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little white round stick of fourteen inches lying by his trencher, that he might defend such meat as he had no mind to part with to them. The windows (which were very large) served for places to lay his arrows, cross-bows, stone-bows, and other such like accoutre-ments. The corners of the room full of the best-chose hunting and hawking poles. An oyster-table at the lower end, which was of constant use twice a day all the year round. For he never failed to eat oysters, before dinner and supper, through all seasons; the neighbouring town of Pool supplied him with them.
The upper part of the room had two small tables and a desk, on the one side of which was a church bible, and on the other the Book of Martyrs. On the tables were hawks-hoods, bells, and such like; two or three old green hats, with their crown thrust in so as to hold ten or a dozen eggs, which were of a pheasant kind of poultry he took much care of and fed himself. Tables, dice, cards, and boxes were not wanting. In the hole of the desk were store of tobacco pipes that had been used.
On one side of this end of the room was the door of a closet wherein stood the strong beer and the wine, which never came thence but in single glasses; that being the rule of the house exactly observed. For he ever exceeded in drink or permitted it.
On the other side was the door into an old chapel, not used for devotion. The pulpit, as the safest place, was never wanting of a cold chine of beef, venison pasty, gammon of bacon, or great apple-pye, with thick crust, extremely baked.
His table cost him not much; though it was good to eat at. His sports supplied all but beef and mutton, except Fridays, when he had the best salt fish (as well as other fish) he could get: and was the day his neighbours of best quality most visited him. He never wanted a London pudding, and al
ways sung it in with My part lies therein-a.' He drank a glass or two of wine at meals; very often syrup of gilliflower in his sack; and had always a tun glass, without feet, stood by him holding a pint of small beer, which he often stirred with rosemary.
He was well natured but soon angry, calling all his servants, bastards and cuckoldy knaves, in one of which he often spoke truth to his own knowledge; and sometimes in both, though of the same man. He lived to be an hundred; never lost his eye-sight, but always wrote and read without spectacles: and got on horseback without help. Until past fourscore he rode to the death of a stag as well as any.
I am, dear cousin,
No. LXXXII. THURSDAY, AUGUST 21.
Nosse omnia hæc, salus est adolescentulis.
All these to know, is safety to the youth.
THOUGH the following letter was originally written for the instruction of a young gentleman going to the university; yet as it contains several just and sensible reflections, which may be of use to many of my readers, I have willingly complied with the request of my correspondent in making it the entertainment of to-day.
AS you are now going to the university, I would not be thought to pay so ill a compliment to your
own natural good sense, as to suppose that you will not (like many young gentlemen of fortune) in some measure apply yourself to study: otherwise the time -you spend there will be entirely lost; for (as Swift very justly remarks) "all ornamental parts of educa❝tion are better taught in other places." At the same time I do not mean that you should commence pedant, and be continually poring on a book; since that will rather puzzle, than inform the understanding. And though I know many sprightly young gentlemen of lively and quick parts affect to despise it altogether, it will be necessary to learn something of logic; I mean in the same manner one would learn fencing......not to attack others, but to defend one's self. In a word, you will find it a great unhappiness when you return hither, if you do not bring with you some taste for reading: for a mere country gentleman, who can find no society in books, will have little else to do, besides following his sports, but to sit as squire of the company, tippling among a parcel of idle wretches, whose understandings are nearly on a level with his dogs and horses.
It has been an established maxim, that the world will always form an opinion of persons according to the company they are known to keep. In the university, as well as in other places, there are people, whom we ought to avoid, as we would the plague: and as it is of the utmost consequence, whether you plunge at once into extravagance or debauchery, or sink gradually into indolence and stupidity, I shall point out some of these pests of society in as few words as possible.
The first person I would caution you against is the wretch that takes delight to turn religion into ridicule: one who employs that speech which was given him by God to celebrate his praise, in questioning his very being. This, as it is impious in itself, is likewise
the height of ill manners. It is hoped, there are but few of them to be met with in a place of sound doctrine and religious education: but wherever they are, they ought to be avoided as much as possible; and if they will force themselves into our company, they should be used with the same contempt, with which they have the hardiness to treat their Maker. And this, I can assure you, may be done safely: for as I never knew any body who pretended to be above the fear of God, but was under the most terrible apprehensions, whenever attacked by man.
The next character, whom I would advise you to shun, is the gamester, in some respects not unlike the former. The gaming-table is his shrine, and fortune his deity: nor does he ever speak or think of any other, unless by way of blasphemy, oaths and curses, when he has had a bad run at cards or dice. He has -not the least notion of friendship; but would ruin his own brother, if it might be of any advantage to himself. He, indeed, professes himself your friend; but that is only with a design to draw you in for his trade is inconsistent with the principles of honour or justice, without which there can be no real friendship. It should, therefore, be the care of every gentleman, not to hold any commerce with such people, whose acquaintance he cannot enjoy without giving up his
The next person, whom you ought to beware of, is a Drunkard; one that takes an unaccountable pleasure in sapping his constitution, and drowning his understanding. He constantly goes senseless to bed, and rises maukish in the morning; nor can he be easy in body or mind, till he has renewed his dose, and again put himself beyond the reach of reflection. I would, therefore, entreat you by all means to avoid an habit, which will at once ruin your health, and impair your intellects. It is a misfortune, that society should
be esteemed dull and insipid without the assistance of the bottle to enliven it: so that a man cannot entirely refrain from his glass, if he keeps any company at all. But let it be remembered, that in drinking, as well as in talking, we ought always to "keep a watch over the doors of our lips."
A lounger is a creature, that you will often see lolling in a coffee-house, or sauntering about the streets, with great calmness, and a most inflexible stupidity in his countenance. He takes as much pains as the sot, to fly from his own thoughts; and is at length happily arrived at the highest pitch of indolence, both in mind and body. He would be as inoffensive, as he is dull, if it were not that his idleness is contagious; for, like the torpedo, he is sure to benumb and take away all sense of feeling from every one, with whom he happens to come into contact.
It were also best to forbear the company of a wrangler, or a person of a litigious temper. This sometimes arises, not from any great share of ill-nature, but from a vain pride of shewing one's parts, or skill in argumentation. It is frequently observed of young academics in particular, that they are very apt impertinently to engage people in a dispute, whether they will or not. But this is contrary to all the rules of good-breeding, and is never practised by any man of sense, that has seen much of the world. I have sometimes known a person of great sauciness, and volubility of expression, confuted by the argumentum baculinum, and both his head and his syllogism broken at the same time.
I need not point out to you the profligate rake or the affected coxcomb, as persons from whose company you can reap no sort of benefit. From the first the good principles, already instilled into you, will doubtless preserve you; and I am sure you have too much real sense, not to despise the absurd fopperies