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quibus nonnulli incommode com- in which many have incommodimiscuerunt potestatem Ecclesias- ously mingled together the Eccleticam et potestatem gladii. siastical power and the power of

the sword. Et ex hac confusione maxima And out of this confusion there bella, maximi motus extiterunt, have sprung very great wars and dum Pontifices, freti potestate tumults, while that the Pontiffs, clavium, non solum novos cultus trusting in the power of the keys, instituerunt reservatione CASU- have not only appointed new kinds um, violentis excommunicationi- of service, and burdened men’s conbus conscientias oneraverunt, sed sciences by reserving of cases, and etiam regna mundi transferre et by violent excommunications; but imperatoribus adimere imperium have also endeavored to transfer conati sunt.

worldly kingdoms from one to another, and to despoil emperors of

their power and authority. Hæc vitia multo ante repre These faults did godly and learnhenderunt in Ecclesia homines ed men long since reprehend in pii et eruditi. Itaque nostri ad the Church; and for that cause consolandas conscientias coacti onr teachers were compelled, for sunt ostendere discrimen ecclesi- the comfort of men's consciences, asticce potestatis et potestatis gla- to show the difference between the dii, et docuerunt utramque pro- ecclesiastical power and the powpter mandatum Dei religiose er of the sword. And they have venerandam et honore afficien- taught that both of them, because dam esse, tanquam summa Dei of God's commandment, are dutibeneficia in terris.

fully to be reverenced and honored, as the chiefest blessings of God

upon earth.

Sic autem sentiunt, potesta Now their judgment is this: that tem clavium seu potestatem Epi- the power of the keys, or the power scoporum, juxta Evangelium, po- of the Bishops, by the rule of the testatem esse seu mandatum Dei, Gospel, is a power or commandprædicandi Evangelii, remittendi ment from God, of preaching the et retinendi peccata, et admini- Gospel, of remitting or retaining strandi Sacramenta. Nam cum sins, and of administering the Sac

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hoc mandato Christus mittit raments. For Christ doth send his Apostolos (John xx. 21 sqq.): 'Si- Apostles with this charge: 'As the cut misit me Pater, ita et ego Father hath sent me, even so send I mitto

Accipite Spiritum you. Receive ye the Holy Ghost: Sanctum : quorum remiseritis whosesoever sins ye remit, they are peccata, remittuntur eis, et quo- remitted unto them; and whoserum retinueritis peccata, retenta soever sins ye retain, they are resunt.' Mark xvi. 15: 'Ite, pre- tained’ (John xx. 21-23). “Go, and dicate Evangelium omni crea- preach the Gospel to every creature,' turæ, etc.

etc. (Mark xvi. 15). Hæc potestas tantum exercetur This power is put in execution docendo seu prædicando verbum, only by teaching or preaching the et porrigendo. Sacramenta, vel Word and administering the Sacmultis vel singulis juxta voca- raments, either to many or to sintionem, quia conceduntur non gle individuals, in accordance with res corporales, sed res æternce, their call. For thereby not corpojustitia æterna, Spiritus Sanc- ral things, but eternal, are granted; tus, vita æterna. Hæc non pos- as an eternal righteousness, the sunt contingere nisi per ministe- Holy Ghost, life everlasting. These rium verbi et Sacramentorum ; things can not be got but by the sicut Paulus dicit (Rom. i. 16): ministry of the Word and of the * Evangelium est potentia Dei ad Sacraments, as Paul saith, “The salutem omni credenti.'

Gospel is the power of God to salvation to every one that believeth'

(Rom. i. 16). Itaque cum potestas ecclesia Seeing, then, that the ecclesiasstica concedat res æternas, et tan- tical power concerneth things etertum exerceatur per ministerium nal, and is exercised only by the verbi : non impedit politicam ministry of the Word, it hindereth administrationem ; sicut ars ca- not the political government any nendi nihil impedit politicam more than the art of singing hinadministrationem. Nam poli- ders political government. For the tica administratio versatur circa political administration is occupied alias res, quam Evangelium : about other matters than is the magistratus defendit non mentes, Gospel. The magistracy defends sed corpora et res corporales I not the minds, but the bodies, and

adversus manifestas injurias, et bodily things, against manifest injucoërcet homines gladio et corpo- ries; and coerces men by the sword ralibus penis, ut justitiam civi- and corporal punishments, that it lem et pacem retineat.

may uphold civil justice and peace. Non igitur commiscendæ sunt Wherefore the ecclesiastical and potestates ecclesiastica et civi- civil powers are not to be confoundlis: ecclesiastica suum manda- ed. The ecclesiastical power hath tum habet Evangelii docendi its own commandment to preach et administrandi Sacramenta. the Gospel and administer the SacNon irrumpat in alienum offi- raments. Let it not by force enter cium, non transferat regna mun- into the office of another; let it not di, non abroget leges magistra- transfer worldly kingdoms; let it tuum, non tollat legitimam obe not abrogate the magistrates' laws; dientiam, non impediat judicia let it not withdraw from them lawde ullis civilibus ordinationibus ful obedience; let it not hinder aut contractibus, non præscribat judgments touching any civil orleges magistratibus de forma dinances or contracts; let it not rei publice; sicut dicit Chri- prescribe laws to the magistrate stus (John xviii. 36): Regnum touching the form of the republic; meum non est de hoc mundo.' as Christ saith, 'My kingdom is not Item (Luke xii. 14): Quis con- of this world’ (John xviii. 36). stituit me judicem aut diviso- Again, 'Who made me a judge or rem super vos ?' Et Paulus a divider over you ? (Luke xii. 14). ait (Phil. iii. 20): 'Nostra poli- And Paul saith,‘Our conversation tia in cælis est.' 2 Cor. x. 4: [citizenship) is in heaven' (Phil. iii. Arma militiæ nostro non sunt 20). The weapons of our warfare carnalia, sed potentia Dei, ad are not carnal, but mighty through destruendas cogitationes, etc. God, casting down imaginations, Ad hunc modum discernunt no- etc. (2 Cor. x. 4). In this way do stri utriusque potestatis officia, our teachers distinguish between et jubent utramque honore affi- the duties of each power one from cere et agnoscere, utramque Dei the other, and do warn all men to donum et beneficium esse. honor both powers, and to acknowl

edge both to be the [highest] gift

and blessing of God. Si quam habent Episcopi po If so be that the Bishops have

testatem gladii, hanc non habent any power of the sword, they have Episcopi ex mandato Evangelii, it not as Bishops by the commandsed jure humano donatam a ment of the Gospel, but by man's regibus et imperatoribus, ad law given unto them of kings and administrationem civilem SUO- emperors,

for the civil government rum bonorum. Hæc interim of their goods. This, however, is alia functio est, quam ministe- a kind of function diverse from the rium Evangelii.

ministry of the Gospel. Cum igitur de jurisdictione Therefore, when the question Episcoporum quæritur, discerni touches the jurisdiction of Bishops, debet imperium ab ecclesiastica government must be distinguished jurisdictione. Porro secundum from ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Evangelium, seu, ut loquuntur, Again, by the Gospel, or, as they de jure divino, nulla jurisdic- term it, by divine right, Bishops, tio competit Episcopis, ut Epi- as Bishops—that is, those who have scopis, hoc est, his, quibus est the administration of the Word and commissum ministerium Verbi et Sacraments committed to themSacramentorum, nisi remittere have no other jurisdiction at all, peccata, item, cognoscere doctri- but only to remit sin, also to take nam, et doctrinam ab Evangelio cognizance of [to judge in regard dissentientem rejicere, et impios, to] doctrine, and to reject doctrine quorum nota est impietas, exclu- inconsistent with the Gospel, and dere communione Ecclesiæ, to exclude from the communion of sine vi humana, sed Verbo. Hic the Church, without human force, necessario et de jure divino de- but by the Word [of God], those bent eis Ecclesiæ præstare obedi- whose wickedness is known. And entiam, juxta illud (Luke x. 16): herein of necessity the churches 'Qui vos audit, me audit.' ought by divine right to render

obedience unto them; according to the saying of Christ, 'He that hear

eth you heareth me' (Luke x. 16). Verum cum aliquid contra But when they teach or deterEvangelium docent aut statuunt, mine any thing contrary to the Gostunc habent Ecclesiæ mandatum pel, then have the churches a comDei, quod obedientiam prohibet mandment of God, which forbid(Matt. vii. 15): 'Cavete a Pseudo- deth obedience to them: ‘Beware


prophetis. Gal. i. 8: 'Si An- of false prophets' (Matt. vii. 15). gelus de cælo aliud Evangelium ' If an angel from heaven preach evangelizaverit, anathema sit. 2 any other Gospel, let him be acCor. xiii. 8: Non possumus ali- cursed” (Gal. i. 8). "We can not quid contra veritatem, sed pro do any thing against the truth, but veritate. Item (10): 'Data est for the truth' (2 Cor. xiii. 8). Also, nobis potestas ad ædificationem, “This power is given us to edify, non ad destructionem. Sic et and not to destroy' (2 Cor. xiii. 10). Canones præcipiunt (II. Quæst. So do the Canons command (II. VII. Cap. Sacerdotes, et Cap. Quæst. 7, Cap. Sacerdotes, and Oves). Et Augustinus contra Cap. Oves). And Augustine, in Petiliani Epistolam inquit : his Treatise against Petilian's 'Nec Catholicis Episcopis con- Epistle, saith, “Neither must we sentiendum est, sicubi forte fal- subscribe to Catholic Bishops, if luntur, aut contra Canonicas they chance to err, or determine Dei Scripturas aliquid senti- any thing contrary to the canonunt.'

ical divine Scriptures.' Si quam habent aliam vel po If so be that they have any other testatem, vel jurisdictionem in power or jurisdiction, in hearing cognoscendis certis causis, vide- and understanding certain cases, as, licet matrimonii, aut decima- namely, of Matrimony, and Tithes, rum, etc., hanc habent humano etc., they hold it by human right. jure; ubi cessantibus Ordina- But when the ordinaries fail [to riis coguntur Principes, vel in- attend to this office), princes are riti, suis subditis jus dicere, ut constrained, whether they wish to pax retineatur.

do so or not, to declare the law to their subjects, for maintaining of

peace. Præter hæc disputatur, utrum Besides these things, there is a Episcopi seu Pastores habeant jus controversy whether Bishops or Pasinstituendi ceremonias in Eccle-tors have power to institute ceresia, et leges de cibis, feriis, gra- monies in the Church, and to make dibus ministrorum, seu ordini- laws concerning meats, and holibus, etc., condendi. Hoc jus qui days, and degrees, or orders of mintribuunt Episcopis, allegant testi-isters, etc. They that ascribe this monium (John xvi. 12): "Adhuc power to the Bishops allege this

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