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6 For many

make the most of them," was his bank's Plot of 1752 is a crude opinion, according to his amanu- revival of The Scheme of 1722. ensis, Kelly. Again, this secre- Identical jealousies and mistrusts tary, Kelly, was in correspondence in the Jacobite party always prewith Dillon, the French manager vail, the Traitor is never wanting, of the Chevalier's affairs, and with and, generally speaking, the foreign Plunket, a veteran plotter allied agents of England know all that with Christopher Layer, while there is to be known. Atterbury himself was in a league The first of Atterbury's pubwith Lord North and Grey, who lished letters to the Chevalier is held the Chevalier's commission of August 15, 1717. as General in the plot, and who years,” Atterbury says, he has been himself was in constant communi- "promoting the service.” At that cation with Christopher Layer. moment he is corresponding with Thus there was a perfect hier- Mar, and using the pseudonym “Mr archy, beginning with the Chev- Young." He is also on bad terms alier in Rome, and Atterbury with Lord Oxford, “Clair," who in Westminster, and ending in becomes Hacket in the year of the a disreputable barrister, Layer, a Plot. As a rule, the Jacobites broken Canary merchant, Lynch, simplified matters for the English an invalided sergeant, Matthew Government, by giving to pseuPlunket, and Mrs Hughes, Prince donyms the same initials as the Charlie's nurse ! Such are the real names. Already, in 1717, consequences when learned Bish- “Rochester” is “Rig” in some ops stoop to treason. The friend ciphers. “Money” is “muslins,” of Pope, Swift, and Orrery (bim- and "a small quantity of the comself a conspirator) is in touch with modity is procured with difficulty.” beery old Matthew Plunket. It was as hard to get “muslins" out

The story of the conspiracy may of Menzies as, forty years after, it now be told, for it is precisely was to extract them from Cluny. typical of the bubbles of intrigue From 1717 to 1718, the Bishop's which perpetually rose and burst, correspondence concerns la haute during eighty years of English politique, the English Ministry, history. One curious feature is, Foreign Affairs, the Chevalier's the persistence of certain families marriage, a futile attempt to win in these stereotyped attempts. At over Lord Cadogan, and so forth. an interval of thirty years,

There is a break till 1720; we do whole generation, from 1722, — not know what Atterbury thought we find, in 1752, Kellys, Gorings, of the feeble Rising crushed in Waterses, Dawkinses, Wogans, as Glenshiel. In 1720, hopes were busily and as vainly engaged as entertained from the Regent in their fathers had been. Ciphers France, who habitually sold or change, of course, but the contents

'gave away” the Jacobites. On of ciphered letters never vary. In April 22, 1721, the Bishop recom1752 we have the same obvious mends Sir Henry Goring, a Sussex allegories of "stocks," "goods," Baronet who was deep in the plot and “ lawsuits,” and the same of 1722, and had an original kinds of transparent nicknames scheme for using “The Waltham and clear allusions. Lord Eli- Blacks," a gang of smugglers. He

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1 Atterbury's remarks as to his ignorance of Goring, in his defence, are pleasing examples of equivocation.

was the father of Prince Charles's tenderly? They are, manifestly, equerry, Henry Goring; and his the agents in the various plots admired smugglers, about 1747, tending to the seizure of King were again approached by Lally George's person and Ministers, the Tollendal. As early as October Bank, the Tower, and so forth. 25, 1720, Dillon mooted to Atter- Atterbury (April 20, 1722) will bury the scheme of bringing over treat them tenderly, "though nothOrmond, as “ the darling of the ing shall engage me to enter deeply soldiers,” Dillon himself coming with them for the future.” This also with 200 officers. Atterbury he dictates to Kelly, who was in thought that foreign aid was in- league with all of these conspiradispensable.

tors in various degrees. The year 1722 was the year of We possess no

more of the the Plot. None of Atterbury's Bishop's letters till after his trial correspondence is found, except and exile in 1723, except those three letters of April 20 to Mar, written for him, after the arrest of Dillon, and James, intercepted Kelly, in May, by Thomas Carte, and copied by the English Govern-, the historian. These show Atterment. At this moment Mar was bury still conspiring, up to July anxious that Atterbury should join 30, 1722, and especially engaged hands with Oxford, for Atterbury with a Jacobite envoy from France has had some communication with in the “arrack” affair, which prothe young merchants, and sees, I bably means the procuring of doubt not, their folly, and the money for the cause. Now these danger there is of that trade's months, April - July 1722, were being ever ruined by their mis- occupied by the Jacobites in varimanagement.” 1 Atterbury de- ous forms of The Scheme for raiscided to join with Oxford, and ing the mob, and seizing George I. (April 20) dictated to Kelly the with his Ministers. letters intercepted, and used against We next turn to the affairs of him at his trial. In these letters “the young merchants," and very the Bishop alludes to his own bad curious they are. health and the illness and death In January 1722,James sent over of his wife. He speaks of “dis- Coinmissions for various nobles tracting measures by persons no

who were to bold command in “an ways equal to the work ;” he re- Insurrection.” He told Atterbury fers to letters from Ormond and that he was sorry he had to defer "Captain Will Morgan " which he making him Archbishop of Canterhas seen; he insists on the danger bury! On March 31, 1722, a letter of using the post; he withdraws was left at Lord Townshend's from schemes with persons " who house, purporting to be a translashall always, by me, be treated tion of a letter in French, dated tenderly."

Feb. 12, 1722, and giving a disheartWho are these " persons,” these ening account of the hopelessness "young merchants,” these incap- of a proposed scheme for deliver. able authors of " distracting meas- ing ourselves by our own interest.” ures,” whom Atterbury will use the writer hopes only in foreign

1 This is a curious remark of Mar's, as James himself was entirely in the schemes of “the young merchants."

2 Carte was in the Elibank Plot of 1752-53. He died in 1954 He was a good Jacobite, and not a bad historian.

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aid, and rejects a domestic plot. Goring will soon have business If the letter is genuine, the writer for him. The same pseudonyms was probably Lord Orrery. The (Chivers and Hoare) are used Jacobites believed it was written as in Atterbury's correspondence, by Atterbury; first, that it might to mean Dillon and Goring, and reach the Government and lull Kelly, Atterbury's secretary, is their fears ; next, that his allies quoted by Morgan. Goring's plan might see his real opinion of the of June 1721 had failed by Sepfutility of Ormond's Plot. The tember 1721. The crew were dewriter speaks of a Junta of Five, scribed by Morgan as “Hellish,” in which he forms part: one of the and the adventurers, in disgust, Five is in the country. There was were thinking of private comsuch a Junta, consisting of Orrery, mercial enterprise. “All Goring's Arran, Gower, Atterbury, and partners are cowards in trade” North and Grey. The scheme of (Nov. 7, 1721). Worthy Captain self-help is that of a landing by Morgan could get no money, the Ormond and Dillon, with officers

were suspicious, and he and Irish enlisted abroad. Now, was actually going to Madagascar in November 1722, Commodore on ordinary business, when, beScott, of the Dragon, not having tween February and April 1722, the Laws of Nations before his the ships were again chartered by eyes, calmly seized a vessel named the Jacobites to transport Ormond, The Revolution, Captain Galway, with Irish recruits, for the attack on lying in the harbour of Genoa, London. But, in addition to other and having on board the son of warnings, Sir Luke Schaub from “Captain Will Morgan” (whose Paris sent news on April 29, 1722 letter Atterbury had read), with (probably from Cardinal Dubois), several other Jacobites. Some of and thereby exploded the whole their papers the prisoners de- plot of Atterbury's "young merstroyed; others were found, and chants.” “They think they have established the following facts. no further occasion for foreign Since 1718, three ships of the assistance. They reckon upon

the exiled king's had been prowling greatest part of his Majesty's about from Morlaix to Cadiz: one troops. The Pretender himself is of them had been meant to convey ready to begin his journey. Charles XII. to Scotland, others The middle of May is still their had been intended to carry Or- appointed time." Lord Lansmond to England, before the futile downe, James's friend in Paris, Rising crushed at Glenshiel, in by asking the Regent to remain 1719. The commanders were neutral, had, in fact, revealed the Galway, Morgan, and Forbes, with plot, which was then communitwo Wogans, Nicholas, younger of cated by Dubois to the English Rathcoffy, and his cousin, also ambassador, Schaub, and by him Nicholas, brother of Sir Charles to his Government. Ormond had Wogan, who had just rescued also asked leave to pass through Maria Clementina Sobieski from France. This was refused. He Innspruck, and carried her to was next denied permission to the Chevalier. The original affair embark from Spain. James's of 1718 and the sequel of 1719 movements in Italy were watched being failures, we find Morgan and reported. The Earl Maristelling Nicholas Wogan, in June chal stopped in Spain. 1721, that Dillon and Sir Henry “Digby," of Atterbury's letters,

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by a simple mancuvre, was track- acquaintance of dear Lady" this, ed from Waters's, the banker's, and "charming Lady” the other. and proved to be Dillon. A On April 1, 1721, Layer went to scheme for carrying Prince Charles Rome by way of Venice, in com(aged two !) to Scotland was frus- pany with one John Plunket, a trated. On May 19, Kelly, Atter- Jesuit, or a person trained by the bury's secretary, was arrested in Jesuits. Now, whereas Layer reLondon. By the beginning of presented himself always as June a camp was formed in Hyde amateur Jacobite, unacquainted Park, where the soldiers could not with and unaccredited by the easily be corrupted. From Rome party, this Plunket had certainly James was reported to be “more been in the foremost rank of conmelancholy than ever," which is spirators, since 1713 at least. not surprising. By the middle of Among his papers were letters June 1722, in fact, the whole plot from the Duke of Berwick, dated for overthrowing the Government 1713, with other letters, proving by aid of Ormond, some officers, bis intimacy with Mary of Mosome Irish recruits, and a Scotch dena, the exiled widow of James rising under an innocent unhappy II. Now, on March 22, 1721, baby,

overthrown. The Plunket wrote from London to Wogans retired to Paris.

the Chevalier, saying “ The gentleNow, in this collapse of hope, man I mentioned to you formerly comes on the scene Mr Christopher is come out of the country, with Layer, barrister-at-law, with "The instructions to wait on you, and Scheme.” “ The Scheme” tender you their service. He only a development of that in offers to bear my expenses if I go which Ormond was to lead; his with him. ... I believe I shall place was to be taken by Lord accept of his offer.” This gentleNorth and Grey (appointed by man was Layer, who, as we saw, James in January), a general left England for Rome with Plunwho was in the Junta of Five, keton April 1, ten days after with Atterbury, and who had lost Planket's letter to James. Thus an arm at Blenheim. That such Layer, far from making a tour of a man should even glance at such curiosity, and visiting James as a a plot proves the incredible infatu- mere amateur Jacobite, was ation of the Jacobites. North companied by a veteran and soon declined into a forlorn exile, trusted conspirator, and bore a all because he, a nobleman of List of Norfolk gentlemen, with courage and character, chose to their salutations to James. In mix himself up with the most Rome he was led, at night, up the harebrained chatterer whom Jaco- stair out of the cellar into James's bite frivolity ever begot.

rooms : that stair, according to Mr Layer is said to have been Jacobite gossip, was very familiar, the son of a lace-merchant in Hol- in after years, to the Duke of Bedborn, and he told his examiners ford, of all people! Layer was, that he had imbibed Jacobite later, introduced to Clementina, principles from an uncle in Nor- and it was arranged that the folk. He practised at the Bar, exiled King and Queen should and had an ill name for a loose stand sponsors, by proxy, to life. Mrs Layer, however, was Layer's child. And, consequently, his associate in his schemes, and Lord North and the Duchess of was greatly pleased at making the Ormond did act as proxies, much,

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aid, and rejects a domestic plot. Goring will soon have business If the letter is genuine, the writer for him. The same pseudonyms was probably Lord Orrery. The (Chivers and Hoare) are used Jacobites believed it was written as in Atterbury's correspondence, by Atterbury; first, that it might to mean Dillon and Goring, and reach the Government and lull Kelly, Atterbury's secretary, is their fears ; next, that his allies quoted by Morgan. Goring's plan might see his real opinion of the of June 1721 had failed by Sepfutility of Ormond's Plot. The tember 1721. The crew were dewriter speaks of a Junta of Five, scribed by Morgan as "Hellish,” in which he forms part: one of the and the adventurers, in disgust, Five is in the country. There was were thinking of private comsuch a Junta, consisting of Orrery, mercial enterprise. “All Goring's Arran, Gower, Atterbury, and partners are cowards in trade” North and Grey. The scheme of (Nov. 7, 1721). Wortby Captain self-help is that of a landing by Morgan could get no money, the Ormond and Dillon, with officers

were suspicious, and he and Irish enlisted abroad. Now, was actually going to Madagascar in November 1722, Commodore on ordinary business, when, beScott, of the Dragon, not having tween February and April 1722, the Laws of Nations before his the ships were again chartered by eyes, calmly seized a vessel named the Jacobites to transport Ormond, The Revolution, Captain Galway, with Irish recruits, for the attack on lying in the harbour of Genoa, London. But, in addition to other and having on board the son of warnings, Sir Luke Schaub from “Captain Will Morgan” (whose Paris sent news on April 29, 1722 letter Atterbury had read), with (probably from Cardinal Dubois), several other Jacobites. Some of and thereby exploded the whole their papers the prisoners de- plot of Atterbury's "young merstroyed; others were found, and chants.” “They think they have established the following facts. no further occasion for foreign Since 1718, three ships of the assistance. They reckon upon the exiled king's had been prowling greatest part of his Majesty's about from Morlaix to Cadiz: one troops. The Pretender himself is of them had been meant to convey ready to begin his journey. . Charles XII. to Scotland, others The middle of May is still their had been intended to carry Or appointed time." Lord Lansmond to England, before the futile downe, James's friend in Paris, Rising crushed at Glenshiel, in by asking the Regent to remain 1719. The commanders were neutral, had, in fact, revealed the Galway, Morgan, and Forbes, with plot, which was then communitwo Wogans, Nicholas, younger of cated by Dubois to the English Rathcoffy, and his cousin, also ambassador, Schaub, and by him Nicholas, brother of Sir Charles to his Government. Ormond had Wogan, who had just rescued also asked leave to pass through Maria Clementina Sobieski from France. This was refused. He Innspruck, and carried her to next denied permission to the Chevalier. The original affair

The original affair embark from Spain. James's of 1718 and the sequel of 1719 movements in Italy were watched being failures, we find Morgan and reported. The Earl Maristelling Nicholas Wogan, in June chal stopped in Spain. 1721, that Dillon and Sir Henry “Digby," of Atterbury's letters,

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