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NOUNS WHICH ARE DEFECTIVE.

I. IN CASE.

Aptotes:* these are the names of the letters, as cada; natural sounds, as xož, the cry of a young hog; and words put artificially: also foreign names; as, Adosd: and some particular words; as, tonos, profit, xesav, a debt, &c.

Monoptotes; as, i dws, a present, &c. t
Diptotes; as, o adas, a stone, A. nácv, ó nãs, a lion, A. não.

Lastly triptotes; as, o ry n pedigtus, a witness, A. págrov, Dat. plur.pecetur.

Some proper names have but three terminations, which, however, suffice for all cases; as, N. ö’inogs, Jesus, G. D. V. 'Inoć, A. 'Inošy. Ownãs, Thomas, -ã, -ãv. Certain neuters which have three cases, have but one termination; as, Bgéras, a statue, Afpcces, the body, &c.

II. IN NUMBER.

Proper names want the dual and plural number, as belonging to one person or thing only: also o áng, the air, is cas, the sea, &c. Some names of feasts and cities want the singular and dual: as Scovúcices the rites of Bacchus, 'Abñueen, Athens: names applicable to several individuals; as, 'E vpévides, the furies, "Edogou, the Ephori: also other nouns; as, xtéged, funeral solemnities, &c.

NOUNS WHICH ARE REDUNDANT.

1. IN THE NOMINATIVE.

Masculines in

mes

and wg; as, é xhýrne, a summoner, xnýtwg, an inviter.

Feminines, in a and n; as, xro, chaff, ümun, chaff. Neuters in os and ov; as, tò dèvègos, a tree, and dévågor,

* An aptote (from á without, and alwois a case) is a noun not declined with case; a monoptote has only one oblique case, a diptote two, and a triptote three.

† So also ý xperw necessity Homer's Iliad, book x. line 172. w'ray Ho, you sir; ai Kalandwides the Fates.

a tree. And others of various genders and different terminations.

II. IN THE GENITIVE.

Some nouns in 8s make their genitive according to the form of the second and third of the simples; as, é 185 the mind, G. vg, or voòs: some in ws, according to the form of the second Attic and third common; as, ó Mivos, Mi. nos, G. Mίνω and Μίνωος; γέλως, laughter, γέλω, γέλωτος: some in as, according to the form of the third of the simples and second of the contracts; as, Toygos, Tigris, -odos

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To the redundants is to be added, a great number of words, which become heteroclites by being contracted. These are either

1. 'Orozcoñ, suffering contraction in all their cases.

In the first declension: as, 'Eguias, Mercury, ñs-;-68, -ở. Myoch, a pound, -ã, -as, -ãs.

In the second: as, Nóos, the mind, vãs, vós, vg. 'Oséov, a bone, osôv, -68, -s.

In the third: as, II daxóss, broad, -ss, -devTos, -gvos, and many others of various terminations. To these belong some neuters in as, which in the genitive lose 7, and thus become contracted; as, Sing. N. το κέρ -os, a horn, G. -TOS -POS - 5, D. -ati -ää

κέρας. . Dual. N. A. V. -Te -HL-, G. D. -ÓTOLY -cowy -ov. Plur. N. -UTC -0606 -c, G. -ÓTWY -Qwy - wv, D. &c.

2. Or 'Orgot abn, which are contracted in N. A. V. plural: and these are, either in us; as, Bórgus, a bunch of grapes, -ves -vas ovç: or in -&us -20; as, rūs, a ship, vaos, veas, vocūs: or in 85, as, Bēs, a bull, Bóes, Bócsa Bês: or finally, in os; as, égis, contention, égides, égides, égeis.

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OF DENOMINATIVES. Substantives frequently produce other substantives called Denominatives, which may be divided into (1) the Feminine, (2) the Patronymic, (3) the Diminutive, (4.) the Amplificative.

с

1. THE FEMININE. The Feminine in a or', is formed from its masculine, without any change of the accent and number of syllables; as, Osé, a goddess, from Osós, God; xben, a girl, from sógos, a boy: those of other terminations by changing one, or both; as, 'O gesies, mountainous places, from Oqesis, Orestes, a proper name signifying loftiness, Bacidsid, a kingdom, from Bapinsùs, a king, &c.

II. THE PATRON Y MIC

Is a proper name of a person, and is derived generally from the name of a father, sometimes of a grandfather, or a mother. When masculine, it is formed from the genitive of the primitive, by changing the termination commonly in ions, (in nouns of the first of the simples into ádns) and after a long syllable into saons, as Mercuídas, a son of Priam, from II gscépes, Acesgarádns, a son of Laertes, from Λαέρτα.

The feminine in os is formed from the masculine by rejecting on; as, Necogións, a daughter of Nestor, Nasopis: if in sís, from the nominative of the primitive by changing the termination; as, Xquans, Xquests, Cryses, Cryseis.

The Ionic patronymics end in iwv; as, K goviwv, for Kgeviêns, both of which are from Kgóvos, Saturn.

III. THE DIMINUTIVE

Of various terminations, is either masculine; as, 19722os, a little lover, from égws, love: or feminine; as, 746diorn, a damsel, from mais, a child: or neuter in -ov; as, foodlov, an infant, from this, a boy, wdidos.

IV. THE AMPLIFICATIVE

Is also of various genders and terminations; as, naidves, a youth, from mais, a boy, xequddier, a stone, from eccés, a pebble.

OF ADJECTIVES.* Adjectives follow the analogy and irregularity of substantives.

* It is a pity that the name adnoun is not substituted for ad

or

or

*LOV

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And in the nom.

either Three terminations, they have

Two, And these are declin

One. Sed with three articles. Adjectives of three terminations end Masc. Fem.

Neut.

declined like the first and se

} : In - imparis. -v like the third and first of the

-Ey S simples.

like the second of the con. and

first of the simples. In os; as, sing. nom. xan -ės, good, -j -òy, &c. (1). But adjectives in -os pure and .gos make the feminine in a; as, öyros, holy, áyi, ávengós, flowery, vengé. Except adjectives in -cos denoting matter; as, xquosos, golden, -en, and nuinerals in -005; as, ó òoos, the eighthi -ón. 'Agnoos: uncompounded, -85, Citrón -ñ are excepted.

In as; as, sing. nom. Fãs, all, tão es mão, &c. (2). Except reérses, (3) black, Sing. nom. -®Sceryce -oby, Méyas (4) great, μεγάλη, μέγα.

In eus; as, xapiers, (5) graceful, -scou -ev, &c.

In us; as, sing. nom. ožus, sharp, -rice-ug &c. (6). Except tronus, (7) many, which the poets decline through all cases, according to the form of the second declension of the contracts; as, sing. nom. wolus, -sos, D. -Eï -sĩ, &c.

(1) os.

Dual.
N. A. V. xan-, à.
G. D.

καλ-οϊν, αϊν, οΐν.

KAAO2, good.

öv.

Singular.
N. xenoos
G. καλ-8, ,
D, καλώς
Α. καλ-ον,
V. καλ-,

ที่ ns. ที่น

ولانه

Plural.
Ν. καλ-οί, aig
G. καλ-ων,
D. xd-oos

als,
A. xen-gs, as,
V. καλοί,

ais

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ny

ày.

jective as in Milner's Greek Grammar. The adjective bears the same relation to the noun as the adverb dies to the verb.

* Except αλλο, αυτο, εκεινο.
† The poets also use workos, -, -0.

(2) ας.

(4) ΜΕΓΑΣ, great.

Ν. μεγας,

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αν.

ãoa, ασης,

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V. π-άς,

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αν.

ΠΑΣ, all.

Singular. .

«αλη, Singular. . G. μεγαλε, «αλης, «αλ8. Ν. π-άς,

D. μεγαλω, «αλη, -αλω. G. π-ανθος,

ανος.
Α. μέγαν,

«αλην, D. π-ανί, αση,

ανή.

μέγα, ,

•αλη,
Α. πανα, ασαν, αν. .
άσα,

Dual. .
Ν. Α.V.

μεγαλω, αλη, αλω. Dual.

G. D. μεγαλουν, αλαιν, αλoν.
Ν. Α. V. πάνε, άσα, ανε.
G. D. πιανουν, άσαιν, άνοιν.

Plural.
Ν. μεγαλοι.

αλαι, αλα.
Plural.
G. μεγαλων, αλων,

αλων. Ν. πανίες, άσαι, ανα. D. μεγαλοις, αλαις, αλοις. G. π- ανίων, ασων,

ανίων. Α. μεγ αλους, αλας, αλα. D. πάσι, άσαις, ασι. V.

μεγ-αλοι, αλαι,

αλα. Α. πιανίας, ασας,

ανα. V. πανίες, άσαι,

ανα. (5) ΧΑΡΙΕΙΣ, graceful.

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Ν. μελας, G. μελ-ανος, D. μελανε, Α. μελανά, V. μελαν»

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αν.

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Dual. .
Dual.

Ν. Α.V. χαρι-εε, εσσα, ενε. Ν. Α.V. μελανε, αινα, ανε.

G. D.

χαρι-ενοιν, εσταιν, ενοι». G. D. μελ-ανοιν, αινειν, ανοιν.

Plural.
Plural.

Ν. χαρι-ενες,
αίνει,

G. χαρι-ενίων, έσσων, ενίων. "αίνων,

-ανων. : D. χαρι·εισι, εσσαις, εισι. αίνεις,

Α. χαρι-ενίας, εσσας, Α.

μελ-ανας, «αινας, V. χαρι-εντες, εσσαι, εντα. V.

μελανες, ·αι1αι,

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