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to divide the inhabitants of the the congested populations of Mid world into three great families: China. The Mons or Talaings themselves, including cognate races have been almost obliterated by in Further India, they call Bumá; the Burmese. The latter, again, those west of them, such as Euro- have been pressed forward by the peans, Americans, Africans, In- Shans, who, displaced in turn dians, &c., they designate Kulá; from their original dwelling-places and the Chinese and all east of by the onward movement of the them they style Tarop or Taruk Chinese, have influenced the whole

an appellative given to the peo- of the Menam basin and the upper ples of the Flowery Land after portion of the Mekong, just as the the Mongol invasion of Burma in former have dominated the lower the thirteenth century, apparently valley of the Irawadi. equivalent, says Sir Arthur Phayre. Monsieur Terrien de Lacouperie, to Turk, as probably Nusruddin, commenting on the fact that the the commander, and certainly sev- ancient history of the Indo-Chinese eral of the soldiers of the invading peoples is completely interwoven army were Turks. I

with that of the Chinese, whose From the very earliest times civilisation, according to his acthe Chinese visited Burma and count, emanated from Babylonia other parts of the Golden Cher- some twenty-three centuries besonese, both by sea and by land, fore Christ, quotes as a striking and received a cordial welcome example the Shans, the cradle of from their inhabitants. The prac- whose race was in the Kinlung tical results of this intercourse Mountains, north of Sechuen. have not, however, been so pro- This enterprising and industrious nounced as might have been ex- people are to be found all along pected. There

reasonable our Eastern frontier in Farther grounds for believing that a com- India. In the early part of the paratively advanced maritime civ- Christian era, all the country ilisation existed on the seaboard stretching from the mountains on of Further India from ancient the south-eastern boundary of the times, and that a few people, Assam valley down to the twentyfavourably placed, became im- second parallel of latitude was inportant nations. It was no doubt cluded in the Shan kingdom of partly influenced by the Chinese- Pong, which, after long enjoying a famous for maritime enterprise - dominant influence in this region, and also by the Phænicians and was destroyed by the Burmese in King Solomon's servants, who went the beginning of the eleventh centhither in search of gold and pre- tury. Since then the Shans, excious stones, apes, peacocks, ivory, cepting in Siam, have been broken and almug-trees. These seaboard up into small States, and bereft races were exposed at intervals to in consequence of all feeling of the irruption of inland tribes dis- patriotism, would doubtless gratify tinguished for chronic proneness to the proclivity towards emigration mutual hostilities, who were im- which has distinguished them for pelled by the pressure of others generations, if we offer them suffibehind them, not only from the cient inducements to take up their bleak and arid regions of the abode in our territory. The popunorth, but also by the overflow of lation of Lower Burma increased

are

1 Phayre's History of Burma.

London : 1883.

threefold in thirty years, in conse- successfully resisted the wave of quence of the superior attractions Chinese encroachment.” So comoffered by us; and it is only by pletely independent are they of similar tactics we can hope to be . Chinese influence and jurisdiction, equally successful in encouraging that they confine themselves to the Shans, who are not only the best their mountain fastnesses, and colonists we can hope to obtain, levy black-mail from the Chinese but are quite ready to come to us with little or no impunity, but if we meet them half-way by mak- have no social intercourse with ing Burma a pleasant place to live them whatever. The Karens of in. The career of the Shans since Burma are similarly exclusive. they left their ancient habitat in Preferring to live far from the the basin of the Yang-tsi-Kiang turmoil of cities and towns, they has been marked by strange vicis- hover round the outskirts of civsitudes. Driven out of Yunnan by ilised life, but keep themselves the Chinese, they seemed to have entirely aloof from the hitherto taken fresh heart when they ar- dominant race. rived in the upper valley of the China may be termed rather a Irawadi, where they founded a congeries of States thap a single kingdom whose glories have been homogeneous empire, as some of handed down to us by historical the viceroys of her distant provand traditional lore, to be subse- inces are practically independent; quently divided into small princi- but railways and the telegraph will palities, yet preserving their homo- soon remedy this, and support her geneity in spite of contact with claim to be considered a nation other races--keeping touch, as it and not merely an agglomeration were, by means of language and of peoples. History proves that religion. Though the ancient some three thousand years ago the glories of the kingdom of Pong true Chinese occupied only a frachave departed, let us hope that tional part of what is now known this genial people may find a sola- as the Celestial Empire, and were tium for their former misfortunes surrounded by indigenous tribes under the auspices of British rule. whose external characteristics they

The Shans afford a good exam- effaced by their superior energy ple of the Chinese ethnic influence and civilisation. The same influin the Golden Chersonese, which ence is still progressing in Farther was by no means so paramount in India, a process of absorption the case of soine of the aboriginal defining the movement, which is tribes. The Lolos, who inhabit a fast removing differences between mountainous region on the left peoples who have hitherto played bank of the Yang-tsi, are a case in as prominent a part in its history point, and a like anomaly is afford- as the English, French, and Gered by the Karens in connection mans have done in the history of with the Mongoloid races in the Europe, and who would eventually Golden Chersonese. Mr Colborne become as much Chinese as the Baber, identifying the Lolos as the inhabitants of Yunnan, Sechuen, Colomon of Marco Polo, describes and other border provinces now them as an “indigenous tribe or are, were it, not for the counpeople, completely enveloped by teracting influence of Western a Chinese population, which has civilisation already referred to.

.

а

1 Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, August 1883.

races.

In the interests of these sparsely ing, leaving these accomplishments populated regions, the pronounced only as a parting legacy--for even proclivities of the Chinese in their bones, in case of death, are accommodating themselves to qua- sent back to the Flowery Land. si-cognate races ought to be en- Most of them, being traders, do not couraged rather than checked; for affect the labour-market at all, and experience proves that the min- consequently do not give rise to gling of Celestial blood with that of the heartburnings so rife in other the Mongoloid races in the Golden countries where they drive the Chersonese has been as satisfac- whites out of the field. Baron tory as like intercourse of Euro- Hubnerl remarks that “the last peans and natives of India with war of England and France with the same people has been the China was of incalculable importreverse.

ance, because it destroyed the real As the author of an able article “Great Chinese Wall' which from in the Times' of 28th December time immemorial had separated 1886 truly remarks-

four hundred millions of souls

from the rest of mankind"--in “When the road to China is open other words, it gave an impetus there will be a rush of immigration, to Chinese emigration, which has which appears likely to have a very marked efiect on the indigenous

been progressing with enormous population of the country. There is strides ever since, especially in the no hard-and-fast line of demarcation United States, Australia, and the between the Burmese and Chinese Pacific States of America. With

Cognate alike in descent and wonderful natural gifts”—he goes religion, they will readily blend into one people; and the Chinese, as the with the white man wherever he

on to say—“the Chinese competes more energetic and intelligent element, will absorb the Burmese." meets him, and is checking, con

quering, and ousting him, not The prospect then is, he goes on indeed by force, but with the to say, that Burma

weapons of labour and thrift." It “will, in the not very remote future, is no wonder, then, that a violent be mainly populated by a sturdy prejudice exists against Celestials race of Chin-Burmese originma vast in the minds of white men thus improvement on the present inhabi- handicapped. tants of the country.”

Antagonism of this kind neither The Chinese who come from the exists now nor is likely to obtain littoral districts of the Middle in the Golden Chersonese, where Kingdom are practically as much they come in contact with homotemporary sojourners as the Eng- geneous peoples; and therefore it is lish. Though very useful members to be earnestly hoped that we may of society, they cannot be rated as be able to attract men such as altogether satisfactory immigrants. those who constructed the Pacific They spend as little as possible in railway, in order to obtain the the country of their voluntary requisite labour for utilising the exile, hoarding nearly all their vast areas of waste land which are earnings to take back to their own eminently adapted for tea-cultivaland ; and inoculating the people tion, and as such offer promising with whom they sojourn with their investments for capital. vices of gaming and opium-smok- manent residents, however, their

For per

1 Through the British Empire. London : 1886.

some

as

compatriots, who have for ages navies of Solomon ard Hiram, been pressing towards the Irawadi manned by the mariners of Zidon valley, are a more important factor and Arphad, and piloted by the for consideration in the immigra- wise men of Tyre, freighted with tion problem. If the movement embroidered fine linen from Egypt; be discouraged, as recom- blue and purple from the isles of mend, its satisfactory solution Elishu ; emeralds, corals, and agates must be relegated to a very dis- from Syria; oil and palm from tant future.

Judah; rich wares, wine of HelThough the generally received bon, and white wool from Damasnotion that Marco Polo introduced cus; iron, cassia, and calamus from the mariner's compass into Europe Dan and Javan; for Ezekiel, from China has long exploded, no speaking of the Tyre which was doubt the instrument was known of perfect beauty and glorious in to the Chinese ages before it was the midst of the seas, says, “ Thy used in Europe--some say as early wares went forth out of the seas,

the twelfth century before thou filledst many peoples ; thou Christ. When the greater part of didst enrich the kings of the Europe was in a state of barbarous earth with the multitude of thy ignorance, this enterprising people, riches and thy merchandise." But probably navigating by the magnet, none of these ancient mariners, so are known to have pushed their far as we know, were aided in any explorations and carried on an ex- way by scientific appliances. It tensive commerce throughout the will be seen, therefore, that the eastern hemisphere ; and judging Chinese, by their knowledge and by their anrials, their historians application of the magnet, posand geographers of the early part sessed advantages long denied to of the Christian era spoke of the the rest of the world. Irawadi and the Ganges as nat- From Marco Polo we learn that, urally as a Fellow of the Royal in the thirteenth century, during Geographical Society does now. the reign of the famous Emperor, When Vasco da Gama, after his Kublai Khan, the Chinese – far discovery of the route to India from exhibiting their traditional by the Cape, first encountered the characteristics of exclusiveness-Arabs, they had their charts, as- asserted themselves in a very protrolabes, and astronomical tables, nounced fashion both by sea and but as yet no compass.

The by land. Graphic accounts handed Chinese, however, had, centuries down to us by the celebrated travbefore this, acquired a maritime eller prove that the physical diffiinfluence in the East which put culties of intercourse between the vaunted supremacy of the China and Farther India, which Arabs into the shade.

modern travellers assure us are so History records the Phænician appalling, were of no account with feat of having sailed round Africa the Great Khan, who practically 604 B.C., and the still more won- proved his faith in being able to derful exploit achieved by them remove mountains, by despatching four hundred years before, when, across the alleged almost impracwith King Solomon's stewards, ticable alpine barriers efficiently they went to the Golden Chersonese equipped armies, powerful enough to fetch him materials for build- to overrun and completely conquer ing, enriching, and beautifying the Burma. The reports of the celeTemple. We also know that the brated Venetian further demonstrate the great capacity for ship- Land, for at a remote age she had building, as well as the aptitude achieved a position entitling her for maritime enterprise, which dis- to be considered the most powerful tinguished the Chinese of his time nation among the States of Central -worthy of Fohi or Noah, their Asia; and it is very possible that reputed founder, the first and most Indian princes, who had been coneminent shipbuilder ever known. quered and oppressed by Scythian

If we are to depend on tradition, hordes, may have hoped to rid one hundred years or so before the themselves of the yoke by endeavChristian era, India appears to ouring to ingratiate themselves have exercised as great a fascina- with the paramount Power, which tion for the Celestial imagination had already extended its conquests as it did in Europe fifteen cen- beyond the Caspian Sea and as far turies afterwards. 1 For we learn as Bengal. In the seventh centhat the Emperor Woo Te of the tury China added much to her Hans dynasty sent an expedition prestige 2 by invading India by the west and south in search of punish a refractory tributary, and Shintoo or India. His commis- accomplished her object by the aid sioners, however, were baffled in of the kings of Tibet and Nepaul. their endeavour to acquire infor- After this it is recorded that the mation as to its whereabouts, and kings of the five Indies sent amhad to return discomfited. His bassadors to offer homage to the successors were, however, more Sun of Heaven. fortunate; for Chinese annals tell From very remote times, emus that, during the Woo dynasty, bassies passed to and fro frequently, or in the third century of our era, and if Chinese history be correct, the king of Foonan--now Tonquin it would appear permanent ambasand Cambodia—sent an embassy sadors were occasionally accredited to India, which went by the mouth as representatives of the Flowery of the Irawadi viâ the Bay of Ben- Land; for we read that, in the gal to India, to the great astonish- middle of the seventh century, ment of the king of the country, the Emperor sent an envoy to the who gave the envoys Scythian King of Magadha “in order that horses to take back to their sov- the principles of humanity and ereign. A perusal of curious de- justice which had been diffused in tails, placed on record by these and that country should have a permaother Chinese travellers, proves that nent protector and representative the Celestials were then better in- there.3 It is almost needless to formed about India than might be say that such diplomatic amenities expected. At a very early period, were not then even dreamt of, much China exercised such an influence less in vogue in Europe. Marco in India that several ambassadors Polo was often employed in various came therefrom charged with embassies by Kublai Khan, when friendly letters and presents, which he ascertained that his zeal, courby Celestial euphony-as is the age, and discretion could be relied case to this day were termed on, and that his reports, instead of tribute. There was some excuse being confined to the four corners for the arrogance of the Flowery of his instructions--as was the

i Chinese Account of India, Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. vi. 2 Yule's Cathay, and the Way Thither. 1886.

3 Ibid.

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