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Dual. Ν. Α. V. «ατε, G. D. -ατοιν.
The variation of the vowels and consonants before on account of the increase of the genitive case, may be better learned from the lexicon and practice.
RULES SUITED TO THIS DECLENSION, AND TO THE
VARIATION OF NOUNS IMPARISYLLABIC.
I. OF THE ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR.
The accusative singular of nouns, whether masculine or feminine, ends in a
Except-(1) Nouns ending in s after , or », (except Eus, a good man) if their genitive end in a pure, change s into v in the accusative: as is öös, a sheep, G, öövń spæcos, an old woman, γραός, γραύν.
(2) Gravitons,* in is and us, which have a impure in the genitive, make the accusative both in .cc and -v; as, žeus, contention, igido, igida, and équv: xógus, a helmet, xóρυθα, and κόρυν. So κλεις, a key, κλειδα and κλιν; and words compounded with 785, the foot, as, Oidi-ródd, Cedipus, -38y.
II. OF THE VOCATIVE SINGULAR.
The vocative is like the nominative: except, that,
(1) Nouns ending in s after 1 or v reject the s in the vocative, as lágos, Paris, Bås, a bull, négua C8. Unless they be acutitonst in is and ús; as w inn is, hope, yaapós, a cloak: also ô nós, ödés.
(2) Nouns which are varied by a form their vocative by throwing off 10; as ó réqwv, an old man, végorre, ô gégor. But nouns in -655, 616, have the vocative in and εν; as πλακόεις, broad, -ενθG-, ώ πλακός and πλακόεν.
(3) Gravitons in cs - VG, nu esv@, WY -ov , wę -080, and for the most part those in
form the vocative * Gravitons, called also Barytons, are nouns which have no accent on the last syllable.
† Acutitons, or xytons, are nouns which have an acute ac. cent on the last syllable.
from the genitive by throwing off -, as, púrwg, an orator, ρήτορG-, ώ ρήτος: also Ποσειδών, Neptune, -ώνος, Ποσειdov, and owtúe, a Saviour, -ăgos, cãteg. But all nouns in ns -C, by rejecting o; as, Longálns, Socrates, -405, â Eóxqueles.
III. OF THE DATIVE PLURAL.
The dative case plural is formed from the dative singular, by rejecting d, 4, », , and assuming a before e; as, τιτάνι -ασι, σώματι “ασι.
. But one of the dative singular, becomes you; as, asorti, from newy, a lion, 46801: go becomes *quoi in nouns which end in
and are subject to syncope; as, Tating, a father, wargi, razgács. And, among the poets, in all nouns it becomes εσι or εσσι, as, ηγεμών, a leader, η Γεμόνι, ηγεμόνεσι, Or, 2001.
Nouns ending in ğ, 4, or s after a diphthong, form the dative plural from the nominative singular by adding .; as, xóęąž, a raven, rógaži, Bxcincūs, a king, -asvor: only xteis, a comb, xléon, nós, a foot, 706, 85, an ear, áci.
N is added to the dative plural ending in if a vowel or diphthong follows, as, xeggir ávéztons, with unwashed hands; and every where, among the poets.
IV. OF SYNCOPE.
Some nouns in ng negos lose e by syncope, in the genitive and dative cases singular and dative plural; as n alue, a father, piring, a mother, yashę, the stomach; but fundo Ting, a daughter, Ampesong, Ceres, retain it in all the imparisyilabic cases. In like manner évág, a man; only, for e omitted, it takes à; as, úvégos, ávöçós. To this rule refer ágang a lamb, á quós, rów, a dog, xuvós, &c. the middle vowe! being omitted.
THE DECLENSIONS OF CONTRACTED NOUNS.
The declensions of the contracted nouns arise from the last declension of the simples making the genitive
So ágvi -aci, vii vidol but yashganpol. ήν is added to εικοσι through all the cases, as εικοσιν ανδρες, twenty men, for sixooi avspes; indeed all words ending in a orig if the next word commence with a vowel, v may be added.
in a pure. They are called contracted nouns, because, in their variations, two syllables are contracted into one. But a contraction is made either in all the cases whose final syllable is pure,* as in the first declension of the contracts; or in sonie particular cases only; the dat. sing. and the nom. acc. and voc. plural, as in the last declension. Ee and ea, when s follows, may be contracted into but when s does not follow, into ni the Attics sometimes into a.
THE FIRST DECLENSION OF THE CONTRACTS. The first declension of the contracts has three termi. nations, in one of the masculine and feminine, and in -es, and cu of the neuter; as, Sing. N. et Sweet -xs, Socrates, G. “-8, D. i ,
V. Dual. N. A. V, -€€ on, G. D. -600N -owy. Plur. N.-EES -ES, G. éwy -õv, D. -861, A. -EMS -ES, . SES - 45
Sing. N. To 74%-C, a wall, G. Gu•85, D. -Eï -64, A.-G, V. G. Dual. N. A. V.
G. D. Sony -oby,
ny Plur. N. -80 -n, G. -ÉWY -ãv, 1). -506, A. -80 -7, V. -60% -%%.
Some proper nouns of this declension are declined in the accusative, like substantives of equal syllables: as,
A gasovns, Aristophanes, 'Agisolévny. So also the compounds of tro, a year, in certain cases; as Éttaétas, seven years, in the accusative plural.
THE LAST DECLENSION OF THE CONTR RACTS. This declension has five terminations: in is of the masculine and feminine genders; in and of the masculine only; in , and u of the neuter: as Sing. N. : %0 --s a serpent,
G. -os -Ï -c, A. -, V. Dual. N. A. V. -6, G. D. -lovy. Plur. N. -1€§ -is, G. -ów, D. -651, A. -645 -īs, V.-165 -rs
* Except the dative plural.
# The compounds of xxcos are doubly contracted as Ilgaxx-ens, ης gen. εεος, εους, εος ους, &c.
Ś Contractions take place here only in the dat. singular, and in the nom. accus. and yoc. plural.
According to the Attic dialect, the genitives of nouns in rs are more frequently expressed by -EWS EV, and €wy, and cases contracted by : as, οφεως, οφεων, οφεων, όφει, phs.
Sing. N. rò cima -6, mustard, G. -105, D. -7 -7, A. - V.6.
obot -, V. -102 -7. Sig. N. • Beck-60%, a king, G. -cos, D. - - sĩ, A. •£ 4,
Dual. N. A. V. -és -ń, G. D. -éo.v.
V.-999 -OS. , Sing. N. rò és -v, a city, G.-G. D. -sä -Ely Dual. N. A. V. G. D. conv. Plur. N. -82-% G. -swy, D. -606, A. - EU - V. -82-%.
Of these, particularly if they be of the masculine gender, the genitive is more frequently in ews.
GENDERS OF NOUNS.
The genders of nouns are known either by their sig. nification, or declension.
Rules arising from the *signification, are common among the Greeks and Latins.
In the first declension, the gender is certain.
In the second: Nouns in G, for the most part are masculine, except about seventy, which are feminine, and a fewcommon. In ov, with the exception of the proper names of females they are always neuter--In the third, nouns in - v, -y), -uv
- vin -ney -ve-we-in -as, (except -as -ados, feminine, and -us -elos, Deuter)-in -45, (except, -TuS - polos feminine),—in -65, -85-Eus and -us-are generally masculine
Nouns in y, edáv, or now in oor os -LVOS-in -15 -443, -15, (except some masculines in -5 -605,)-TUS-YS and
59 are, for the most part, feminine.
* But the names of precious stones are feminine.
are neuter: except o fynce, the brain, yag, a starling, i dducg, a dame.
HETEROCLITES, OR IRREGULAR NOUNS,
Are either (1) variable, (2) defective, or (3) redundant.
I. NOUNS WHICH VARY THEIR GENDER.
These are masculine, in the singular; and neuter, in the plural: 'Ερετμος, an oar, ζυγός, a yoke, ταρταρος, Tartarus, xedewet, pulse, in the plural -a. The following nouns are masculine and neuter in the plural: Acquós, a chain, di cos, a station, xúxos, a circle, aux vos, a lamp, pengés, the thigh, móznos, a levér, vậtos, the back, tuprós, a torch, σαθμός, a standing, ταρσός, a hurdle, τράχηλος, the neck, Kaalvos, a bridle, in the plural or or a.
In the singular odos, a way, with its compounds, and wóros, a city, are feminine; in the nominative and accusative dual, masculine.
Some neuters in cg, seem to form their genitive from nouns in ces; as maz, the liver, ővelag, advantage, ogéng, a well, &c. to these add, rond, milk, Suraxtos, övce, a dream, overgaros, üdwe, water, i datos, šs, the ear, árós, &c. Zevs, Jupiter, is thus declined: sing. nom. ó Zeús, G. Znvás or Anos, &c. V. Z€.
III. GENDER AND CASE.
Sing. Nom. s rurñ, a woman, G. yuvaixòs, D. -45X6, A. αίκα, V. γύναι.
Dual. N. A. V. To -cine, G. D. -uixotr.
Sing. N. Ý Xsig, the hand, G. *xergós, D. -í, A. -c, V. Xig.
Dual. N. A. V. « xeñge, G. D. tuin yrigoče.
%E896, A. -45,
* The Poets, in all cases of unequal syllables, add :