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ritualibus rebus totam bonam et spiritual things it has remained puram in viribus suis naturali- wholly good and pure in its natural bus mansisse.

powers. IV. Item, peccatum originis ex- IV. Also, that Original Sin is an ternum, levem, et nullius prope external, trivial, and almost insigmomenti esse nævum, aut asper- nificant birth-mark, or a certain sam quandam maculam, sub qua stain dashed upon the man, under nihilominus natura bonas suas the which, nevertheless, nature hath vires etiam in rebus spiritualibus retained her powers unimpaired retinuerit.

even in spiritual things. V. Item, peccatum originale tan- V. Also, that Original Sin is only tum esse externum impedimentum an external impediment of sound bonarum spiritualium virium, et spiritual powers, and is not a denon esse despoliationem et defec- spoliation and defect thereof, even tum earundem, sicuti cum magnes as, when a magnet is smeared with allii succo illinitur, vis ejus natu- garlic-juice, its natural power of ralis attrahendi ferrum non tolli- drawing iron is not taken away, but tur, sed tantum impeditur, aut si- is only impeded; or as a stair. can cut macula de facie, aut color de be easily wiped off from the face, pariete abstergi facile potest. or paint from a wall.

VI. Item, hominis naturam et VI. Also, that man's nature and essentiam non prorsus esse cor- essence are not utterly corrupt, ruptam : sed aliquid boni adhuc but that there is something of in homine reliquum, etiam in re- good still remaining in man, eren bus spiritualibus, videlicet, boni- in spiritual things, to wit, goodtatem, capacitatem, aptitudinem, ness, capacity, aptitude, ability, facultatem, industriam, aut vires, industry, or the powers by which quibus in rebus spiritualibus in- in spiritual things he has strength choare aliquid boni, operari, aut to undertake, effect, or co-effect cooperari valeat.

somewhat of good. VII. Contra autem rejicimus VII. But, on the other hand, we etiam falsum dogma Manichæo- reject also the false dogma of the rum, cum docetur, peccatum ori- Manichæans, where it is taught that ginis tanquam quiddam essentiale Original Sin is, as it were, something atque substantiale a Satana in na- essential and substantial, infused by turam esse infusum, et cum eadem Satan into the nature, and mingled permixtum, quemadmodum vene- with the same, as wine and poison num et vinum miscentur.

are mixed. VIII. Item, non ipsum anima- VIII. Also, that it is not the natlem hominem, sed aliquid aliud, ural man himself, but something et peregrinum quiddam, quod sit alien and strange, which is in man, in homine, peccare, ideoque non that sins, and that therefore not his ipsam naturam, sed tantummodo nature itself, but only Original Sin peccatum originale, in natura existing in his nature is liable to existens, accusari.

arraignment. IX. Rejicimus etiam atque dam- IX. We reject also and condemn, namus, ut Manichæum errorem, as a Manichæan error, the teaching

, quando. docetur, originale pecca- that Original Sin is properly, and tum proprie, et quidem nullo po- without any distinction, the very sito discrimine, esse ipsam homi. substance, nature, and essence of nis corrupti substantiam, natu- fallen man, so that between his ram et essentiam, ita ut inter na- corrupt nature after the fall, conturam corruptam post lapsum, sidered in itself, and Original Sin per se ipsam consideratam, et in- there is no difference at all, and ter peccatum originis nulla pror- that no distinction can be conceived sus sit differentia, neque ulla dis- by which Original Sin can be distinctio cogitari, aut saltem pecca- tinguished from man's nature even tum illud a natura cogitatione in thought. discerni possit.

X. D. Lutherus quidem origi- X. Dr. Luther, it is true, calls nis illud malum, peccatum na- this original evil a sin of nature, ture, personale, essentiale vocat : personal, essential; but not for sed non eam ob causam, quasi the reason that the nature, pernatura, persona, aut essentia ho- son, or essence of man, without minis, absque omni discrimine, any distinction, is itself Original sit ipsum peccatum originis : sed Sin, but he speaks after this manideo ad hunc modum loquitur, ut ner in order that by phrases of hujusmodi phrasibus discrimen this sort the distinction between inter peccatum originale, quod Original Sin, which is infixed in humanæ naturæ infixum est, et human natnre, and other sins, inter alia peccata, quæ actualia which are called actual, may be rocantur, melius intelligi possit. better understood.

VOL. III.-H

XI. Peccatum enim originis XI. For Original Sin is not a non est quoddam delictum, quod particular transgression which is actu perpetratur, sed intime in- perpetrated in act, but intimately hæret infixum ipsi nature, sub- inheres, being infixed in the very stantiæ et essentiæ hominis. Et nature, substance, and essence of quidem, si maxime nulla unquam man. And, indeed, if no depraved prava cogitatio in corde hominis thought at all should ever arise in corrupti exoriretur, si nullum the heart of fallen man, if no idle verbum otiosum proferretur, si word were uttered, if no evil work nullum malum opus aut facinus or deed were perpetrated by him: designaretur: tamen natura ni- yet, nevertheless, the nature is corhilominus corrupta est per origi- rupted by Original Sin, which is nale peccatum, quod nobis ratione innate in us by reason of the corcorrupti seminis agnatum est, rupted seed from which we spring, quod ipsum etiam scaturigo est and is, moreover, a fountain of omnium aliorum actualium pec- all other actual sins, such as evil catorum, ut sunt pravæ cogita- thoughts, evil discoursings, evil and tiones, prava colloquia, prave et abominable deeds. For thus it is scelerate facta. Sic enim scrip- written, as we read in Matthew tum legimus (Matt. xv. 19): “Ex xv. 19: "For out of the heart procorde oriuntur cogitationes malæ ceed evil thoughts. And elseEt alibi (Gen. vi. 5; viii. 21): where (Gen. vi. 5; viii. 21): ‘Every 'Omne figmentum cordis tan- imagination of the thought of tummodo malum est, a pueri- man's heart is only evil from his tia.

youth. XII. Est etiam diligenter ob- XII. We must also diligently observanda varia significatio voca- serve the various significations of buli 'nature,' cujus æquivocatione the word nature, which equivocal Manichæi abutentes, errorem su- meaning the Manichæans abusing, um occultant, multosque simpli- thereby disgnise their error, and ces homines in errorem inducunt. lead many simple men astray. For Quandoque enim natura' ipsam sometimes nature signifies the very hominis substantiam significat, ut, substance of man, as when we say: cum dicimus : Deus humanam God created human nature. Somenaturam creavit. Interdum vero times, on the other hand, by the per vocabulum naturæ intelligitur word nature there is understood

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ingenium, conditio, defectus, aut | the temper, condition, defect, or vitium alicujus rei, in ipsa na- vice of any thing implanted and tura insitum et inhærens, ut cum inhering in the nature, as when dicimus : Serpentis natura est we say: The serpent's nature is to icere, hominis natura est peccare strike, man’s nature is to sin and et peccatum. Et in hac posteri- is sin. And in this latter signifiore significatione vocabulum (na- cation the word nature denotes, turæ non ipsam hominis substan- not the very nature of man, but tiam, sed aliquid, quod in natura something which inheres and is aut substantia fixum inhæret, de- fixed in his nature or substance. notat.

XIII. Quod vero ad Latina XIII. But as respects the Latin vocabula substantive et accidentis words substantia and accidens, since attinet, cum ea non sint Scrip- these are not expressions of Holy turæ Sacræ vocabula, præterea Scripture, and moreover are not etiam a plebe non intelligantur, understood by the common people, abstinendum est ab illis in pub- we ought to abstain from them in licis sacris concionibus, ubi in- public preaching devoted to the indocta plebs docetur ; et hac in struction of the unlearned multire simplicium et rudiorum me- tude, and in this matter account rito habenda est ratio.

should rightly be taken of the more

simple and untaught. In scholis autem, et apud ho- But in schools and among learnmines doctos (quibus horum vo- ed men (to whom the signification cabulorum significatio nota est, of these words is known, and who et qui iisdem recte atque citra can use them correctly and without abusum uti possunt, proprie danger of misuse, properly discrimdiscernentes essentiam alicujus inating the essence of any thing rei ab eo, quod aliunde ei acci- from that which has been added to dit et per accidens inhæret) in it from without, and inheres in it disputatione de peccato originis by way of accident) they are to be retinenda sunt.

retained in the discussion concern

ing Original Sin. Nam hisce vocabulis discri- For by means of these terms the men inter opus Dei, et inter distinction between the work of opus Diaboli quam maxime per-God and the work of the devil can spicue explicari potest. Diabo- | be set forth with the greatest clearlus enim substantiam nullam ness. For the devil can not create creare, sed tantummodo per ac- any substance, but can only, by cidens, permittente Domino, sub- way of accident, under the perstantiam a Deo creatain depra- mission of the Lord, deprare a vare potest.

substance created by God.

ART. II.

ART. II.

DE LIBERO ARBITRIO.

OF FREE WILL.

STATEMENT OF THE CONTROVERSY. Cum hominis voluntas quad- Since the will of inan is to be ruplicem habeat considerationem considered under a fourfold view [in vier ungleichen Ständen] : [in four dissimilar states]: first, primo, ante lapsum; secundo, before the fall; secondly, since the post lapsum ; tertio, post regene- fall; thirdly, after regeneration; rationem; quarto, post resur- fourthly, after the resurrection of rectionem carnis : nunc quæstio the body: the chief present inquiry præcipua est tantum de volun- regards the will and powers of man tate et viribus hominis in se- in the second state, what manner cundo statu, quasnam vires post of powers since the fall of our first lapsum primorum parentum nos- parents he has of himself in spirittrorum, ante regenerationem, ex ual things antecedently to regenerseipso habeat, in rebus spiritu- ation: whether by his own proper alibus : an propriis viribus, an- powers, before he has been regenertequam per Spiritum Dei fuerit ated by the Spirit of God, he can regeneratus, possit sese ad gra- apply and prepare himself unto the tiam Dei applicare et præparare grace of God, and whether he can [sich zur Gnade Gottes schicken receive and apprehend the divine und bereiten],' et num gratiam grace (which is offered to him divinam (quæ illi per Spiritum through the Holy Ghost in the Sanctum in verbo et Sacramentis word and sacraments divinely indivinitus institutis offertur) acci- stituted), or not? pere et apprehendere possit, nec ne.

STATUS CONTROVERSIÆ.

| The synergistic term used by Melanchthon in his later period. See Vol. I. pp. 262 and 270.

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