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[The term AIR is used in schools, as a technical word to aid the memory. A the first of the units, I of the tens, R of the hundreds.]
Of the letters, seven are vowels: two long, ng w; two short, ę, o; and three doubtful, a, b, v.
The prepositive vowels are, a, €, n, o, w: the subjunctive, ., v.
Of the prepositive and subjunctive vowels, are formed diphthongs: which are, six proper, aig av, el, év, 01, 8; and six improper, nu, ve, wu, q, ?, w, with an iota underneath.
To vowels and diphthongs belong breathings, accents, and apostrophe. The breathings are two, lenis ('), and asper (); that is, the smooth and the rough.
Every vowel, or diphthong, which begins a word, is marked with the lenis; as ögos, oros, a mountain, or asper, as ögos, horos, a boundary. ‘ris always marked with an asper, as is, a swine: so, also, is the semivowel s. But if
be doubled in the middle, the first is pronounced with a lenis, the other is aspirated.
THE ACCENTS ARE THREE. 1. The grave (), which falls only on the last syllable.
2. The acute ), which falls on the ultimate, penultimate, and antepenultimate.
3. The circumflex © which falls on the ultimate and penultimate.
The grave is understood on every syllable, where there is no accent.†
The apostrophe denotes, that when a word ends with ob, €, 69 o, as, os, these short vowels, or diphthongs,f are cast off, when the following word begins with a vowel or diphthong; as κατ' αυτόν for κατά αυτόν.
* û is a prepositive before s. † It is the opinion of Mr. Parkhurst that accents are by no means necessary (as far as we moderns can understand or pronounce them) either for pronouncing or understanding the language.
These two diphthong's ali, 01, being deemed short with re gard to accent and apostrophe.
OF CONSONANTS. The consonants are seventeen; and are either semivowels, or mutes.
The semivowels are either double, 3, Š, 4; [corresponding to ds, ks, ps;] or
Liquids, , My vo g. c is a letter of its own kind. The either / Smooth,
Opposite 1,6,0 mutes
Intermediate, B, , d. to one xar.x are,
7,8, 4* The smooth mutes, when their vowel or diphthong is cut off, change into aspirates, when the following vowel or diphthong is aspirated: 77, x7 into qd, xo, as vúxo? άλην, τίφθ' έτω.
Of letters are formed syllables, of syllables words, and of words sentences.
THE PARTS OF SPEECH ARE EIGUT. Article, Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Participle, Adverb, Conjunction, and Preposition.
There are three Numbers, the Singular, the Dualt and the Plural.
There are five Cases, Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. and Voc. The Genders are three, as in Latin.
he articlef , ý, tò, this or he, and the relative Ös, ,, who or which, are thus declined.
So placed they are called labials, gutturals, and dentals. † As the dual number is used but rarely by the Attics, and never by the Æolians and modern Greeks; as it is found neither in the New Testament, nor in the Septuagint, the trouble of com. mitting it to memory might, in many instances, be advantageously avoidel. The present Greeks never use it.
# The article is without a vocative. The deficient case is sup. plied by the interjection a, as 8 Buyates, o daughter. The import of the Greek’ article is analogous to the definite article in English
Plural. N.G.D.A. N.G.D.A. N.G. D.A. Masc. Ös, š, ớ, ôv,
6, ois, os, dv, ois, ós, Fem.
ú, é, civ ál, av, ocis, äs, Neut. 6, 8, W, og
&, oy, ois, c.. Thus ösos, ftis, ötı, and octig, TED, öreg, whosoever, who.
OF THE NOUN SUBSTANTIVE. The Declensions of nouns are five; three of the Simples, and two of the Contracts. The two first of the simples are parisyllabic, that is, of equal syllables: the third, from which arise the two declensions of the contracts, is imparisyllabic; that is, of unequal syllables.
OF THE FIRST DECLENSION.* The first declension includes nouns of two genders, and four terminations; id es and ns, of the masculine, and in o and n, of the feminine. The variation of words of the masculine and feminine genders differs, somewhat, in the singular; in the other numbers, it is exactly the same. Sing. N. & Teepé-os, a steward, G. -8,
* Some general rules may be advantageously remembered, which apply to all the declensions.
1. The nominative, accusative, and vocative of the dual are always the same; as are also the genitive and dative of the dual.
2. In the plural, the nominative and vocative are the same.
3. The genitive plural always ends in w and in the first declension is always circumflexed.
4. In the singular number the nom. accus. and voc. of neuter nouns are always the same; and in the plural these cases, in Greek as in Latin, always end in a; unless when contracted; except Attic noulis in any of the 2d declension.
Sing. N. ótráv ans, a publican, G. -8, D. -4, A. -mv, V.-9.
-wy, D. -2015, A. -5, V.-06. Sing. N.
V. -Obo The dative singular, in the first and second declensions, has • written under the final vowels og n, ą.
Iota is commonly written under, either for the sake of distinction; as, teenige in the Dat. Sing. Tauic N. A. V. Dual:
Or, on account of rejection, or casting off; as xéparxépa: for is written under the syllable from which the rejection is made.
Nouns ending in ans, ons, and gentiles in Irs, as also the compounds of πωλώ, I sell, μετρώ, I measure, τρίβω, I rub, form the vocative sing. in a shiort; as â cátçana, O president, frisøta, ( master, Exuta, o Scythian, &c.
Nouns ending in ga, and « pure, make the genitive sing. in
and dative in a; as, spéget, a day, -as, - , Qiráce, friendship, -es, .
A letter or syllable is called pure, which is preceded by a vowel or diphthong. [As w in galéw, and impure with a consonant before it as w in Tuzla )
THE SECOND DECLENSION. The second declension includes nouns of two terminations, and of all genders: in a of the masculine and feminine, and in oy of the neuter; as,
Sing. N.o nóny - Gu, the word, G. -8, D. -4, A. -09, V. -E.
A. -85, V. 06.
V... * So also do nouns in e, contractes of ad, as rvã from pyaa. Contraction is the drawing of two s. llables into one.
Certain nouns of this declension acquire a new form peculiar to the Attics, by changing • pure into w, and the penultimate, a or are into e; as, nós, the people, asas, é váyorov, a parlour, árán cao; and are thus declined:
Sing. N. ó a-sis, G. -sà, D. -€, A. Edv, V, -às.
-Ewy, D. -895, A. -W5, V. -£w. Some nouns also, which have not the last vowel pure, follow this form, except that, for the most part, they make their accusative in w* viz."Anws, a court-yard, aóyws, a hare; and some proper names. So also "Ews, Aurora, accusative "Ew.
There are also some feminines in w, and ttwo in ws, of a mixed form: that is, in the gen. dat. and accus. sing. declined as imparisyllabic, and also contracted; but in the dual and plural not differing from the common form in ; as,
S. N. • Ax:à, a female, G, -6 -8, D. cái vĩ, A. se, ", V.-07.
Dual. N. A. V.-á, G. D.-01.
- 016, )
A. N. B. In each number, the nom. acc. and voc. of neuters are the same; and in the plural, the Attic form excepted, they end in a.
THE THIRD DECLENSION IMPARISYLLABIC.
The third declension has nine terminations: three vowels, lig by vg of the neuter gender; w of the feminine; and five consonants, y, 5, 3, 5, 4, of all genders.
Sing. N. • Titáv, Titan, G. titãy ., D. --, A. -<, V. ώ τιτάν. .
Dual. N. A. V.
G. D. 1.0., A. -as, V.-€6.
* So did all anciently, † Aidas, modesty, and fws, Aurora, are seldom found in the plural.
See the third rule.