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XI. Peccatum enim originis XI. For Original Sin is not a non est quoddam delictum, quod particular transgression which is actu perpetratur, sed intime in- perpetrated in act, but intimately hæret infixum ipsi naturæ, sub- inheres, being infixed in the very stantiæ et essentiæ hominis. Et nature, substance, and essence of quidem, si maxime nulla unquam man. And, indeed, if no depraved prava cogitatio in corde hominis thought at all should ever arise in corrupti exoriretur, si nullum the heart of fallen man, if no idle verbum otiosum proferretur, si word were uttered, if no evil work nullum malum opus aut facinus or deed were perpetrated by him: designaretur : tamen natura ni- yet, nevertheless, the nature is corhilominus corrupta est per origi- rupted by Original Sin, which is nale peccatum, quod nobis ratione innate in us by reason of the corcorrupti seminis agnatum est, rupted seed from which we spring, quod ipsum etiam scaturigo est and is, moreover, a fountain of omnium aliorum actualium pec- all other actual sins, such as evil catorum, ut sunt pravæ cogita- thoughts, evil discoursings, evil and tiones, prava colloquia, prave et abominable deeds. For thus it is scelerate facta. Sic enim scrip- written, as we read in Matthew tum legimus (Matt. xv. 19): ‘Ex xv. 19: “For out of the heart
procorde oriuntur cogitationes malæ.' ceed evil thoughts.' And elseEt alibi (Gen. vi. 5; viii. 21): where (Gen. vi. 5; viii. 21): ‘Every 'Omne figmentum cordis tan- imagination of the thought of tummodo malum est, a pueri- man's heart is only evil from his ta.”
youth. XII. Est etiam diligenter ob- XII. We must also diligently observanda varia significatio voca- serve the various significations of buli 'naturæ,' cujus æquivocatione the word nature, which equivocal Manichæi abutentes, errorem su- meaning the Manichæans abusing, um occultant, multosque simpli- thereby disguise their error, and ces homines in errorem inducunt. lead many simple men astray. For Quandoque enim 'natura' ipsam sometimes nature signifies the very hominis substantiam significat, ut, substance of man, as when we say: cum dicimus : Deus humanam God created human nature. Somenaturam creavit. Interdum vero times, on the other hand, by the per vocabulum naturæ intelligitur word nature there is understood
ingenium, conditio, defectus, aut the temper, condition, defect, or vitium alicujus rei, in ipsa na- vice of any thing implanted and tura insitum et inhærens, ut cum inhering in the nature, as when dicimus : Serpentis natura est we say: The serpent's nature is to icere, hominis natura est peccare strike, man’s nature is to sin and et peccatum. Et in hac posteri- is sin. And in this latter signifiore significatione vocabulum (na- cation the word nature denotes, turæ) non ipsam hominis substan- not the very nature of man, but tiam, sed aliquid, quod in natura something which inheres and is aut substantia fixum inhæret, de- fixed in his nature or substance. notat.
XIII. Quod vero ad Latina XIII. But as respects the Latin vocabula substantiæ et accidentis words substantia and accidens,since attinet, cum ea non sint Scrip- these are not expressions of Holy turæ Sacræ vocabula, præterea Scripture, and moreover are not etiam a plebe non intelligantur, understood by the common people, abstinendum est ab illis in pub- we ought to abstain from them in licis sacris concionibus, ubi in- public preaching devoted to the indocta plebs docetur; et hac in struction of the unlearned multire simplicium et rudiorum me- tude, and in this matter account rito habenda est ratio.
shonld rightly be taken of the more
simple and untaught. In scholis autem, et apud ho- But in schools and among learnmines doctos (quibus horum vo- ed men (to whom the signification cabulorum significatio nota est, of these words is known, and who et qui iisdem recte atque citra can use them correctly and without abusum uti possunt, proprie danger of misuse, properly discrimdiscernentes essentiam alicujus inating the essence of any thing rei ab eo, quod aliunde ei acci- from that which has been added to dit et per accidens inhæret) in it from without, and inheres in it disputatione de peccato originis by way of accident) they are to be retinenda sunt.
retained in the discussion concern
ing Original Sin. Nam hisce vocabulis discri
For by means of these terms the men inter opus Dei, et inter distinction between the work of opus Diaboli quam maxime per- God and the work of the devil can
spicue explicari potest. Diabo- be set forth with the greatest clearlus enim substantiam nullam ness. For the devil can not create creare, sed tantummodo per ac- any substance, but can only, by cidens, permittente Domino, sub- way of accident, under the perstantiam a Deo creatam depra- mission of the Lord, deprave a vare potest.
substance created by God.
DE LIBERO ARBITRIO.
OF FREE WILL.
STATEMENT OF THE CONTROVERSY. Cum hominis voluntas quad- Since the will of man is to be ruplicem habeat considerationem considered under a fourfold view [in vier ungleichen Ständen): [in four dissimilar states]: first, primo, ante lapsum ; secundo, before the fall; secondly, since the post lapsum ; tertio, post regene- fall; thirdly, after regeneration; rationem ; quarto, post resur- fourthly, after the resurrection of rectionem carnis : nunc quæstio the body: the chief present inquiry præcipua est tantum de volun- regards the will and powers of man tate et viribus hominis in se- in the second state, what manner cundo statu, quasnam vires post of powers since the fall of our first lapsum primorum parentum nos- parents he has of himself in spirittrorum, ante regenerationem, ex ual things antecedently to regenerseipso habeat, in rebus spiritu- ation: whether by his own proper alibus : an propriis viribus, an- powers, before he has been regenertequam per Spiritum Dei fuerit ated by the Spirit of God, he can regeneratus, possit sese ad gra- apply and prepare himself unto the tiam Dei applicare et præparare grace of God, and whether he can [sich zur Gnade Gottes schicken receive and apprehend the divine und bereiten],' et num gratiam grace (which is offered to him divinam (quo illi per Spiritum through the Holy Ghost in the Sanctum in verbo et Sacramentis word and sacraments divinely indivinitus institutis offertur) acci- stituted), or not? pere et apprehendere possit, nec ne.
· The synergistic term used by Melanchthon in his later period. See Vol. I. pp. 262 and 270.
AFFIRMATIVE. Sincera doctrina de hoc articulo, cum inmota The sound doctrine concerning this article, regula verbi divini congruens.
agreeable to the steadfast rule of the divine Word.
I. De hoc negotio hæc est fides, I. Concerning this matter, the foldoctrina et confessio nostra : quod lowing is our faith, doctrine, and videlicet hominis intellectus et ra- confession, to wit: that the undertio in rebus spiritualibus prorsus standing and reason of man in spirsint coeca, nihilque propriis vi- itral things are wholly blind, and ribus intelligere possint. Sicut can understand nothing by their scriptum est (1 Cor. ii. 14): 'Ani- proper powers. As it is written (1 malis homo non percipit ea, quæ Cor. ii. 14): “The natural man persunt Spiritus ; stultitia illi est, ceiveth not the things of the Spirit et non potest intelligere, quia de of God: for they are foolishness spiritualibus examinatur' [wann unto him: neither can he know er wird von geistlichen Sachen them, because he is examined congefraget].'
cerning spiritnal things.” II. Credimus, docemus et con- II. We believe, teach, and confitemur etiam, voluntatem homi- fess, moreover, that the yet unrenis nondum renatam, non tan- generate will of man is not only tum a Deo esse aversam, verum averse from God, but has become etiam inimicam Deo factam, ita, even hostile to God, so that it only ut tantummodo ea velit et cupiat, wishes and desires those things, üsque delectetur, quo mala sunt and is delighted with them, which et voluntati divino repugnant. are evil and opposite to the diScriptum est enim (Gen. viii. 21): vine will. For it is written (Gen. Sensus et cogitatio humani cor- viii. 21): For the imagination and dis in malum prona sunt ab thought of man's heart are prone adolescentia sua.' Item (Rom. to evil from his youth. Also (Rom. viii. 7): 'Affectus carnis inimi- viii. 7): "The carnal mind is encitia est adversus Deum, neque mity against God: for it is not
We usually transfer the Scripture passages from our Authorized English Version. But this would not answer here, nor in several other cases. The German text of the Formula deviates in 1 Cor. ii. 14 from Luther's Version (es muss geistlich gerichtet sein), and the Latin text deviates from the Vulgate and accords with the German. Tyndale (1534) and the Rheims Version (1582) translate őri avevmatikūs ávarpiverat, “because he is spiritually examined ;' the Authorized Version, “because they are spiritually discerned.'
enim legi subjicitur, ac ne po- subject to the law, neither indeed test id quidem.
Itaque credimus, quantum abest, Therefore we believe that by ut corpus mortuum seipsum vivi- how much it is impossible that ficare, atque sibiipsi corporalem a dead body should vivify itself vitam restituere possit, tantum and restore corporal life to itself, abesse, ut homo, qui ratione pec- eren so impossible is it that man, cati spiritualiter mortuus est, who by reason of sin is spirituseipsum in vitam spiritualem re-ally dead, should have any faculty vocandi ullam facultatem habeat ; of recalling himself into spiritsicut scriptum est (Eph. ii. 5): ual life; as it is written (Eph. ii. ‘Cum essemus mortui in peccatis, 5): ‘Even when we were dead in convivificavit nos cum Christo,' etc. sins, he hath quickened us togeth(2 Cor. iii, 5): ‘Itaque etiam ex no-er with Christ. (2 Cor. iii. 5): bismetipsis, tanquam ex nobis, non "Not that we are sufficient of sumus idonei, ut aliquid boni [et- ourselves to think any thing good' was Guts]' cogitemus ; quod vero as of ourselves; but that we are idonei sumus, id ipsum a Deo est? sufficient is itself of God.'
III. Conversionem autem ho- III. Nevertheless the Holy Spirit minis operatur Spiritus Sanctus effects the conversion of man not non sine mediis, sed ad eam effi- without means, but is wont to use ciendam uti solet prædicatione for effecting it preaching and the et auscultatione verbi Dei, sicut hearing of the Word of God, as it is scriptum est (Rom. i. 16): ‘Evan- written (Rom. i. 16): “The gospel gelion est potentia Dei ad salu- is a power of God unto salvation tem omni credenti? Et (Rom. x. to every one that believeth. And 17): ‘Fides est ex auditu verbi (Rom. x. 17): “Faith cometh by Deii' Et sane vult Dominus, hearing of the Word of God.' And ut ipsius verbum audiatur, ne- without qnestion it is the will of que ad illius prædicationem the Lord that his Word should be aures obdurentur (Psa. xcv. 8). heard, and that our ears should not Huic verbo adest præsens Spiri- be stopped when it is preached tus Sanctus, et corda hominum (Psa. xcv. 8). With this Word is aperit, ut, sicut Lydia in Actis present the Holy Spirit, who opens
· The paraphrastic addition 'good' of the German and Latin text is wanting in the Greek and in Luther's Version.