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terror in her wild dilated eyes, idealises and embellishes his figures the terror of a hunted animal almost beyond recognition. Perwhich sees the huntsmen closing haps it needed a Hungarian to do in upon it from every side; then, thorough justice to this subject, without a word of explanation or for the Hungarian is the only thanks, she abruptly turned round man who is to some extent united the horse's head, and, lashing it to by sympathetic bonds to the Tziits utmost speed, disappeared in gane ; and he alone had succeeded the opposite direction.
in identifying himself with the Several very worthy friends have gipsy mind, and comprehending since declared my behaviour on all the strange contradictions of this occasion to have been most this living paradox. reprehensible and incorrect ; I had I cannot therefore do better sided with the malefactor, and pro- than quote (in somewhate free transbably defeated the ends of justice lation) some passages frome ,the by screening the culprit from de- work in question, which, far better served punishment; I had outraged than any words of mine, will sketch virtue and protected vice. No the portrait of the Hungarian doubt they are right; and it must Tzigane :be owing to some vital defect in my moral constitution that I have “ There appeared one day amongst never succeeded in feeling the the European nations an unknown slightest remorse for what I had tribe, a strange people of whom no done. On the contrary, it was
one was able to say who they were,
nor whence they had come. They with a feeling of particular satis- spread themselves out over our Confaction that I thought that even- tinent, manifesting, however, neither ing of the three ruffian gendarmes desire of conquest, nor ambition to waiting in vain for the return of acquire the right of a fixed domicile ; the guilty Flinka. I wonder how not attempting to lay claim to so long they waited, and how many suffering themselves to bedeprived of
much as an inch of land, but not pipes they smoked, and to how
a single hour of their time. Not carmany oaths they gave vent, when ing to command, they neither chose they perceived that their victim to obey ; they had nothing to give of was not going to walk into the their own, and were satisfied with trap after all !
accepting nothing. They never spoke of their native land, and gave no clue
as to from which Asiatic or African Among the many writers who
plains they had wandered, nor what have made of the gipsy race their troubles or persecutions had necesspecial study, none has, to my sitated their expatriation. Strangers thinking, succeeded so perfectly in alike to memory as to hope, they describing their inward life as the kept aloof from the benefits of colon. late Abbé Liszt, in his valuable isation, and too proud of their melan. work on Gipsy Music, has done, other nations, they lived on, satisfied
choly race to suffer admixture with Other authors have analysed and with the rejection of every foreign described them with scientific ac- element. Deriving no advantage curacy, but their opinions are from the Christian civilisation around mostly tinged by prejudice or them, they regarded with alike antienthusiam ; for while Grellnann pathy every other form of religion. approaches the subject with evi
" This singular race, so strange as dent repugnance, like a naturalist neither country, history, cultus, nor
to resemble other, possessing dissecting some nauseous reptile
any sort of codex, seems only to conin the interest of science, Borrow tinue to exist because it does not
choose to cease existing, and will only his life when, for hours together, his exist such as it has always been. eyes follow the geometrical figures Instruction, authority, persuasion, described in the sky overhead by the and persecution have alike been strategical movements of a flight of powerless to reform, modity, or ex- rooks ; when he gauges his cunning terminate it. Broken up into wan- against the wary bustard, or overdering tribes and hordes, roving comes the silvery trout in a trial of hither and thither as chance or fancy lightning-like agility. He loves his directs, without means of communi. life when, shaking the wild crabcation, and mostly ignoring each apple tree, he causes a hailstorm of other's existence, they nevertheless ruddy fruit to come pouring down betray their common relationship by upon him ; when he picks the under. unmistakable signs : the self-same ripe berries from off a thorny branch, type of feature, the same language, leaving the sandy ground flecked with the same habits and customs.
drops of gory red; when bending over • With a senseless or sublime con- a murmuring spring, whose grateful tempt for whatever binds or hampers, coolness refreshes his parched throat the Tziganes ask nothing from the as its gurgling music delights his ear; earth but life. They preserve their when he hears the woodpecker tapindividuality by constant intercourse ping a hollow stem,or can distinguish with nature, as well as by their ab- the faint sound of a distant mill-wheel. solute indifference towards all men He loves his life when, gazing on the not belonging to their race,with whom grey green depths of some lonely they only commune so far as requisite mountain lake. its surface spell. for obtaining the common necessities bound in the dawning presentiment of daily life.
of approaching winter-he lets his “ Like the Jews, they have natural vagrant fancy float hither and thither taste and ability for fraud ; but un- unchecked ; when reclining high up like these, it is without systematic on the branch of some lofty foresthatred or malice. Hatred and revenge tree, hammock-like he is rocked to are only personal and accidental feels and fro, while each leaf around him ings, never premeditated ones. Harm- seems quivering with ecstacy at the less when their immediate wants are song of the nightingale. He loves his satisfied, they are incapable of any life when, out of the myriads of everpreconceived and unanimous inten- dancing stars, in the illimitable space tions of injuring ; they only wish to overhead, he chooses one to be his preserve the liberty of the wild horse, own particular sweetheart; when he not comprehending how any one can loses his heart to-day to a gorgeous prefer a roof, be it ever so fine, to the lilac-bush of overwhelming perfume, shelter of the forest canopy.
to-morrow to a slender hawthorn or "Authority, laws, rules, principles, graceful eglantine, to be as quickly duties, and obligations, are alike in- forgotten at sight of a brilliant peacomprehensible ideas of this singular cock-feather with which he adorns race ; partly from indolence of spirit, his cap as with a victorious warpartly from indifference to the evil trophy; when he sits by the smoulconsequences resulting from their ir- dering camp-fire under ancient oaks regular mode of living.
or massive elms; when in the night“ Such as it is only, the Tzigane time he hears the call of the stag,and loves his life, and would exchange it the lowing of the respondent doe-the for no other. He loves his life when, soft drowsy cooing of doves; when he slumbering in a copse of young birch- has no other society than the birds trees, he fancies himself surrounded and beasts of the forest,, with whom by a group of slender maidens, their he forms friendships and enmities, long hanging hair bestrewed with caressing or tormenting them ; de. shining sapphire stones, and to whose priving them of liberty or setting swaying bodies the wind imparts them free, like a wanton child despoilgraceful and coquettish gestures, as ing his parents' riches without knowthough each of them were trembling ledge of their value, but knowing and thrilling under the kiss of an these riches to be too great to be invisible lover. The Tzigane loves ever exhausted.
" What he calls life is to inhale the has tasted of them can measure their breath of nature with each pore of power aright. his body; to surfeit his eye with all “ He must needs have slumbered her forms and colours ; with his ears often under the canopy of the starry greedily to absorb all her sounds and heaven; often have been awakened harmonies.
by the darts of the rising sun shooting “Life for him is to multiply the like fiery arrows between his eyelids; possession of all these things by the have felt without horror the glossy kaleidoscopic and phantasmagorical serpent coil itself caressingly around effects of alcohol, then to sing and a naked limb; must have spent fuil play, shout, laugh, and dance till many a long summer day reclining utter exhaustion !
immovable on the sward, overlapped “Having neither Bible nor Gospel by billowy waves of flowery grasses to go by, the gipsies do not see the which have never known the mower's necessity of fatiguing their brain with scythes gazing into the blue depths of the contemplation of abstract ideas; the sky above. He must have listened and only following their instincts, often to the rich orchestral effects their intelligence grows rusty. Con- and tempestuous melodies which the scious of their harmlessness. they bask hurricane loves to draw from vibratin the rays of the sun, content in the ing pine-stems. He must be able to satisfaction of a few primitive and recognise each tree by its perfume, be elementary passions, the sans-géne of initiated into all the varied languages their soul fettered by no conven- of the feathered tribes, of merry fintional virtues.
ches and of chattering grasshoppers. “What strength of indolence, what Full often must he have ridden at utter want of all social instinct, must close of day over the barren wold, these people possess, in order to live when the rays of the setting sun cast as they have done for centuries, like a golden veil over the atmosphere, that strange plant, native of the and all around appears to be plunged sandy desert, so aptly termed the in a bath of living fire ; he must have wind's bride, which devoid of root by watched the red-hot moon rise out of nature, and blown about from side to the sable night over lonely plains side by every breeze, bears neverthe- whence all living beings seem to have less its flowers and fruit wherever it died away. He must have led a life goes, and continues to put forth shoots like the Tzigane in order to compreunder the most unlikely conditions ! hend that it is impossible to exist
“And whenever the gipsies have without the balmy perfumes exhaled endeavoured to bring themselves to a by the forests; that one cannot find settled mode of life, and to adopt rest within stone prisons; that a breast household habits, have they not in- accustomed to draw full draughts of variably sooner or later returned to the purest ether feels weighted down their hard couch on the cold ground, and crushed beneath a sheltering roof; to their miserable rags, to their rough that the eye which has daily looked comrades and the brown beauty of on the rising sun breaking out through their women, to the sombre shades pearly clouds must weep, forsooth, of the virgin forests, to the murmur when met on all sides by dull opaque of unknown fountains, to their glow- walls; that the ear hungers when ing camp-fires and their improvised deprived of the broad modulations of concerts under a starlit sky, to their those exquisite harmonies of which intoxicating dances in the lighting of the evening breeze alone has the a forest glade, to the merry knavery secret. of their thievish pranks—in one word, " What have our cities to offer in to the hundred and one excitements exchange to senses surfeited with such they cannot do without ?
ever-varying effects and emotions ? "Nature, when once indulged in What in such eyes can ever equal the to the extent of becoming a neces- bloody drama of a dying sun ? What sity, grows tyrannical like any other can rival in voluptuous sweetness the passion, and the charms of such an rosy halo of the early dawn? What existence can neither be explained other voice can surpass in majesty the nor coldly analysed : he only who thunder-roll of a midsummer storm,
to which the woodland echoes respond ing bellows seem to him like a like the voice of a mighty chorus ? companionable monster ; the equal What more exquisite elegy can there cadence of the hammer against the be than the autumn wind stripping anvil falls in with the melodies the foliage from a blighted forest? What power can equal the frigid floating in his brain; the myriads majesty of the cruel frost, like an of Aying sparks, in which he loves implacable tyrant bidding the sap of to discern all sorts of fantastic trees and flowers to stand still, and figures, fill him with delight; horses rendering silent the voices of singing and oxen coming to be shod, and birds and babbling streams ? To those the varied incidents to which these accustomed to quaff of this bottomless tankard, must not all other pleasures operations give rise, are a neverby comparison appear empty and un
tiring source of amusement and meaning ?
interest. “ Indifferent to the minute and Instinctively clever at some sorts complicated passions by which edu- of work, the Tzigane will be found cated mankind is swayed, callous to to be as curiously awkward and the panting, gasping effects of such incapable with others. Thus the microscopic and super-cultured vice as vanity, envy, ambition, avarice, and gipsy is always handy in throwintrigue, the Tzigane only compre
ing up earthworks, which he seems hends the simplest requirements of a
to do as naturally as a mole or primitive nature. Music, dancing, rabbit digs its burrow; but as a drinking, love, diversified by a childish carpenter or mason he is absoand humorous delight in petty thiev- lutely useless, and though an apt ing and cheating, constitute the whole reaper with a sickle, he is incaprépertoire of his passions beyond able of wielding the scythe. whose limited horizon he is incapable of seeing or comprehending aught."
All brickmaking in Hungary
and Transylvania is in the hands Only the necessity of obtaining of the Tziganes, and formerly they a piece of bread to still his hunger, were charged with gold-washing in of providing himself with a rag to the Transylvanian rivers, in return cover his nakedness, obliges the for which they were exempted Tzigane occasionally to turn his from military service. They are hand to labour of some kind. also Aayers, brush - makers, ratMost sorts of work are distasteful catchers, basket - makers, tinkers, to him by nature, more especially and occasionally dentists; and in all work of a calm monotonous the sixteenth century the execucharacter. For that reason the tioners in Transylvania were al. idyllic quiet of a shepherd's exist- ways gipsies. ence, which the Roumanian So
When obliged to work under dearly loves, could never satisfy supervision, the Tzigane groans the gipsy, to whom the sweating and moans most pitifully, as though toils of the agriculturist are equally he were enduring the most acute unpalatable. He requires some tortures, and a single gipsy locked occupation which gives scope to up in jail will howl so despairingthe imagination, and amuses the ly as to deprive a whole village fancy, as well as keeping his hands of sleep. employed-conditions he finds un- The only animals whose training ited in the trade of a blacksmith, he cares to undertake are the which he oftenest plies on the horse and bear. For the first he banks of a stream or river, outside entertains a respectful veneration ; the village where he has been while the second he regards as an driven by necessity. The snort- amusing bajazzo whose antics de
He teaches a young fluous qualities as wisdom or goodbear to dance by placing it on a ness having little to do with the sheet of heated iron, playing the matter while on his fiddle a strongly ac- ! This leader, who is sometimes centuated piece of dance music. called the Captain, sometimes Gako The bear, lifting up its legs alter- or uncle, governs his band, connately to escape the heat, involun- firms marriages or divorces, dictarily observes the time marked tates punishments, and decides by the violin. Later on the heated disputes; and as the gipsies are iron is suppressed, when the animal a very quarrelsome race, the chief has learnt its lesson ; and when- of a large band has got his hands ever the gipsy begins to play on pretty well full. He has likewise the fiddle, the young bear lifts its the power to excommunicate a legs in regular time to the music. member of the band, as well as to
The gipsies in Transylvania reinstate him in honour and confiused to be under the nominal con- dence by letting him drink out of trol of a nobleman bearing the his own tankard. title of a Gipsy Count, chosen by Certain taxes are paid to the the reigning prince; as also in Gako; also he is entitled to certain Hungary the Palatine had the percentages on booty and theft. right of naming four gipsies Woy. In return, it is his duty to defend wods.
and protect his people to the best To this Gipsy Count were bound of his ability, whenever their irregto submit the chieftains of the ularities have brought them withdifferent hordes or bands, and these in reach of the law. were elected by the votes of the Whether besides these chieftains separate communities. To this of the separate hordes or bands, day still, every wandering troop there yet exists in Hungary and has its own self-elected leader or Transylvania a chief judge or judge, although these have no monarch of the Tziganes, cannot longer any recognised position in be positively asserted; but many the eyes of the law.
people aver such to be the case, The election usually takes place and designate alternately Mikolcz in the open field, often on the occa- and Schemnitz as seats of his resision of some public fair or large dence. In his hand are said to be annual market, and the successful deposited large sums of money for candidate is thrice raised in the secret purposes, and he alone has air on the shoulders of the people, the right to condemn to death, and presented with gifts, and invested with his own hands to put his senwith a silver-headed staff as badge tence into execution. of his dignity. Also his wife or No Tzigane durst ever accept partner receives similar honours, the position of a gendarme or and the festivities conclude with policeman, for fear of being obliged heavy drinking.
to punish his own people ; and only Strictly speaking, only such very rarely is it allowed for one gipsies are supposed to be eligible of them to become a gamekeeper as are descended from a Woywod; or woodranger. but in point of fact, the people The relations between the sexes oftenest choose whoever happens are mostly free, and unrestrained to be best dressed on the occasion, by any comprehension of morality. especially if he be of fine stature, Often the unions amongst gipsies and not too young-such super- take place without any attendant