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nia primum ante annos quad-iii. 2). And in Germany, not until ringentos Sacerdotes vi coacti about four hundred years ago, were sunt ad cælibatum, qui quidem the priests by violence compelled adeo adversati sunt, ut Archie- to live a single life; who then were piscopus Moguntinus, publicatu- so wholly bent against the matter, rus edictum Rom. Pontificis de that the Archbishop of Mentz, beea re, pene ab iratis Sacerdoti- ing about to publish the Pope of bus per tumultum oppressus sit. Rome's decree to that effect, was Et res gesta est tam incivili- almost murdered in a tumult by ter, ut non solum in posterum the priests in their anger. And conjugia prohiberentur, sed etiam the matter was handled so rudely, præsentia, contra omnia jura di- that not only were marriages forvina et humana, contra ipsos bidden for the time to come, but etiam Canones, factos non solum also such as were then contracted a Pontificibus, sed a laudatissi- were broken asunder, contrary to mis Synodis, distraherentur. Et all laws divine and human, concum senescente mundo paulatim trary to the Canons themselves, that natura humana fiat imbecillior, were before made not only by Popes, convenit prospicere, ne plura vi- but also by most famous Councils. tia serpant in Germaniam. Por- And seeing that, as the world dero Deus instituit conjugium, ut cayeth, man's nature by little and esset remedium humanæ infirmi- little waxeth weaker, it is well to tutis. Ipsi Canones veterem ri- look to it, that no more vices do gorem interdum posterioribus overspread Germany.

Furthertemporibus propter imbecillita- more, God ordained marriage to tem hominum laxandum esse di- be a remedy for man's infirmity. cunt, quod optandum est, ut fiat The Canons themselves do say that et in hoc negotio. Ac videntur the old rigor is now and then in ecclesiis aliquando defuturi pas- latter times to be released because tores, si diutius prohibeatur con- of the weakness of men. Which it jugium.

were to be wished might be done in this matter also. And if marriage be forbidden any longer, the church

es may at length want pastors. Cum autem extet mandatum Seeing, then, that there is a plain Dei, cum mos Ecclesia notus commandment of God; seeing the sit, cum impurus cælibatus plu- / use of the Church is well known; rima pariat scandala, adulte- seeing that impure single life bringria et alia scelera, digna ani- eth forth very many offenses, adulmadversione boni magistratus : teries, and other enormities worthy tamen mirum est, nulla in re to be punished by the godly magismajorem exerceri sævitiam, quam trate, it is a marvel that greater adversus conjugium Sacerdotum. cruelty should be showed in no Deus præcepit honore afficere con- other thing than against the marjugium. Leges in omnibus re- riage of priests. God hath combus publicis bene constitutis, manded to honor marriage; the etiam apud Ethnicos, maximis laws in all well-ordered commonhonoribus ornaverunt. At nunc wealths, even among the heathen, capitalibus pænis excruciantur, have adorned marriage with very et quidem Sacerdotes, contra Ca- great honors. But now men are crunonum voluntatem, nullam aliam elly put to death, yea, and priests ob causam, nisi propter conju- also, contrary to the mind of the gium. Paulus vocat doctrinam Canons, for no other cause but mardæmoniorum, quæ prohibet con- riage. Paul calleth that 'a doc.

jugium (1 Tim. iv. 1, 3). Id fa- trine of devils' which forbiddeth cile nunc intelligi potest, cum marriage (1 Tim. iv. 1, 3); which talibus suppliciis prohibitio con- may now very well be seen, since jugii defenditur.

the forbidding of marriage is main

tained by such punishments. Sicut autem nulla lex hu- But as no law of man can take mana potest mandatum Dei tol- away the law of God, no more can lere, ita nec votum potest tol- any vow whatsoever. Therefore lere mandatum Dei. Proinde Cyprian also giveth counsel, that etiam Cyprianus suadet, ut mu- those women should marry who do lieres nubant, quae non servant not keep their vowed chastity, His promissam castitatem. Verba words are these, in the 1st Book, the ejus sunt hæc, Lib. I., Epistola ad Epistle: 'If they will not or are XI. : 'Si autem perseverare no- not able to endure, it is far better lunt, aut non possunt, melius they should marry than that they est, ut nubant, quam ut in should fall into the fire by their ignem deliciis suis cadant; certe importunate desires. In any wise nullum fratribus aut sororibus let them give no offense to their

scandalum faciant.' Et æquitate brethren or sisters.? Yea, even the quadam utuntur ipsi Canones Canons show some kind of justice erga hos, qui ante justam æta- towards such as before their ripe tem voverunt, quomodo fere hac- years did vow chastity, as hitherto tenus fieri consuevit.

the use bath for the most part been.

ART. III.-De Missa,'

Art. III.-Of the Mass." Falso accusantur Ecclesiæ no- Our churches are wrongfully acstræ, quod Missam aboleant ; re-cused to have abolished the Mass. tinetur enim Missa apud nos, et For the Mass is retained still among summa reverentia celebratur. Ser- us, and celebrated with great revvantur et usitatæ ceremoniæ fere erence; yea, and almost all the omnes, præterquam quod Latinis ceremonies that are in use, saving cantionibus [neben lateinischem that with the things sung in Latin Gesang) admiscentur alicubi Ger- we iningle certain things sung in manicæ, quæ additæ sunt ad do- German at various parts of the sercendum populum. Nam ad hoc vice, which are added for the peounum opus est ceremoniis, ut do- ple's instruction. For therefore ceant imperitos.

alone we have need of ceremonies,

that they may teach the unlearned. Et non modo Paulus præcipit This is not only commanded by (1 Cor. xiv.9) uti lingua intellecta St. Paul, to use a tongue that the peopopulo in ecclesia, sed etiam ita ple understand (1 Cor. xiv. 9), but constitutum est humano jure. As- inan's law hath also appointed it. suevit populus, ut una utantur We accustom the people to receive Sacramento, si qui sunt idonei, the Sacrament together, if so be id quoque auget reverentiam ac any be found fit thereunto; and religionem publicarum ceremoni- that is a thing that doth increase arum. Nulli enim admittuntur, the reverence and due estimation nisi antea explorati. Admonen- of the public ceremonies. For none tur etiam homines de dignitate are admitted, except they be first et usu Sacramenti, quantam con- proved. Besides, we put men in

· The word here denotes the public service with the holy communion. Missa (= missio, dismissal) is usually derived from the formula-missa or dismissa est ecclesia—by which in the ante-Nicene Church the catechumens were dismissed before the communion-service began; hence the division of the ancient service into two distinct parts, the missa catechumenorum and the missa fidelium.


solationem afferat pavidis con- mind of the worthiness and use of scientiis, ut discant Deo credere, the Sacrament, how great comfort ct omnia bona a Deo expectare it bringeth to timid consciences ; et petere.

that they may learn to believe God, and to look for and crave all good

things at his hands. Hic cultus delectat Deum, talis This worship doth please God; usus Sacramenti alit pietatem such a use of the Sacrament doth erga Deum. Itaque non viden- nourish piety towards God. Theretur apud adversarios Missæ ma- fore it seemeth not that Masses be jore religione fieri, quam apud more religiously celebrated among

our adversaries than with us. Constat autem hanc quoque But it is evident that of long publicam et longe maximam time this hath been the public and querelam omnium bonorum vi- most grievous complaint of all good rorum diu fuisse, quod Missæ men, that Masses are basely proturpiter prophanarentur, collatæ faned, being used for gain. And ad quæstum. Neque enim obscu- it is not unknown how far this rum est, quam late pateat hic abuse hath spread itself in all abusus in omnibus templis, a churches; of what manner of men qualibus celebrentur Misso, tan- Masses are used, only for a reward, tum propter mercedem aut sti- or for wages; and how many do pendium, quam multi contra use them against the prohibition of interdictum Canonum celebrent. the Canons. But Paul doth grievPaulus autem graviter minatur ously threaten those who treat the his, qui indigne tractant Eucha- Lord's Supper unworthily, saying, ristiam, cum ait (1 Cor. xi. 27): 'He that eateth this bread or drink'Qui ederit panem hunc, aut bi- eth this cup of the Lord unworthiberit calicem Domini indigne, ly, shall be guilty of the body and reus erit corporis et sanguinis blood of the Lord' (1 Cor. xi. 27). Domini.' Itaque cum apud nos Therefore, when the priests among admonerentur Sacerdotes de hoc us were admonished of this sin, pripeccato, desierunt apud nos pri- vate Masses were laid aside among vato Missce, cum fere nullæ pri- us, seeing that for the most part vato Missce nisi quæstus causa there were no private Masses but fierent. Neque ignoraverunt hos only for lucre's sake. Neither were


And per

abusus episcopi, qui si corre- the bishops ignorant of these abuses, xissent eo8 in tempore, minus and if they had amended them in nunc esset dissensionum. Antea time, there had now been less of dissua dissimulatione multa vitia sensions. Heretofore, by their dispassi sunt in Ecclesiam serpere. sembling, they suffered much corNunc sero incipiunt queri de ruption to creep into the Church; calamitatibus Ecclesiæ, cum hic now they begin, thongh it be late, tumultus non aliunde sumpse- to complain of the calaunities of the rit occasionem, quam ex illis Church; seeing that this tumult was abusibus, qui tam manifesti raised up by no other mean than erant, ut tolerari amplius non by those abuses, which were so evipossent. Magnæ dissensiones de dent that they could no longer be Missa, de Sacramento extiterunt. tolerated. There were many disFortasse dat pænas orbis tam sensions, concerning the Mass, condiuturnæ prophanationis Missa- cerning the Sacrament. rum, quam in Ecclesiis tot se-haps the world is punished for so culis toleraverunt isti, qui emen- long a profaning of Masses, which dare et poterant et debebant. they, who both could and ought to Nam in Decalogo scriptum est have amended it, have so many (Exod. xx. 7): 'Qui Dei nomine years tolerated in the churches. abutitur, non erit impunitus' For in the Ten Commandments it At ab initio mundi nulla res is written, 'He that taketh in vain divina ita videtur unquam the name of the Lord shall not be ad quæstum collata fuisse, ut held guiltless' (Exod. xx. 7). And Missa.

from the begiuning of the world there neither was nor is any divine thing which seems so to have been

employed for gain as the Mass. Accessit opinio, quæ auxit pri- There was added an opinion, vatas Missas in infinitum, vide- which increased private Masses inlicet quod Christus sua passione finitely: to wit, that Christ by his satisfecerit pro peccato originis, passion did satisfy for original sin, et instituerit Missam, in qua and appointed the Mass, wherein fieret oblatio pro quotidianis de- an oblation should be made for lictis, mortalibus et venialibus. daily sins, both mortal and venial. Hinc manavit publica opinio, Herenpon a common opinion was

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