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jure bellare, militare, lege contra- | appoint just punishments, engage here, tenere proprium, jusjuran- in just war, act as soldiers, make dum postulantibus magistratibus legal bargains and contracts, hold dare, ducere : uxorem, nubere. property, take an oath when the Damnant Anabaptistas, qui in- magistrates require it, marry a wife, terdicunt hæc civilia officia Chri- or be given in marriage. They constianis. Damnant et illos, qui demn the Anabaptists who forbid Evangelicam perfectionem non Christians these civil offices. They collocant in timore Dei et fide, condemn also those that place the sed in deserendis civilibus offi- perfection of the Gospel, not in the ciis, quia Evangelium tradit ju- fear of God and in faith, but in sticiam æternam cordis. Inte- forsaking civil offices, inasmuch as rim non dissipat Politiam aut the Gospel teacheth an everlasting Economiam, sed maxime postu- righteousness of the heart. In the lat conservare tanquam ordina- mean time, it doth not disallow tiones Dei, et in talibus ordi- order and government of commonnationibus

caritatem. wealths or families, but requireth Itaque necessario debent Christi- especially the preservation and ani obedire magistratibus suis et maintenance thereof, as of God's legibus ; nisi cum jubent peccare, own ordinances, and that in such tunc etiam magis debent obedire ordinances we should exercise love. Deo quam hominibus (Acts v. Christians, therefore, must neces29).

sarily obey their magistrates and laws, save only when they command any sin; for then they must rather obey God than men (Acts v. 29).


ART. XVII.--De Christi Reditu ad Judicium. ART. XVII.-Of Christ's Return to Judgment.

Item docent, quod Christus ap- Also they teach that, in the conparebit in consummatione mun- summation of the world [at the last di [am jüngsten Tag] ad judi- day], Christ shall appear to judge, candum, et mortuos omnes re- and shall raise up all the dead, and suscitabit, piis et electis dabit shall give unto the godly and elect vitam æternam et perpetua gau- eternal life and everlasting joys; dia, impios autem homines acl but ungodly men and the devils

rum esse.

diabolos condemnabit, ut sine shall he condemn unto endless torfine crucientur.

ments. Damnant Anabaptistas, qui They condemn the Anabaptists sentiunt hominibus damnatis ac who think that to condemned men diabolis finem poenarum futu- and the devils shall be an end of

Damnant et alios, qui torments. They condemn others nunc spargunt Judaicas opini- also, who now scatter Jewish opinones, quod ante resurrectionem ions, that, before the resurrection mortuorum pii regnum mundi of the dead, the godly shall occupy occupaturi sint, ubique oppressis the kingdom of the world, the wickimpiis [eitel Heilige, Fromme ein ed being every where suppressed weltlich Reich haben, und alle [the saints alone, the pious, shall Gottlosen vertilgen werden). have a worldly kingdom, and shall

exterminate all the godless].

Art. XVIII.-De Libero Arbitrio.

Art. XVIII.-- Of Free Will. De libero arbitrio docent, quod Concerning free will, they teach humana voluntas habeat aliquam that man's will bath some liberty libertatem ad efficiendam civilem to work a civil righteousness, and justiciam et deligendas res ra- to choose such things as reason can tioni subjectas. Sed non habet reach unto; but that it hath no vim sine Spiritu Sancto effici- power to work the righteousness of ende justiciæ Dei seu justicia God, or a spiritual righteousness, spiritualis, quia animalis homo without the Spirit of God; because non percipit ea, quæ sunt Spi- that the natural man receiveth not ritus Dei (1 Cor. ii. 14); sed hæc the things of the Spirit of God (1 fit in cordibus, cum per verbum Cor. ii. 14). But this is wrought in Spiritus Sanctus concipitur. the heart when men do receive the

Spirit of God through the Word. Hæc totidem verbis dicit Au- These things are in as many gustinus lib. III. Hypognosticon : words affirmed by St. Augustine, Esse fatemur liberum arbitrium Hypognosticon, lib. iii. : We conomnibus hominibus,habens quidem fess that there is in all men a free judicium rationis, non per quod will, which hath indeed the judgsit idoneum in iis, quæ ad Deum ment of reason; not that it is therepertinent, sine Deo aut inchoare by fitted, without God, either to aut certe peragere : sed tantum begin or to perform any thing in in operibus vitæ præsentis tam matters pertaining to God, but only bonis, quam etiam malis. Bonis in works belonging to this present dico, que de bono naturæ oriun- life, whether they be good or evil, tur, i. e., velle laborare in agro, By good works, I mean those which velle manducare et bibere, velle are of the goodness of nature; as habere amicum, velle habere in- to will to labor in the field, to dedumenta, velle fabricare domum, sire meat or drink, to desire to have uxorem velle ducere, pecora nu- a friend, to desire apparel, to desire trire, artem discere diversarum to build a house, to marry a wife, rerum bonarum, vel quicquid bo- to nourish cattle, to learn the art num ad præsentem pertinet vi- of divers good things, to desire any tam. Quo omnia non sine di- good thing pertaining to this presvino gubernaculo subsistunt, imo ent life; all which are not without ex ipso et per ipsum sunt et esse God's government, yea, they are, ceperunt. Malis vero dico, ut and had their beginning from God est, velle idolum colere, velle ho- and by God. Among evil things, micidium, etc.

I account such as these: to will to worship an image; to will man

slaughter, and such like.' Damnant Pelagianos et alios, They condemn the Pelagians and qui docent, quod sine Spiritu others, who teach that by the powSancto, solis naturæ viribus pos- ers of nature alone, without the simus Deum super omnia dili- Spirit of God, we are able to love gere; item præcepta Dei facere, God above all things; also to perquoad substantiam actuum. Quan- form the commandments of God, quam enim externa opera aliquo as touching the substance of our modo efficere natura possit, po- actions. For although nature be test enim continere manus a fur- able in some sort to do the exterto, a cede : tamen interiores mo- nal works (for it is able to withtus non potest efficere, ut timo- hold the hands from theft and murrem Dei, fiduciam erga Deum, der), yet it can not work the incastitatem, patientiam, etc.

ward motions, such as the fear of
God, trust in God, chastity, pa-

tience, and such like.
· The wording of this article is considerably changed in the edition of 1540.

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ART. XIX.-De Causa Peccati.

ART. XIX. -- Of the Cause of Sin. De causa peccati docent, quod Touching the cause of sin, they tametsi Deus creat et conservat teach that, although God doth crenaturam, tamen causa peccati est ate and preserve nature, yet the voluntas malorum, videlicet di- cause of sin is the will of the wickaboli et impiorum, quæ non adju- ed; to wit, of the devil and ungodvante Deo avertit se a Deo, sicut ly men; which will, God 'not aiding, Christus ait (John viii. 44): Cum turneth itself from God, as Christ loquitur mendacium, ex se ip80 saith: When he speaketh a lie, he loquitur.

speaketh of his own' (John viii. 44).


Art. XX.-De Bonis Operibus."

ART. XX. --Of Good Works. Falso accusantur nostri, quod Ours are falsely accused of forbona opera prohibeant. Nam bidding good works. For their scripta eorum, quæ extant de de- writings extant upon the Ten Comcem præceptis, et alia simili ar- mandments

, and others of the like gumento testantur, quod utiliter argument, do bear witness that they docuerint de omnibus vitæ gene- have to good purpose taught conribus et officiis, quæ genera vitæ, cerning every kind of life, and its quæ opera in qualibet vocatione duties ; what kinds of life, and what Deo placeant. ' De quibus rebus works in every calling, do please olim parum docebant Conciona- God. Of which things preachers tores, tantum puerilia et non ne in former times taught little or cessaria opera urgebant, ut certas nothing: only they urged certain ferias, certa jejunia, fraternitates, childish and needless works; as, peregrinationes, cultus Sancto- keeping of holidays, set fasts, frarum, rosaria, monachatum et si- ternities, pilgrimages, worshiping milia. Hæc adversarii nostri of saints, the use of rosaries, monkadmoniti nunc dediscunt, nec pe- ery, and such like things. Whereof rinde prædicant hæc inutilia our adversaries having had warnopera, ut olim. Preterea incipi- ing, they do now unlearn them, and unt fidei mentionem facere, de do not preach concerning these unqua olim mirum erat silentium. profitable works, as they were wont. Docent nos non tantum operibus Besides, they begin now to make justificari, sed conjungunt fidem mention of faith, concerning which ? This article is enlarged to more than double its original size in the altered edition of 1540.

et opera, et dicunt, nos fide et ope- there was formerly a deep silence. ribus justificari. Que doctrina They teach that we are not justitolerabilior est priore, et plus fied by works alone; but they conafferre potest consolationis, quan join faith and works, and say we vetus ipsorum doctrinas.

are justified by faith and works. Which doctrine is more tolerable than the former one, and can afford more consolation than their old doc

trine. Cum igitur doctrina de fide, Whereas, therefore, the doctrine quam oportet in Ecclesia præ- of faith, which should be the chief cipuam esse, tam diu jacuerit one in the Church, hath been so ignota, quemadmodum fateri om- long unknown, as all men must needs nes necesse est, de fidei justitia grant, that there was the deepest altissimum silentium fuisse in silence about the righteousness of concionibus, tantum doctrinam faith in their sermons, and that the operum versatam esse in eccle- doctrine of works was usual in the siis, nostri de fide sic admonue- churches; for this cause our divines runt ecclesias :

did thus adinonish the churches : Principio, quod opera nostra First, that our works can not recnon possint reconciliare Deum, oncile God, or deserve remission of aut mereri remissionem peccato- sins, grace, and justification at his rum et gratiam et justificatio- hands, but that these we obtain by nem, sed hanc tantum fide conse- faith only, when we believe that we quimur, credentes, quod propter are received into favor for Christ's Christum recipiamur in gra- sake, who alone is appointed the Metiam, qui solus positus est Medi- diator and Propitiatory, by whom ator et Propitiatorium (1 Tim. ii. the Father is reconciled. He, there5), per quem reconcilietur Pater. fore, that trusteth by his works to Itaque qui confidit, operibus se merit grace, doth despise the merit mereri gratiam, is aspernatur and grace of Christ, and seeketh by Christi meritum et gratiam, et his own power, without Christ, to querit sine Christo humanis vi- come unto the Father; whereas ribus viam ad Deum, cum Chri- Christ hath said expressly of himstus de se dixerit (John xiv. 6): self, 'I am the way, the truth, and Ego sum via, veritas .et vita. the life' (John xiv. 6).

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