, the author need say but little. The whole speaks for itself, and for the unsparing liberality of the publishers. In point of accuracy, the author is sure that no work of its size has ever surpassed it; and for this accuracy he is mainly indebted to the unremitting care of his talented young friend, Mr. Henry Drisler, a graduate of Columbia College, and one of the Instructors in the College-school, of whose valuable services he has had occasion to speak in the preface to a previous work.

Columbia College, August 1, 1842.

In preparing the present edition for the press, the greatest care has been taken to correct any typographical errors that may hitherto have escaped notice, and to introduce such other alterations as the additional reading of the author, and new materials, furnished by works of a similar nature, have enabled him to make. In furtherance of this view, he has appended a Supplement to the present volume, containing all that appeared to him important in the first number of the new Classical Dictionary, now in a course of publication from the London press, as well as in the numbers, which have thus far appeared, of Pauly's " Real-Encyclopadie der Classischen Alterthumswissenschaft," which constitutes, in fact, the principal source of supply from which the authors of the new Classical Dictionary have drawn their materials. The articles contained in the Supplement will be found referred to in the body of the work under their respective heads, thus enabling the reader to ascertain, at a glance, what additions have been actually mads.

Columbia College, March 1, 1843.





Xbulfeds Descriptio ^Bfypti, Arabiee ct Latine, ed. Mi

charlis. Gotting., 1776. 8vo. Aeierman, Numismatic Manual, Lond., 1840, 8vo. Adagia Vcterum, Antv., 1629, fol.

Adelon, Physiologiede l'Homme. 3 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1829. Adrlune, Glossanum mediae et infima; Latinitatis, 6

rols. ~8vo. Halas, 1772-S4. . Mithridates, oder allgemcine Sprachcnkunde,

4 vols. 8vo, Berlin, 1806-17. Adriehomius, Theatram Terras Sancta?, Col. Agripp ,

1628. fol.

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London. 1828. , Discoveries in Asia Minor, Lond., 183-1,2 vols.


Asiatic Researches, 5 vols. 4to, London. 1799.
Ajt. Grundnss der Philologie, Svo. Landshut, 1808.

. Platon's Leben und Schriften, 8vo, Lips., 1816.

Attisches Museum, 7 vols. 8vo, Zurich (Neucs Att.

Mus.. 3 vols ). Anrehus, De Cognominibus Deomm, 12mo, Franq., 1696.


Bahr. Geschichte der Romischcn Litcratur, 2 vols. 8vo,

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, Lettres sur l'Onginc des Sciences, 8vo, Paris,

Batb*. Atlas Ethnographique du Globe, fol., Paris, 1826.

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Balduinus de Calcco Antiquo. 12mo, Lips., 1733. Banjcr, Mvthology of the Ancients, 4 vols. 8vo, London, 1739

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Paris. 1810.

Ba.l-.v Historical and Critical Dictionary (Eng. trans ),

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London. 1740. Beck. Allgemeines Repertorium. Svo, 15 vols., 1828-33. Beckroann, History of Inventions and Discoveries, 4

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Beloc. Anecdotes of Literature, 6 vols. 8vo, Lond., 1814. Bentley, Dissertation on the Epistles of Phalaris, jee,

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, Life of, by Monk, 4to, London. 1830.

Berlier, Precis Historique de l'ancienne Gaul, 8vo, Brux

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Berwick, Life of Scipio Africanus, 12mo, London, 1817. Bibliotheca Critica, 3 vols. 8vo, Amstelod., 1779-1808. . Bibliothcca Critica Nova, 5 vols. 8vo, Lugd. Bat., 182530.

Bilhon, Du Gouvemement des Romaines, 8vo, Paris, 1807.

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Biographic Universelle, Ancienne ct Moderne, 52 vois8vo, 1811-28.

BischofT und Moller, Worterbuch der Geographic, 8vo, Gotha, 1829.

Blair, Enquiry into the State of Slavery among the Ro mans, 12mo, Edinburgh, 1833.

Blondell, Des Sibylles, 6tc, 4to, CTiarenton, 1649.

Blum, Einleitung, in Rom's alte Geschichte, 12mo, Berlin, 1828.

Biume, Iter Italicum, 12mo, 2 vols., Berlin, 1824. Bobrik, Geographie des Herodot, 8vo, Konigsberg, 1838,

nebst einem Atlassc von zchn Karten, fol. Bochart, Opera Omnia, fol., 2 vols., Lugd. Bat., 1692. Bockh, Corpus lnscriptionum Gracarum, fol., Bcrol.,


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Berlin, 1817.

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3 vols. 8vo. Leipzig, 1838-9. , QuasstioncsdcantiquissimacarminumOrphicorurn

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Brcslan, 1828. , , Andeutungen, &c, uber Arenasologie,

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,W., Geschichte der Carthager,8vo, Berlin, 1827.

Bohlen, Das alte Indien, mit liesondcrer Rucksicht auf

jEgypten, 8vo. 2 vols., Konigsb.. 1830. Bondelmonti, Insula; Archipclagi, ed. De Sinner, Svo,

Lips., 1824.

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Bredow, Handbuch der alten Geschichte, 8vo, Altona. 1816.

Brouerius, Dc Adorationibus, Amstelod., 1713. Brurker, Historia Critica Philosophies, 4to, 6 vols., Lips.. 1767.

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Bryant, New System of Mythology, 6 vols. 8vo, London, 1807.

Bucke, Ruins of Ancient Cities. 2 vols 18tno,Lond., 18-10. Buckingham's Travels in Assyria, Media, and Persia,

8vo, 2 vols., London, 1830. Budseus. De Assc. Venet. ap. Allium, 1522. Buflbn, Histoire Naturelle, 18mo, 70 vols., Paris. Bulengcr, De Conviviis, Lugduni, 1627. Bulwer's Athens, &c. 2 vols 12mo, New York, 1837. Bunsen, De jure hereditario Alheniensium, 4lo, Got

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8vo, London, 1831. Burney, History of Music, 4to, 4 vols. Lond., 1770-89. Burnouff, Essai sur le Pali, 8vo, Paris, 182G. Buttmann. Mythologus, 8vo, 2 vols., Berlin. 1828.

Calmct, Dictionary of the Bible, 4to, 5 vols., Charlestown, 1812.

Cambden, Britannia, 4to, London, 1000.

Cardwell, Lectures on Coins, 8vo, Oxford, 1832.

Carion-Nisas, Histoire de l'Art Militaire, 8vo, 2 vols., Paris, 1824.

Carli, Lettres Américaines, 8vo, 2 vols., Paris, 1788. Cams, ldeen zur Geschichte der Menscheit, 8vo, Leipz., 1809.

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Age, 8vo, Bayeux, 1827. Clarke, E. D., Travels, 8vo, 11 vols., London, 1810-24 ( Ith edition).

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Liverpool, 1802.
Classical Journal, 8vo, 40 vols., London, 1810-29.

Manual, 8vo, London, 1827.

Clinton, Fasti Hellcnici. 4to, 2 vols., Oxford, 1827-30. Cluvenus, Introductio in Universain Geographiam, 8vo,

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Coleridge, introduction to the Study of the Greek Classic Poets, 12mo, pt. 1, Philad., 1831.

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Paris, 1829.

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Cramer, J. A., Description of Ancient Greece, 8vo, 3 vols. Oxford, 1828.

, Description of Ancient Italy, 8vo, 2 vols., Oxford, 1826.

-, Description of Asia Minor, 2 vols. 8vo, Oxford,

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Crevier, Histoire des Empereurs Romains, 8vo, 6 vols.i Pans. 1818.

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Antiquité Géographique de l'Inde, 8vo, Pans,


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Davies. Celtic Researches, 8vo, London, 1804.

Dean, j. B., On the Worship of the Serpent, 8vo, London, 1830.

De Ballu, Histoire Antique de l'Eloquence chez les

Grecques, 2 vols, 8vo, Paris. 1813. De Chazcllc, Etudes sur l'histoire des Arts, 8vo, Paris,


Dcgcrando, Histoire comparée des Systèmes de Philosophie, 4 vols. 8vo, Pans, 1823.

De la Bergerie, Histoire de l'Agriculture Ancienne des Grecs, 2 vols. 8vo, Pari», 1830.

Delia Vallé, Voyages dans la Turquie, Sic, 7 vols. 8vo. Rouen, 1745.

Delambre, Histoire de l'Astronomie Ancienne, 2 vols.

4to, Paris, 1817. Demosthenes als Staatsmann und Redner, von A. A

Becker, 8vo, Halle und Leipz., 1815. De Maries, Histoire générale dc l'Inde, 8vo, 6 vols.,

Paris, 1828.

De Pauw, Recherches Philosophiques, 7 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1795.

Dirham, Physico-Thcology, 12mo. 2 vols., Lond., 1749.

Descrizione di Rornu Anlica, 12mo, Rom., 1097.

Dcuber, Geschichte der SchitTahrt im Atlantischen Ocean, 12ino, Bamberg, 1814.

D'Hancarville, Antiquités Etrusques, Grecques et Romaines, 4to, 5 vols., Paris, 1787.

Dibdin, Introduction to the Greek and Latin Classics, 8vo, 2 vols.. 1827, 4th edition.

Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle, 17 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1822-31.

Historique des Cultes Religieux, 8vo, 4

vols., Versailles, 1820. Diderot, Essai sur les règnes de Claude et de Néron, ou

Vie de Seneque le Philosophe, 8vo, 2 vols., Paris, 1823. Dillon, Viscount, the Tactics ni'.Elian, containing the

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8vo, London. 1829. Drummond, Origines, 8vo. 2 vols., London, 1826. Dubois, Description of the Character, Manners, and

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vols. Phllad., 1818. Diicaunoy, Institutes de Justinien, 4 vols. 8vo, Paris,


Du Choul, Discours de la Religion des Anciens Romains, 8vo, Lyon, 1580.

Dulaure. Histoire des Cultes. 2 vols. 8vo, Paris. 1825.

Dumbeck, Gcographia pagorum, German. Cis Rhénan., 8vo. Bcrol.. 1818.

Dunbar, Inquiry into the Structure and Affinity of the Greek and Latin Languages, 8vo, Edinburgh, 1827.

Dunlop. History of Roman Literature, 8vo, 3 vols., London, 1823-28.

Dupuis, Origine de tous les Cultes, 7 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1822.

Durcau de la Malle. Géographie Physique de la Mer Noire, &c, 8vo. Paris, 1807.

. Recherches sur la topographie de Carthage,

8vo, Paris, 1835.

Dutcns, Origine des découvertes attribuées aux modernes, 3me edit., à Londres, 1796, 4to.


Ebn-Haukal, Oriental Geography, translated by Sir W.

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