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reason that neither shall he have tenance in this primitive way, and wherewithal to eat. All this is as remember considering the condition plain as any pikestaff; but whether of a Highland proprietor on a little it will convince any Irishman that estate, where he grew his own mutthis and not Home Rule is the ton, grouse, and trout, gooseberries panacea for his country, or per- and honey, as one of almost perfect suade a troubled Government to bliss. To be sure, the laird bought set up model farms, model fish- a good many things in addition eries, model dairies, in order to and sold some, and his table was teach that “ bould pisantry, its more varied than that of the pocountry's pride,” how to do its own tato-grower. We had fancied also work, is a different matter, and that the potato was modified, in cne less easy to decide.

all but the poorest cases, with ocHere is Mr Dennis's description casional stirabout; and perhaps of the foundation of evil, the first Mr. Dennis's estimate of the kindly cause of Irish wretchedness :- root is a somewhat stern one. But “Why is the potato so much grown

when he comes to subjects better and consumed in Ireland? It is be- within our understanding,—to the cause potato-growing and potato-eat- crop which is left to rot because ing form the simplest process by "Irish farmers have not yet learned which the Irish tenant can keep the simple art of compressing hay body and soul together. He turns for carriage by rail” —nay, more, up his land, plants it

, waits four or refuse to learn it; and the butter, five months, and then digs the crop. The product of these operations is his which loses its market and is susustenance. It has not, like cattle, perseded on all sides because it or wheat, or any of the higher pro- is badly made, badly packed, products of farming, to be turned into duced from cows uncared for by money before it can be made available workers careless and untrained, for his own use. The complex trans- the repetition of the endless story actions by which producers and consumers in a civilised society provide begins to work upon the mind with for the wants of others and secure the a sickening effect. Fish swarming satisfaction of their own, do not enter at the very doors, but no boats to into the economics of the Irish peas- take them, no nets—the women ant. He sticks his potato into the with their handy fingers so easily ground, and in due time he gathers trained to lace and other dainty the harvest. Feeling hungry, he

work, unable to weave these first goes to his store, deals himself out

necessities of the natural trade, potatoes enough for a meal, claps them into a pot, cats them, and is an almost incredible folly; flax, content. The substitution of oats for for which Irish fields are specially the potato would place him one degree adapted, a most profitable crop, higher in the scale of agricultural pro- abandoned for the trouble it gives, gress by processes which need not be so that it has to be imported for described. We should then get the the use of the happily still existIrish tenant past the stage at which a man lives from hand to mouth on

ing loom, the only persistent trade the free yield of nature, into the stage that keeps its hold of Ireland, at which agriculture becomes an in- thanks to the energy of the North; dustey, providing him by exchange or the recurrence of these fatuities sale not only with mere sustenance, and failures, the constantly rebut with comforts of which he has peated tale of waste and loss, hitherto had no experience.”

the work dropping from nerveless We have always ourselves had a hands, will at last begin to tell upon great fancy for the idea of self-sus- the nerves of the calmest reader. characteristic as are the finer uni- that is necessary to make her versal qualities of the race.

" the source of employment and It is not to this tragic particu- comfort to her own people," he larity, however, but to other char- says. Mr Dennis does not even acteristics equally real, and almost tell us that she is over-popuequally serious, that our atten- lated. He says of the Irish that tion is called by the book before they are “a starving people in a

Mr Dennis's little work is land of plenty." "A country," of the calmest, both in subject he tells us, “capable of producing and treatment. It has nothing in abundance every necessary of to do with politics. It does not life for a population as dense as even inquire into that fertile ques- that of Belgium, fails in point of tion whether English misgovern- fact to support a population less ment is the occasion of all Irish dense by 280 persons per square ills. It takes the Irish ills as ex- mile.” It is not, then, even overistent, not the criminal part of population that does it—not too them, but the economic and prac- many mouths to feed, not an imtical, and suggests the remedy- possible problem such as we have a remedy not far to seek, having been made to believe could only nothing to do with rivalries of be solved by emigration. But perrace, or conflicts for ascendancy. haps emigration itself, with all its His very plain statement is that difficulties, would be an easy cure Irish industry is dying, as Irish in comparison with the simple comfort has died, if it ever in- remedy which Mr Dennis proposes, deed existed, not from political which is in so many words that causes, but from the extraordi- the Irish nation, that much-disnary carelessness and indifference cussed, much-described, little-unof the Irish nation. The indict- derstood entity, should get up like ment is very broad and general, a man and work out its own salvaand it is not of an agreeable char- tion by honest act and deed, by acter. Lynch - law might easily, no new expedients but the use of we should think, lay hold of the means which lie ready at his hand; man who thus ventures to charge by simple care and pains, and a a quarrelsome race with neglect fair day's work, and the sweat of of its best interests and a delib- its brow. This is a very tremendous erate throwing away of all its ad- prescription—it is almost as hard vantages. Mr Dennis does not do as that which Bishop Berkeley, a this, however, with any heat or sanguine Irishman, proposed to indignation. He pours forth no his people in his day—which was lamentations nor even very much only to be good and honest and blame. It is rather to the world, true, no more. Mr Dennis does and the bystanders who look on not trouble himself about the goodat the lamentable spectacle of a ness of the people he discusses. It whole country sinking into idle- is as a practical man of business ness and want, that he states the that he regards them and their case with the seriousness which ways. He speaks the language of it demands, than as making any proverbs, but without their terseassault upon the culprits them- ness. He says, in other words, selves. Ireland hss everyzhing a Waste not, want not; he says, If country wants for prosperity-all a man will not work, it stands to

us.?

1 Industrial Ireland. By Robert Dennis. London : John Murray.

a

reason that neither shall he have tenance in this primitive way, and wherewithal to eat. All this is as remember considering the condition plain as any pikestaff; but whether of a Highland proprietor on a little it will convince any Irishman that estate, where he grew his own mutthis and not Home Rule is the ton, grouse, and trout, gooseberries panacea for his country, or per- and honey, as one of almost perfect suade a troubled Government to bliss. To be sure, the laird bought set up model farms, model fish- a good many things in addition

a eries, model dairies, in order to and sold some, and his table was teach that “bould pisantry, its more varied than that of the pocountry's pride,” how to do its own tato-grower. We had fancied also work, is a different matter, and that the potato was modified, in cne less easy to decide.

all but the poorest cases, with ocHere is Mr Dennis's description casional stirabout; and perhaps of the foundation of evil, the first Mr. Dennis's estimate of the kindly cause of Irish wretchedness :- root is a somewhat stern one. But “Why is the potato so much grown

when he comes to subjects better and consumed in Ireland ? It is be- within our understanding,—to the cause potato-growing and potato-eat- crop which is left to rot because ing form the simplest process by “: Irish farmers have not yet learned which the Irish tenant can keep the simple art of compressing hay body and soul together. He turns for carriage by rail”—nay, more, up his land, plants it, waits four or refuse to learn it; and the butter, five months, and then digs the crop. The product of these operations is his which loses its market and is susustenance. It has not, like cattle, perseded on all sides because it or wheat, or any of the higher pro- is badly made, badly packed, products of farming, to be turned into duced from cows uncared for by money before it can be made available workers careless and untrained, for his own use. The complex trans- the repetition of the endless story actions by which producers and consumers in a civilised society provide

begins to work upon the mind with

Fish swarming for the wants of others and secure the a sickening effect. satisfaction of their own, do not enter at the very doors, but no boats to into the economics of the Irish peas- take them, no nets—the women ant.

He sticks his potato into the with their handy fingers so easily ground, and in due time he gathers trained to lace and other dainty the harvest. Feeling hungry, he goes to his store, deals himself out necessities of the natural trade,

work, unable to weave these first potatoes enough for a meal, claps them into a pot, cats them, and is

an almost incredible folly; flax, content. The substitution of oats for for which Irish fields are specially the potato would place him one degree adapted, a most profitable crop, higher in the scale of agricultural pro- abandoned for the trouble it gives, gress by processes which need not be

so that it has to be imported for described. We should then get the the use of the happily still existIrish tenant past the stage at which a man lives from hand to mouth on

ing loom, the only persistent trade the free yield of nature, into the stage

that keeps its hold of Ireland, at which agriculture becomes an in- thanks to the energy of the North ; dustey, providing him by exchange or the recurrence of these fatuities sale not only with mere sustenance, and failures, the constantly rebut with comforts of which he has peated tale of waste and loss, hitherto had no experience.”

the work dropping from nerveless We have always ourselves had a hands, will at last begin to tell upon great fancy for the idea of self-sus- the nerves of the calmest reader.

us. I

characteristic as are the finer uni- that is necessary to make her versal qualities of the race.

“the source of employment and It is not to this tragic particu- comfort to her own people," he larity, however, but to other char- says.

Mr Dennis does not even acteristics equally real, and almost tell us that she is

over-popuequally serious, that our atten- lated. He says of the Irish that tion is called by the book before they are “a starving people in a

Mr Dennis's little work is land of plenty.A country," of the calmest, both in subject he tells us, “capable of producing and treatment. It has nothing in abundance every necessary of to do with politics. It does not life for a population as dense as even inquire into that fertile ques- that of Belgium, fails in point of tion whether English misgovern- fact to support a population less ment is the occasion of all Irish dense by 280 persons per square ills. It takes the Irish ills as ex- mile.” It is not, then, even overistent, not the criminal part of population that does it—not too them, but the economic and prac- many mouths to feed, not an imtical, and suggests the remedy- possible problem such as we have a reniedy not far to seek, having been made to believe could only nothing to do with rivalries of be solved by emigration. But perrace, or conflicts for ascendancy. haps emigration itself, with all its His very plain statement is that difficulties, would be an easy cure Irish industry is dying, as Irish in comparison with the simple comfort has died, if it ever in- remedy which Mr Dennis proposes, deed existed, not from political which is in so many words that causes, but from the extraordi- the Irish nation, that much-disnary carelessness and indifference cussed, much-described, little-unof the Irish nation. The indict- derstood entity, should get up like ment is very broad and general, a man and work out its own salvaand it is not of an agreeable char- tion by honest act and deed, by acter. Lynch - law might easily, no new expedients but the use of we should think, lay hold of the means which lie ready at his hand; man who thus ventures to charge by simple care and pains, and a a quarrelsome race with neglect fair day's work, and the sweat of of its best interests and a delib- its brow. This is a very tremendous erate throwing away of all its ad- prescription—it is almost as hard vantages. Mr Dennis does not do as that which Bishop Berkeley, a this, however, with any heat or sanguine Irishman, proposed to indignation. He pours forth no his people in his day—which was lamentations nor even very much only to be good and honest and blame. It is rather to the world, true, no more. Mr Dennis does and the bystanders who look on not trouble himself about the goodat the lamentable spectacle of a ness of the people he discusses. It whole country sinking into idle- is as a practical man of business ness and want, that he states the that he regards them and their case with the seriousness which ways. He speaks the language of it demands, than as making any proverbs, but without their terseassault upon the culprits them- ness. He says, in other words, selves. Ireland hss every?hing a Waste not, want not; he says, If country wants for prosperity-all a man will not work, it stands to

i Industrial Ireland. By Robert Dennis.

London : John Murray.

:

reason that neither shall he have tenance in this primitive way, and wherewithal to eat. All this is as remember considering the condition plain as any pikestaff; but whether of a Highland proprietor on a little it will convince any Irishman that estate, where he grew his own mutthis and not Home Rule is the ton, grouse, and trout, gooseberries panacea for his country, or per- and honey, as one of almost perfect suade a

troubled Government to bliss. To be sure, the laird bought set up model farms, model fish- a good many things in addition eries, model dairies, in order to and sold some, and his table was teach that “bould pisantry, its more varied than that of the pocountry's pride,” how to do its own tato-grower. We had fancied also work, is a different matter, and that the potato was modified, in cne less easy to decide.

all but the poorest cases, with ocHere is Mr Dennis's description casional stirabout; and perhaps of the foundation of evil, the first Mr. Dennis's estimate of the kindly cause of Irish wretchedness :- root is a somewhat stern one. But “Why is the potato so much

when he comes to subjects better

grown and consumed in Ireland ? It is be- within our understanding,—to the cause potato-growing and potato-eat- crop which is left to rot because ing form the simplest process by "Irish farmers have not yet learned which the Irish tenant" can keep the simple art of compressing hay body and soul together. He turns for carriage by rail”-nay, more, up his land, plants it, waits four or refuse to learn it; and the butter, five months, and then digs the crop. The product of these operations is his which loses its market and is susustenance. It has not, like cattle, perseded on all sides because it or wheat, or any of the higher pro- is badly made, badly packed, products of farming, to be turned into duced from cows uncared for by money before it can be made available workers careless and untrained, for his own use. The complex trans- the repetition of the endless story actions by which producers and consumers in a civilised society provide begins to work upon the mind with for the wants of others and secure the a sickening effect.

Fish swarming satisfaction of their own, do not enter at the very doors, but no boats to into the economics of the Irish peas- take them, no nets—the women ant. He sticks his potato into the with their handy fingers so easily ground, and in due time he gathers trained to lace and other dainty the harvest. Feeling hungry, he

work, unable to weave these first goes to his store, deals himself out potatoes enough for a meal, claps necessities of the natural trade, them into a pot, cats them, and is an almost incredible folly; flax, content. The substitution of oats for for which Irish fields are specially the potato would place him one degree adapted, a most profitable crop, higher in the scale of agricultural pro- abandoned for the trouble it gives, gress by processes which need not be

so that it has to be imported for described. We should then get the the use of the happily still existIrish tenant past the stage at which a man lives from hand to mouth on

ing loom, the only persistent trade the free yield of nature, into the stage that keeps its hold of Ireland, at which agriculture becomes an in- thanks to the energy of the North; dustey, providing him by exchange or the recurrence of these fatuities sale not only with mere sustenance, and failures, the constantly rebut with comforts of which he has peated tale of waste and loss, hitherto had no experience."

the work dropping from nerveless We have always ourselves had a hands, will at last begin to tell upon great fancy for the idea of self-sus- the nerves of the calmest reader.

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