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for existence through Pitt's Government, it is true, which Great Britain has

strong as few Governments had to pass. On the ist February have been. Pitt himself, as no 1793, a week after Dundas's de- man not blinded by passion or spatch, France declared war upon hatred can doubt, was then and us. At first it appeared as if the through the remainder of his life Republic must be crushed by her the supporter of Catholic Emancihost of enemies, internal and ex- pation. But Government then, as ternal; but in 1794 the tide Government now, depended on the turned, and France began her force of public opinion, and public career of victory. The alliance opinion was at that time becoming against her, formed on the execu- uncontrollable. tion of Louis XVI., was broken up, It is with diffidence that one and the dread of France and revo- dissents from Mr Lecky on a point lution reached a panic. The na- involving intimate and wide knowtion became more and more united ledge of the period he has made in its hostility to Revolution prin- his own; but I think he greatly ciples. Party distinctions van- underrates the bitterness that was ished. The new Whigs, as Burke felt between Protestant and Cathcalled those who still had faith in olic in Ireland previously to Lord France, shrank into insignificance. Fitzwilliam's failure, and greatly In the summer of 1794 Lord overrates the extent to which the Fitzwilliain, with various other subsequent hatred that bore fruit Whigs, joined Mr Pitt's Cabinet; in the Rebellion was due to that and in the autumn it became known failure. It is to be remembered that Lord Fitzwilliam was to go to that we have not yet Mr Lecky's Ireland as Viceroy. After various considered judgment on the point. delays, he was sworn in in Decem- His earlier work, · The Leaders of ber, and reached Ireland 4th Jan. Public Opinion in Ireland,' deals 1795. In spite of the inopportune with the question ; but the world ness of the moment, he at once is still waiting for the volumes of began to push the policy of com- his History which shall cover that plete Catholic equality with great much-disputed period. vigour, but was unsupported from Without entering on the discusLondon, and was recalled in the sion of facts which would be necesend of February, and left Dub- sary for full treatment of the lin in March. There has been question, it may

may be enough at great discussion over this action present to quote two or three of the British Government. Some testimonies from different sides. calm-minded judges—such as Mr In the first place, Westmoreland, Lecky-have held that they there- the Viceroy, the opponent of all by Alung away a golden opportunity emancipation, writes to Dundas for conciliating Ireland. A more in the beginning of 1792:probable judgment seems that the

Instead of the relaxation of the rash and headlong conduct of Lord penal laws having tended to unite Fitzwilliam roused such opposition, Protestants and Catholics, it has as to make impossible the more increased the apprehension and gradual progress which would have hatred.” 1 been secured by wiser means.

6

As to the fact of this untoward

1 Froude, English in Ireland, iii. 42. moreland's view,

Mr Froude warmly accepts Lord West1 Mitchell, i 214, 215,

result, Henry Grattan, in his Life second or eighth of Queen Anne; after of his father, seems agreed, and is the strange adventure of the grand only concerned to throw the whole jury, and after Parliament had listened blame on Lord Westmoreland and

to the Sovereign pleading for the the French Revolution. Mitchell, after all this that such a grudging

emancipation of his subjects,-it was the Nationalist historian, is of the and discontent was expressed as must same mind. Describing the effects justly have alarmed, as it did exof the Act of 1793, he says:

tremely alarm, the whole Catholic

body ; and I remember but one period “ The limited and grudging measure of my life ( I mean the savage period for the relief of the Catholics had by between 1761 and 1767) in which no means had the effect of destroying they have been more harshly or conthe odius distinctions that had so tumeliously treated than since the last long divided Irishmen of different partial enlargement. And thus I am religious persuasions. The law in- convinced it will be by paroxysms, deed was changed, but the insolent as long as any stigma remains on and exclusive spirit that had inspired them, and whilst they are considered the penal code, the very marked as no better than half citizens." and offensive disabilities which still

Burke therefore argues in favour left the Catholic people in a condition of Lord Fitzwilliam's policy, but his of legal inferiority, gave the · Ascend

statements ancy'ample opportunity to make

are directly opposed them feel daily and hourly that they to Mr Lecky's view that “the ranwere still an oppressed race.

cour which at present ( 1871 ) exists In every part of the kingdom con- between the members of the two tinual efforts were made to traduce creeds seems then ( 1793 ) to have and vilify the whole Catholic body, been almost unknown, and the real in order to defeat and annul the obstacle to emancipation was not measures which the Legislature had the feelings of the people but the passed in their favour. Never, perhaps, in all the history of the country, policy of the Government. "2 had the virulent malignity of the

One thing at any rate is cerbigots been so busy in charging upon tain, that Lord Fitzwilliam ( as Catholics all manner of evil principles Lord Brabourne has pointed out) and practices."

fell undefended; and that of his These are the opinions of rival own Whig friends in the Cabinet,

not one partisans. A still more weighty

was found to justify his judgment may be added.

course. Edmund Burke, writing, to

After Lord Fitzwilliam's return member of the Irish Parliament

the clouds grew thicker over both on the 29th January 1795, at the countries. The victories of France very moment when Lord Fitz- continued, and the brilliant Italian william's policy was declaring it- campaign of Buonaparte of 1796 self in Ireland, said, speaking of made him the hero of the army. the last two years:

The United Irishmen, a revolution

mary Society founded in 1791 by "It was within the course of about Wolfe Tone, turned to France for a twelvemonth, that after Parlia- aid, and received full encouragement had been led into a step quite ment there. unparalleled in its records; after they had resisted all concession, and

In July 1796 the Directory, uneven hearing, with an obstinacy der the influence of Wolfe Tone, equal to anything that could have resolved on an invasion of Ireland. actuated a party domination in the The news quickly reached the Irish

a

? Lecky, Leaders of Opinion, p, 136 .

Government, who were able, by the his own flag-ship the Venerable, and arrest of Keogh, Neilson, Russell, the Adamant, a fifty-gun ship. and others of the leaders on whom With glorious audacity he anchored Wolfe Tone had relied, to prevent his two ships in the channel, which concert between the invaders and was so narrow that only a single the disaffected.

vessel could pass out at a time. In December a most formidable By numerous signals to seaward, expedition under Hoche, one of he deluded De Winter into the bethe ablest French generals, set sail lief that a large squadron was lying from Brest. It carried 15,000 off shore, and thus for several weeks troops, and artillery and arms for maintained with two ships a block45,000.

By a wonderful succes- ade of the whole Dutch fleet. By sion of happy chances, the invasion July a force of sixteen sail of the miscarried completely.

Through line, with ten frigates, and 15,000 bad seamanship the feet parted troops with eighty guns, was lying company the first night. Hoche ready at the Texel, but by this and his staff were separated from time the British fleet was also ready the rest and never reached Ire- for service. Again the weather land at all. The main part of the stood our friend. For two months fleet reached Bantry Bay in safety; the fleet was delayed by foul but fortunately for England, they winds, until their supplies were were under Grouchy, the second in exhausted. When at last, in Occommand to Hoche, who then, as tober, the Dutch fleet put to sea, twenty years after at Waterloo, it was met by Duncan at Camperruined French hopes by his blun- down with a nearly equal force. der. He hesitated and delayed. After a desperate and bloody fight, was landed.

The ten Dutch ships of the line and weather became more and more two frigates were captured, and tempestuous, till at length the there was an end of all danger fleet was fairly blown out to sea. from Holland. They returned to France defeated Meanwhile, however, the vicby the weather, without having tories and the bribes of Buonaseen a single English ship of war parte reduced Austria to either going or returning.

peace, and within a week after In the following year the country Camperdown the Treaty of Campo was in even greater danger. The Formio left us without a single British cause

was at its nadir. ally. On the very day on which The fleet-our only efficient de- the treaty was signed, a decree fence—was for three months in

was issued by the Directory for capacitated by successive mutin- the formation of

“ army of ies, the outcome of mismanage- England " at Boulogne, under ment and neglect, whose fatuity General Buonaparte. The hopes almost amounted to treason.. of the United Irishmen reached Meanwhile the Dutch, who were their highest pitch.

It is now in alliance with the French, were known that this army was, probthrowing their whole national ably from the first, intended for strength into the preparations for other purposes, but both Irish and an invasion of Ireland an English were completely hoodequally large scale. Duncan, who winked by Buonaparte. The most was blockading the Dutch fleet in desperate efforts

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made on the Texel, was deserted by succes- the one hand to welcome, on the sive ships, till he was left with only other to repel, the expected in

were

war.

vasion. In this way passed the over these forces. Officers were winter of 1797 and spring of as bad as men. They became, as 1798; but all this time matters Abercromby, the Commander-in in Ireland had been going from chief, publicly declared in a general bad to worse. Catholic emanci- order, and as Cornwallis, after the pation roused Protestant bitter- experience of the Rebellion and of ness and

Protestant oppression. Castlebar confirmed, “a terror to Protestant cruelty roused Catholic every one except their enemies" ; retaliation, In the north, the and by their ravages, rapes, and strife between Orange boys or murders, drove the peasantry wholePeep-of-day boys (so called from sale into the arms of the United their visiting Catholic houses at Irishmen. Providentially the peep of day to search for arms) threatened invasions of 1796 and and the Catholic defenders almost 1797 miscarried by the weather reached the magnitude of a without the Irish army being called Throughout Ireland the Protest- on to strike a blow, and that of ants felt their weakness; and, as 1798 turned out to be a mere feint. has happened since in India and During this period Camden had Jamaica, as they became terrified not, independently of the yeothey became cruel. The Irish manry, 10,000 men on whom he Parliament entirely shared this could rely. If any of the three exfeeling, and passed act after act peditions had succeeded in landof ever-increasing severity against ing in one of the more disaffected the protest of ever-diminishing parts of the island, there can be minorities, till Grattan and the no reasonable doubt but that the constitutional opposition seceded forces of the Crown would have in despair. The United Irishmen, proved insufficient to repel the whose leaders had long been Re- attack. Neither would it have publican and Separatist, took full been an invasion by a advantage of the opportunity to foe. Abhorrence of French prinfoment disaffection and prepare ciples was only equalled by fear for invasion. Then (as always of the outrages of French revoluin Irish history), traitors were tionary armies.

were tionary armies. Under these cirnot wanting to betray the schemes cumstances the sense of insecurity of their friends to the Government, and terror which filled the minds who were aware of the magnitude of all friends of the connection, of the danger they had to meet explains-little as it justifies—the from sedition at home and invasion Protestant outrages of these years. from abroad, though not in a As the same time, the Catholic position to prove in the law courts revulsion against the dragoonings, what they knew from informers. the free quarterings, the plunderMilitia had been raised in the ings, the murders of undisciplined prospect of invasion, yeomanry troops, goes far to account for the had been embodied in the course ferocity of the rebellion of 1798. of a few weeks to the number In the spring of 1798 matters of nearly 30,000 men (Froude, came to a climax. The leaders of iii. 178) These

neces- the United Irishmen understood sarily Protestant, and for the the necessity of foreign aid, and most

part Orangemen of the desired to defer a rising until the most bigoted and ferocious de- French were in the country. They scription. The Irish Government were, however, betrayed by one of was unable to maintain discipline their own number, and arrested at

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Government, who were able, by the his own flag-ship the Venerable, and arrest of Keogh, Neilson, Russell, the Adamant, a fifty-gun ship. and others of the leaders on whom With glorious audacity he anchored Wolfe Tone had relicd, to prevent his two ships in the channel, which concert between the invaders and was so narrow that only a single the disaffected.

vessel could pass out at a time. In December a most formidable By numerous signals to seaward, expedition under Hoche, one of he deluded De Winter into the bethe ablest French generals, set sail lief that a large squadron was lying from Brest. It carried 15,000 off shore, and thus for several weeks troops, and artillery and arms for maintained with two ships a block45,000. By a wonderful succes- ade of the whole Dutch fleet. By sion of happy chances, the invasion July a force of sixteen sail of the miscarried completely. Through line, with ten frigates, and 15,000 bad seamanship the fleet parted troops with eighty guns, was lying company the first night. Hoche ready at the Texel, but by this and his staff were separated from time the British fleet was also ready the rest and never reached Ire- for service. Again the weather land at all. The main part of the stood our friend. For two months fleet reached Bantry Bay in safety; the feet was delayed by foul but fortunately for England, they winds, until their supplies were were under Grouchy, the second in exhausted. When at last, in Occommand to Hoche, who then, as tober, the Dutch fleet put to sea, twenty years after at Waterloo, it was met by Duncan at Camperruined French hopes by his blun- down with a nearly equal force. der. He hesitated and delayed. After a desperate and bloody fight, was landed.

The ten Dutch ships of the line and weather became more and more two frigates were captured, and tempestuous, till at length the there was an end of all danger fleet was fairly blown out to sea. from Holland. They returned to France defeated Meanwhile, however, the vicby the weather, without having tories and the bribes of Buonaseen a single English ship of war parte had reduced Austria to either going or returning,

peace, and within

week after In the following year the country Camperdown the Treaty of Campo was in even greater danger. The Formio left us without a single British cause at its nadir. ally.

On the very day on which The fleet—our only efficient de- the treaty was signed, a decree fence—was for three months in

was issued by the Directory for capacitated by successive mutin- the formation of “army of ies, the outcome of mismanage- England" at Boulogne, under ment and neglect, whose fatuity General Buonaparte. The hopes almost amounted to treason.. of the United Irishmen reached Meanwhile the Dutch, who were their highest pitch. It is now in alliance with the French, were known that this army was, probthrowing their whole national ably from the first, intended for strength into the preparations for other purposes, but both Irish and an invasion of Ireland on an English were completely hoodequally large scale. Duncan, who winked by Buonaparte. The most was blockading the Dutch fleet in desperate efforts made on the Texel, was deserted by succes- the one hand to welcome, on the sive ships, till he was left with only other to repel, the expected in

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