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et Dist. XII. Gregorius Papa ment about fasting doth not break significat, talem dissimilitudinem off the agreement of faith.' Benon ledere unitatem Ecclesiæ. Et sides, Pope Gregory, in the 12th Disin Historia. Tripartita, lib. nono, tinction, intimates that such divermulta colliguntur exempla dis- sity doth not hurt the unity of the similium rituum, et recitantur Church; and in the Tripartite Hishæc verba : Mens Apostolorum tory, lib. 9, many examples of disfuit, non de diebus festis san- similar rites are gathered together, cire, sed prædicare bonam con- and these words are there rehearsed: versationem et pietatem [Glaube "The mind of the Apostles was, not und Liebe zu lehren].'

to give precepts concerning holidays, but to preach godliness and a holy life [faith and love].'

ART. VI.- De Votis Monachorum.

ART. VI.- Of Monastic Vows. Quid de votis monachorum What is taught among us touchapud nos doceatur, melius intel- ing the Vows of Monks will be better liget, si quis meminerit, qualis understood if one call to mind what status fuerit

fuerit monasteriorum, was the state of monasteries, and quam multa contra Canones in how many things were every day ipsis monasteriis quotidie fie- committed in the monasteries conbant. Augustini tempore erant trary to the Canons. In Augustine's libera collegia, postea, corrupta time cloister-fraternities were free; disciplina, ubique addita sunt but afterwards, when discipline was vota, ut tanquam excogitato car- corrupted, vows were every where cere disciplina restitueretur. laid upon them, that, as it were in

a newly devised prison, the disci

pline might be restored again. Additæ sunt paulatim supra

Over and besides vows, many vota alice multo observationes. other observances by little and litEt haec vincula multis ante tle were added.

multis ante tle were added. And these bands justam ætatem contra Canones and snares were cast upon many, injecta sunt.

before they came to ripe years, contrary to the Canons.

· Viz., in Decret. P. I. Dist. XII. cap. 10, quod incipit a verbis: Novit fraternitas tua.' Vide Corp. jur. Can. ed. Richter, Tom. I. p. 25 sq. (From Bindseil.)

Multi inciderunt errore in Many through error fell into hoc vitæ genus, quibus etiam this kind of life unawares, who, si non deessent anni, tamen ju- though they wanted not years, yet dicium de suis viribus defuit. they wanted discretion to judge of Qui sic irretiti erant, coge their strength and ability. They bantur manere, etiam si qui- who were once got within these dam beneficio Canonum liberari nets were constrained to abide in possent. Et hoc accidit magis them, though, by the benefit of the etiam in monasteriis virginum, Canons, some might be set at libquam monachorum, cum sexui erty. And that fell out rather in imbecilliori magis parcendum the monasteries of nuns than of esset.

monks; although the weaker sex

ought more to have been spared. Hic rigor displicuit multis bo This rigor and severity displeased nis viris ante hæc tempora, qui many good men heretofore, when videbant puellas et adolescentes they saw young maids and young in monasteria detrudi propter men thrust into monasteries, there victum, videbant, quam infælici- to get their living. They saw what ter succederet hoc consilium, quce an unhappy issne this counsel had, scandala pareret, quos laqueos what offenses it bred, and what conscientiis injiceret. Dolebant snares it laid

Dolebant snares it laid upon consciences. autoritatem Canonum in re pe- They were grieved that the auriculosissima omnino negligi et thority of the Canons was wholly contemni.

neglected and contemned in a

thing most dangerous. Ad hæc mala accedebat talis To all these evils there was addpersuasio de votis, quam con- ed such a persuasion concerning stat etiam olim displicuisse ip-rows, as, it is well known, did in sis monachis, si qui paulo former times displease the monks cordatiores fuerunt. Docebant themselves,

Docebant themselves, if any of them were vota paria esse baptismo, doce- somewhat wiser than the rest. bant hoc vitæ genere me- They taught that vows were equal reri remissionem peccatorum et to baptism; they taught that by justificationem coram Deo. Imo this kind of life they merited readdebant, vitam monasticam non mission of sins and justification betantum justitiam mereri coram fore God; yea, they added that the


Deo, sed amplius etiam, quia monk's life did not only merit rightservaret non modo præcepta, sed eousness before God, but more than etiam consilia Evangelica. Ita that, because it observed not only persuadebant monasticam pro- the commandments, but also the fessionem longe meliorem esse counsels of the Gospel. And thus baptismo, vitam monasticam they taught that the monk's proplus mereri, quam vitam ma- fession was better than baptism; gistratuum, vitam pastorum et that the monk's life did merit similium, qui in mandatis Dei more than the life of magistrates, sine facticiis religionibus suce of pastors, and such like, who, vocationi serviunt.

in obedience to God's commandment, followed their calling without any such religions of man's

making Nihil horum negari potest, ex None of these things can be detant enim in libris eorum. nied: they are to be seen in their

writings. Quid fiebat postea in mona What occurred afterwards in the steriis ? Olim erant scholos sa- monasteries? In old time they crarum literarum, et aliarum were schools for the study of sadisciplinarum, quce sunt utiles cred letters, and other branches of Ecclesice, et sumebantur inde knowledge, which were profitable pastores et episcopi : nunc alia to the Church; and thence were res est; nihil opus est reci- pastors and bishops taken: but now tare nota. Olim ad discendum the case is altered. It is needless conveniebant : nunc fingunt in- to rehearse what is notorious. In stitutum esse vitæ genus ad pro- old time they came together into merendam gratiam et justitiam; such places to learn; but now they imo prædicant esse statum per- feign that it is a kind of life taken fectionis, et longe præferunt om- up to merit remission of sins and nibus aliis vitoe generibus a Deo justification; yea, they say it is a ordinatis.

state of perfection, and prefer it to all other kinds of life, the kinds

that God ordained. Hæc ideo recitavimus nihil We have therefore mentioned odiose exaggerantes, ut melius in- these things, not to excite odium,

telligi posset de hac re doctrina exaggerating nothing, to the end nostrorum.

that the doctrine of our churches touching this matter might be un

derstood. Primum de his, qui matri First, concerning such as conmonia contrahunt, sic docent tract marriage, thus they teach apud nos, quod liceat omnibus, among us: that it is lawful for qui non sunt idonei ad coeliba- any to marry that are not adapttum, contrahere matrimonium, ed for a single life; forasmuch as quia vota non possunt ordina- vows can not take away God's ortionem ac mandatum Dei tol- dinance and commandment. The lere. Est autem hoc mandatum commandment of God is,' To avoid Dei (1 Cor. vii. 2): Propter for- fornication, let every man have his nicationem habeat unusquisque own wife' (1 Cor. vii. 2). And not uxorem suam. Neque manda- only the commandment, but also tum solum, sed etiam creatio et the creation and ordinance of God, ordinatio Dei cogit hos ad con- compelleth such unto marriage as jugium, qui sine singulari Dei without the special work of God opere non sunt excepti, juxta il- are not exempted; according to that lud (Gen. ii. 18)): Non est bo- saying, “It is not good for man to num homini esse solum. Igi- be alone' (Gen. ii. 18). Thęy, theretur non peccant isti, qui obtem- fore, that are obedient to this comperant huic mandato et ordina- mandment and ordinance of God tioni Dei.

do not sin. Quid potest contra hæc oppo What can be said against these ni ? Exaggeret aliquis obligatio- things? Let a man exaggerate the nem voti, quantum volet, tamen bond of a vow as much as he will, non poterit efficere, ut votum yet can he never bring to pass that tollat mandatum Dei. Canones the vow shall take away God's docent, in omni voto jus supe- commandment. The Canons teach, rioris excipi :' quare multo mi- ' that in every vow the right of the nus hæc vota contra mandata superior is excepted:' much less, Dei valent.

therefore, can these vows, which are contrary to God's command

ment, be of force. Quodsi obligatio votorum nul If so be that the obligation of


las haberet causas, cur mutari | vows has no causes why it might possit : Romani Ponti- be changed, then could not the Rofices dispensassent; neque enim man Pontiffs have dispensed therelicet homini obligationem, quce with. For neither is it lawful for simpliciter est juris divini, man to disannul that bond which rescindere. Sed prudenter ju- doth simply belong to the law of dicaverunt Romani

Romani Pontifices God. But the Roman Pontiffs have æquitatem in hac obligatione judged very prudently, that in this adhibendam esse. Ideo sæpe de obligation there must equity be votis dispensasse leguntur. Nota used; therefore they often, as we est historia de Rege Arrago- read, have dispensed with vows. num, revocato monasterio, The history of the King of Arraet extant exempla nostri tem- gon, being called back out of a monporis.

astery, is well known; and there

are examples in our own time. Deinde, cur obligationem exag Secondly, why do our adversaries gerant adversarii seu effectum exaggerate the obligation or the voti, cum interim de ipsa voti effect of the vow; when in the natura sileant, quod debei esse mean time they speak not a word in re possibili, quod debet esse of the very nature of a vow, that voluntarium, sponte et consulto it ought to be in a thing possible, conceptum. At quomodo sit in ought to be voluntary, and taken potestate hominis perpetua ca- up of a man's own accord, and stitas, non est ignotum. Et with deliberation? But it is not quotusquisque sponte et consulto unknown how far perpetual chascovit? Puellæ et adolescentes, tity is in the power of a man. And priusquam judicare possunt, how many a one amongst them persuadentur ad vovendum, in- is there that doth row of his own terdum etiam coguntur.

accord and well advised ? Maidens and youths, before they know how to judge, are persuaded, yea, some

times also compelled to vow. Quare non est equum tam Wherefore it is not meet to disrigide de obligatione disputare, pute so rigorously of the obligation, cum omnes fateantur contra seeing that all men confess that it is

· The ed. princeps reads possibi—a typographical error.

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