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as great in other countries. But the United States during the first not only has there been a great seven months of 1886, against revival in the States, shown by 72,685 in the months of the increase in railway traffics; 1885, goes far to confirm Mr. but if we refer to the report to Strachey's report of German prosour Government of Mr. Strachey, perity. During the same period her Majesty's chargé d'affaires at 7300 more emigrants left England Dresden, on the effeet of the rais- and Scotland than in 1885. ing of the German tariff in 1879, With such facts and figures beand again in 1885, we find these fore us, it appears to be almost a words: “ Nothing indicates that waste of time to attempt an anthe burden of protection laid on swer to the theories of politicians the population is oppressive, that who, to their eternal disgrace, have, national impoverishment is in pro- for political purposes, so cruelly cess, or that saving and accumula- misled the people of this country. tion have been arrested. On the But as some of these appear still, contrary, the imperial and local notwithstanding that they revenue receipts, the estimates of found to be in conflict with the property liable to income-tax, and teachings of experience, to be resimilar State and municipal re- garded as infallible, we shall proturns, are symptomatic of fair ceed to show how fallacious and public prosperity.” In another misleading they are. The contenpart of the report, he says : If tion, no longer, we believe, held it be asked what signs there are in by political conomists, that "there Germany of that incipient free-trade never was a duty that was not reaction which some of our politi- paid by the consumer,” is perhaps cians contrive to discern on the con- the most misleading, and, from its tinent of Europe-especially in the appeal to self-interest, the most countries most wedded to protection dangerous of all. It is, in fact, the —there can be no hesitation in reply- kernel of the whole free-trade quesing that there are none. The po- tion ; for if it can be shown that the litical constellations of the empire, consumer does not always pay the the highest personal influences, the duty, by as much as he does not most powerful industrial and com- do so, the foreign producer, and not mercial forces—all are on the side he, is relieved of a duty repealell

, of the existing system. The belief and to that extent free imports beis widely diffused that the tariff re- come a tax on the British public. form of 1879 saved Germany from It mnst be carefully kept in view a great ruin, and that that empire that there are two distinct classes is now on the road to industrial of imports : 1. Those which do not greatness, perhaps to the success- come into competition with British sion of that hegemony which Great products ; 2. Those which direitBritain, it is thought, now with ly do so. At the threshold we difficulty holds in her hands. Pro- are confronted with this curious tection is in the national air, and anomaly—that free-trading Engit will not be dissipated by foreign land, at the present day, levies arguments." The fact that only from import duties more than any 46,818 emigrants left Germany for other nation in Europe.' The

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1 Why this country selects for the purpose of taxation only imports which do not come into competition with her products, is inexplicable. It cannot be because she regards these as luxuries; for she annually admits free silk manufacper head.

Per cent.

205,046

522

gross receipts from customs duties toms duties to the extent of 4s. of the chief European nations were 8d. per head of population, and in 1884:

France to the extent of 75., the

United Kingdom levies lis. 5d. United Kingdom, £20,558,611

The following table France,

13,356,000 German Empire,

10,413,000

shows the chief imports on which Russian Empire,

9,649,000 these duties were raised, their deItaly,

6,534,000 clared value, the amount and perSpain )1882),

3,975,000 centage of duty paid in the year Austria,

3,727,000

ending 31st March, 1885:While Germany only levies cusImports.

Value.

Duties paid.
Tobacco,

£2,715,806 £9,277,058 342
Tea,

10,494,953
4,795,786

45
Coffee,

3,750,413 Spirits,

2,077,209

4,313,039

208 Wines,

5,341,117 1,233,998 23 It may be conceded that, as a for diminished production means rule, the consumer pays the greater increased cost of each pound of portion of the duties on these im- tea. Some curtailment of supports; but if we bear in mind that ply, from weak growers getting insupply and demand between them volved, or from shipments being alone fix price, and therefore, un- diverted to other markets, there less a duty imposed curtail the might and probably would occur, supply, it cannot affect market and to the extent that diminution value, it is quite conceivable that in supply affected prices, the conwhen a duty is raised, and an at- sumer would pay and no more. tempt in consequence made to en- The difference between that adhance prices, consumption is at vance in price and the excess duty once checked, and the importer, imposed clearly falls on the prorather than lose his market, con- ducer. tents himself with a smaller profit, As regards the second class of without materially reducing the imports, the case is widely differquantity he had previously sent. ent, more particularly in recent Let us suppose that the duty years, when production has so on tea is raised from 45 to 55 greatly exceeded consumption, for per cent.

The Chinese and In- foreigners only send us their surdian merchants, finding their mar- plus stocks, and must sell for what gin of profit reduced 10 per cent, they can get. It has been calcuoffer less to the tea-planters for lated that the incidence of a duty the next crop; as they cannot falls in the relative proportion of hold, but must realise to meet the the consumption to the quantity next season's outlay, they have no imported. Thus, if the consumpalternative but to accept the best tion of wheat is 24 millions of price they can get. Unless, there- quarters, and we import 15 milfore, the additional duty sweeps lions, the consumer's portion of a away all their profit, they will pro- duty of 1os. a quarter is found to duce as much as they did before, be by the following formula:

as

tures to the value of 10 millions. It almost looks as it the method of levying customs duties had been specially devised for the purpose of ruining British industries -anyhow, that is the effect it is having on our silk manufactures.

66

are

as great in other countries. But the United States during the first not only has there been a great seven months of 1886, against revival in the States, shown by 72,685 in the same months of the increase in railway traffics; 1885, goes far to confirm Mr. but if we refer to the report to Strachey's report of German prosour Government of Mr. Strachey, perity. During the same period

, her Majesty's chargé d'affaires at 7300 more emigrants left England Dresden, on the effeet of the rais- and Scotland than in 1885. ing of the German tariff in 1879, With such facts and figures beand again in 1885, we find these fore us, it appears to be almost a words : Nothing indicates that waste of time to attempt an anthe burden of protection laid on swer to the theories of politicians the population is oppressive, that who, to their eternal disgrace, have, national impoverishment is in pro- for political purposes, so cruelly cess, or that saving and accumula- misled the people of this country. tion have been arrested. On the But as some of these appear still, contrary, the imperial and local notwithstanding that they revenue receipts, the estimates of found to be in conflict with the property liable to income-tax, and teachings of experience, to be resimilar State and municipal re- garded as infallible, we shall proturns, are symptomatic of fair ceed to show how fallacious and public prosperity.” In another misleading they are. The contenpart of the report, he says : If tion, no longer, we believe, held it be asked what signs there are in by political conomists, that there Germany of that incipient free-trade never was a duty that was not reaction which some of our politi- paid by the consumer," is perhaps cians contrive to discern on the con- the most misleading, and, from its tinent of Europe-especially in the appeal to self-interest, the most countries most wedded to protection dangerous of all. It is, in fact, the --there can be no hesitation in reply- kernel of the whole free-trade quesing that there are none.

The

po- tion ; for if it can be shown that the litical constellations of the empire, consumer does not always pay the the highest personal influences, the duty, by as much as he does not most powerful industrial and com- do so, the foreign producer, and not mercial forces—all are on the side he, is relieved of a duty repealeid, of the existing system. The belief and to that extent free imports beis widely diffused that the tariff re- come a tax on the British public. form of 1879 saved Germany from It mnst be carefully kept in view a great ruin, and that that empire that there are two distinct classes is now on the road to industrial of imports : 1. Those which do not greatness, perhaps to the success- come into competition with British sion of that hegemony which Great products ; 2. Those which direitBritain, it is thought, now with ly do so. At the threshold we difficulty holds in her hands. Pro- are confronted with this curious tection is in the national air, and anomaly—that free-trading Engit will not be dissipated by foreign land, at the present day, levies arguments.” The fact that only from import duties more than any 46,818 emigrants left Germany for other nation in Europe. The

1 Why this country selects for the purpose of taxation only imports which do not come into competition with her products, is inexplicable. It cannot be because she regards these as luxuries; for she annually admits free silk manufac

75.,

per head.

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Value.

Per cent.

52

gross receipts from customs duties toms duties to the extent of 4s. of the chief European nations were 8d. per head of population, and in 1884:

France to the extent of the

United Kingdom levies lis. 5d. United Kingdom, £20,558,611

The following table France,

13,356,000 German Empire,

10,413,000

shows the chief imports on which Russian Empire,

9,649,000 these duties were raised, their deItaly,

6,534,000 clared value, the amount and perSpain )1882),

3,975,000 centage of duty paid in the year Austria,

3,727,000

ending 31st March, 1885:--
While Germany only levies cus-
Imports.

Duties paid.
Tobacco,

£2,715,806
£9,277,058

342
Tea,

10,494,953
4,795,786

45
Coffee,

3,750,413

205,046 Spirits,

2,077,209

4,313,039 208 Wines,

5,341,117

1,233,998 23 It may be conceded that, as a for diminished production means rule, the consumer pays the greater increased cost of each pound of portion of the duties on these im- tea.

Some curtailment of supports; but if we bear in mind that ply, from weak growers getting insupply and demand between them volved, or from shipments being alone fix price, and therefore, un- diverted to other markets, there less a duty imposed curtail the might and probably would occur, supply, it cannot affect market and to the extent that diminution value, it is quite conceivable that in supply affected prices, the conwhen a duty is raised, and an at- sumer would pay and no more. tempt in consequence made to en- The difference between that adhance prices, consumption is at vance in price and the excess duty once checked, and the importer, imposed clearly falls on the prorather than lose his market, con- ducer. tents himself with a smaller profit, As regards the second class of without materially reducing the imports, the case is widely differquantity he had previously sent. ent, more particularly in recent Let us suppose that the duty years, when production has so on tea is raised from 45 to 55 greatly exceeded consumption, for per cent. The Chinese and In- foreigners only send us their surdian merchants, finding their mar- plus stocks, and must sell for what gin of profit reduced 10 per cent, they can get. It has been calcuoffer less to the tea-planters for lated that the incidence of a duty the next crop; as they cannot falls in the relative proportion of hold, but must realise to meet the the consumption to the quantity next season's outlay, they have no imported. Thus, if the consumpalternative but to accept the best tion of wheat is 24 millions of price they can get. Unless, there- quarters, and we import 15 milfore, the additional duty sweeps lions, the consumer's portion of a away all their profit, they will pro- duty of 1os. a quarter is found to duce as much as they did before, be by the following formula:

as an

tures to the value of 10 millions. It almost looks as it the method of levying customs duties had been specially devised for the purpose of ruining British industries -anyhow, that is the effect it is having on our silk manufactures.

are

as great in other countries. But the United States during the first not only has there been a great seven months of 1886, against revival in the States, shown by 72,685 in the same months of the increase in railway traffics; 1885, goes far to confirm Mr. but if we refer to the report to Strachey's report of German prosour Government of Mr. Strachey, perity. During the same period her Majesty's chargè d'affaires at 7300 more emigrants left England Dresden, on the effect of the rais- and Scotland than in 1885. ing of the German tariff in 1879, With such facts and figures beand again in 1885, we find these fore us, it appears to be almost a words: “Nothing indicates that waste of time to attempt an the burden of protection laid on swer to the theories of politicians the population is oppressive, that who, to their eternal disgrace, have, national impoverishment is in pro- for political purposes, so cruelly cess, or that saving and accumula- misled the people of this country. tion have been arrested. On the But as some of these appear still, contrary, the imperial and local notwithstanding that they revenue receipts, the estimates of found to be in conflict with the property liable to income tax, and teachings of experience, to be resimilar State and municipal re- garded as infallible, we shall proturns, are symptomatic of fair ceed to show how fallacious and public prosperity.” In another misleading they are.

The contenpart of the report, he says: If tion, no longer, we believe, held it be asked what signs there are in by political conomists, that "there Germany of that incipient free-trade never was a duty that was

not reaction which some of our politi- paid by the consumer," is perhaps cians contrive to discern on the con- the most misleading, and, from its tinent of Europeespecially in the appeal to self-interest, the most countries most wedded to protection dangerous of all. It is, in fact, the -there can be no hesitation in repiy- kernel of the whole free-trade quesing that there are none. The po- tion ; for if it can be shown that the litical constellations of the empire, consumer does not always pay the the highest personal influences, the duty, by as much as he does not most powerful industrial and com- do so, the foreign producer, and not mercial forces—all are on the side he, is relieved of a duty repealel, of the existing system. The belief and to that extent free imports beis widely diffused that the tariff re- come a tax on the British public. form of 1879 saved Germany from It mnst be carefully kept in view a great ruin, and that that empire that there are two distinct classes is now on the road to industrial of imports : 1. Those which do not greatness, perhaps to the success- come into competition with British sion of that hegemony which Great products ; 2. Those which direitBritain, it is thought, now with ly do so. At the threshold we difficulty holds in her hands. Pro- are confronted with this curious tection is in the national air, and anomaly—that free-trading Engit will not be dissipated by foreign land, at the present day, levies arguments.” The fact that only from import duties more than any 46,818 emigrants left Germany for other nation in Europe.' The

1 Why this country selects for the purpose of taxation only imports which do not come into competition with her products, is inexplicable. It cannot be because she regards these as luxuries; for she annually admits free silk manufac

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