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12,000 fathoms to be found in the the telegraph service. The adPacific. Mr Patey afterwards verse character of the Post Office withdrew the statement, admitting report in 1893. was felt by the that he was in error; and indeed Conference to be of greater up to the present time the deepest weight. The total cost of the line sounding in the world does not according to their estimate was exceed 5155 fathoms. The second no less than £2,924,100. This objection was based on the hydro was almost a prohibitive price, but grapher's report of the project in the figures will be criticised later. 1887. In this report it was stated Finally, there was the statement that, from an Admiralty point of that no soundings had been taken view, the sole use of such a cable between Honolulu and Vancouver, would be communication with and that a survey was necessary ships at Honolulu and Fiji,—an before any decision could be arunimportant matter in times of rived at. peace, and during a war only The apparent necessity for a important with regard to Fiji
. survey seems to have prevented From an imperial point of view the Conference from formulating it would be of little value, as in any definite plan for the construccase of a breakdown occurring tion of the cable, and the followthere would be no quick line of ing resolutions were the only resteamers to bridge across the sult of their deliberations on the broken section. In conclusion, it subject : "That immediate steps was argued that a single line of should be taken to provide telecable never paid commercially, graphic communication by cable, that a very large subsidy would free from foreign control, between be required, and that if anything Canada and Australia ; that the was to be done the existing route Imperial Government should be should be tripled.
requested to make, at the earliest It must be remembered that this possible moment, a thorough surreport was written no less than vey of the proposed cable route, seven years before the Ottawa Con
the expense to be borne equally ference, since which date the cir- by Great Britain, Canada, and cumstances affecting the case had Australasia; and that the Canadian undergone considerable alteration. Government be requested to ascerWith regard to the strategical tain the cost.' ” advantage of an All-British route The report of the proceedings there can be no question; and as by the English representative, the to the objection to a single line, Earl of Jersey, appeared in Deeven if it survived a declaration cember 1894. The Report took of war no more than a couple of a broad and liberal view of the days, the service it could render situation; but with regard to the to the empire might represent statement that the long stretches many times its original value. It of water between Vancouver and must also be remembered that the Sandwich Islands or Fanning the proposed cable is an additional Island were virtually unexplored, line, and cannot but strengthen it is curious that the soundings the present communication with of the Albatross and Thetis in Australia. In other words, a 1891 and 1892, which were pubtwofold communication with Aus- lished in 1893, should have estralia already exists, and the caped the notice of the Conference. laying of a Pacific cable triples The discontinuance of the survey
by the Egeria, Lord Jersey re one opinion, and that it was evimarked, evoked from the delegates dent the Colonies were most anxious an expression of great disappoint- to obtain it. He closed his Report ment that the request of the Con- with the following words :ference of 1887 had been so imperfectly met. In connection with
“Never, perhaps, in our empire's the necessity for a survey, he men
history has such an opportunity presented itself.
The passionate tioned the memorandum of Mr
sentiment' of Canada, as Sir John Alexander Siemens, which was
Thompson so well described it, and received after the Conference had the hopeful attachment of the growing risen. In this memorandum Mr colonies of Australasia and the Cape, Siemens gave it as his opinion turn eagerly at this time to the that no special survey was neces
mother-country for some sign of her sary, a view confirmed by the other regard for their development. Their cable - manufacturing companies, of the connection with Great Britain,
leading statesmen appreciate the value who subsequently sent in tenders and the bulk of their population is for the work.
loyal. It is within the power of Great Coming to the cost of the Britain to settle the direction of their cable, Lord Jersey quoted from
trade and the current of their sentiMr Sandford Fleming's memoran
ments for, it may be, generations. dum, which put the whole sum
Such an opportunity may not soon
recur, as the sands of time run down roughly at £2,000,000. The in. quickly. There is an impatience for terest on this capital at 3 per cent action which would be tried by delay, would be £60,000, the cost of and most sadly disappointed by indifworking was estimated at £60,000, ference to the proposals which are and the renewal fund at £32,000, now brought forward. A ready and representing an annual liability of generous consideration of them would
be hailed with intense satisfaction." £152,000. The earnings of the cable at 2s. across the Pacific The proceedings of the Ottawa reducing the rate between Aus- Conference seem to have revived tralia and England from 4s. 9d. to the project of the American cable 3s. 3d.-would in 1898 (supposing to Honolulu, and in February the cable to be opened in 1897) be 1895 the Senate voted £100,000 £99,465, and in 1904 £153,023, for the purpose. It was also ruthus producing in seven years a moured that France, Russia, and balance of receipts and expendi- Japan would unite with America ture. There would, consequently, in carrying the line
to be little or no loss to the con- Japan. Russia is anxious to setributing or guaranteeing Govern cure a route which will avoid ments. As to the question whether British cables, while France dethe cable should be laid as a na sires a connection between New tional undertaking, or by a com- Caledonia and Honolulu via her pany with a subsidy or guarantee, possession of Tahiti. the delegates were not unanimous; In July 1895 the Liberal Govbut in favour of the former it was ernment, which had done little to urged that the expenses of promo- assist the All-British scheme, was tion would be avoided, and the defeated, and when Mr Chamberdanger of amalgamation with exist- lain became Secretary of State ing companies precluded.
for the Colonies, he announced In conclusion, Lord Jersey said in a letter that he had taken that with regard to the commercial that post with the object of seevalue of the cable there was but ing if something could not be
done to bring the self-governing is extremely improbable that there colonies and ourselves closer to will be enough traffic to support gether, and to develop the re- two cables between Australia and sources of the Crown colonies. North America for some years to The new Secretary did not lose come, and priority is consequently any time in proving that he was all-important. That the Americans in earnest. In November of the are fully alive to the situation can same year he received a deputa- be seen from a recent speech of tion of Australian agent-generals Mr Chauncey M. Depew at a meeton the subject of the Pacific cable. ing of the New York Chamber of In reply to their representations, Commerce. he declared that the Imperial Government was willing to assist
“No power can estimate,” he said,
“and no language can adequately in the matter, and proposed &
state, the benefits of a cable. ComCommission, to be formed of two merce is revolutionised, communicadelegates from Canada, Austral- tion between different parts of the asia, and Great Britain respec- earth is infinitely quickened, and inteltively. These delegates were se
ligence is widely disseminated. People lected at the beginning of last
are benefited by cheaper living, better year, and the first meeting of the homes, higher thinking, broader edu
Peace is promoted among Conference took place on June 5. nations. The value of a cable has Unfortunately the sittings clashed been inestimable on the Atlantic with the Buda-Pesth Telegraphic side, and the same advantages will Conference, at which the Austral- accrue to the Pacific coast of America, asian delegates were representing if a cable is laid with communicatheir Governments, and as it was
tions to China, Japan,
Australia." too late for anything to be done in Parliament with regard to the The objections which were raised project before the end of the ses- in past years against the British sion, the Conference was adjourned Pacific Cable scheme have been till November 11, when work was met one by one and overcome. resumed.
The Eastern Telegraph Company, The position as it now stands is with its allied companies, has been a hopeful one for the immediate active in raising these objections ; realisation of the All-British Pacific and the late Sir John Pender, Cable scheme. The fact that France chairman of this group of comhas already laid the Queensland- panies, in the interest of his New Caledonia section, and that shareholders, opposed the project America, Russia, Hawaii, and
Hawaii, and with all bis well-known energy Japan are ready to assist in lay- and ability, belying for once his ing the San Francisco - Honolulu claim to be the leader of telegraph section, makes it imperative for extension throughout the world. the British project to be taken up At first Sir John Pender contended at once if the French scheme is that the cable could not be laid at not to be the first in the field. all; then, if laid, that it could not As recently as December 2 the possibly pay; finally, that if it had Minister of Commerce announced to be laid, his company should in the French Chamber of Depu- have a voice in the construction. ties that, with a view to maritime There is no doubt that the Eastern and national security, he would and Eastern Extension Companies soon have to ask for a large sum have rendered great service to India towards telegraphic extension. It and Australia ; but they have not
neglected their own interests, and The distance between Fanning there is no reason why their mon- Island and Vancouver is 3230 opoly should be extended in per- miles, which with 10 per cent for petuity. A scheme which secured slack will represent a cable of their shareholders against actual about 3560 miles. The longest loss by the laying of the Pacific cable that has hitherto been made cable would sufficiently meet the is the Jay Gould Atlantic cable of
1882, which is 2563 miles long, or It
may not here be out of place nearly 1000 miles shorter. The to observe that in subsidies from length of a cable in itself adds the Australian Colonies, the East- very little to the difficulty of layern Extension Company will have ing it from an engineering point of received by the year 1900 no less view, as it can be paid out in than £778,250, a sum exceeding different sections, and if necessary the cost of two cables over the from different ships, the section in whole intervening distance from one ship being spliced on to the Asia to Australia. In 1893 the buoyed end of a section laid by
fund of the company another. amounted to £633,686, after pay But the length of a cable makes ing out of revenue the cost of new all the difference in the speed of cables and cable-renewals to the working it, and on this its comextent of £1,160,685. These are mercial value depends. The speed large sums to be realised out of varies inversely as the square root revenue, in addition to dividends of the length, so that a type of equivalent to 9 per cent on the cable which gives 40 words capital, before it had been watered. minute for 2000 miles would only
The best of the various routes give 10 words a minute for 4000 which have been proposed for the miles. For a given length the All-British Pacific Cable runs from speed of a cable varies inversely Vancouver to Fanning Island, as the product of its copper resistFanning Island to Fiji, Fiji to ance and electrostatic capacity, so Norfolk Island, and from Norfolk that in order to get a high speed Island in two sections, one to New it is necessary to have a low copper Zealand and the other to Australia. resistance and capacity. The copFanning Island is of coral forma per resistance-or the resistance tion, and about ten miles long by which the conductor offers to the four miles wide, with an excellent electric current-can be decreased anchorage called Whaleman Bay, by increasing the thickness or where ships of the largest class weight of the copper, while the can lie. Its fertile soil produces capacity can in like manner be bananas, figs, melons, and tomatoes decreased by increasing the thickin great abundance. In 1850 an ness or weight of the insulating Englishman, Captain Henry Eng- covering, which is generally of lish, settled there with about a gutta-percha or india-rubber. As, hundred and fifty natives, and however, a pound of insulator or placed himself under British pro- dielectric is seven or eight times tection, It has since been an more expensive than a pound of nexed to the Crown. The island copper, it follows that the most was chosen as a landing-place for economical way to construct a long the cable on account of being the cable so as to give a good speed nearest British possession to Van- is to increase the weight of the couver on the route to Australia. conductor without increasing the
weight of the insulator to an equal and tarring each sheathing wire degree-taking care, of course, to separately, which was first introbe well within the limits of the duced by the Silvertown Company, necessary thickness for safety for is an almost complete safeguard the latter. Thus a core with a against weakness arising from ratio of copper to dielectric of 3 rust. to 2 or even 3 to 1 will give the With regard to the nature of same speed as a much larger core the ocean bed to be crossed beof equal weight, and will cost a tween Vancouver and Fanning great deal less. It was largely on Island, the surveys of the Albathis account that the estimate of tross and Thetis prove it to be for the Post Office for the Pacific cable a large portion of the distance a of £2,924,100 nearly doubled the level plateau barely exceeding in lowest tender to the Dominion any part 3000 fathoms. It will, Government for the same route. in consequence, be only necessary For the Vancouver-Fanning Island for the ships of the company consection alone a core of 796 lb. per tracting to lay the cable to survey mile of copper to 532 lb. of dielec- carefully the landing - places at tric would cost some £340,000 less either end, and then to take a line than the enormous and unwieldy of widely separated sounding along core of 940 lb. of copper to 940 the intervening distance. The lb. of dielectric which the Post other sections present no special Office proposed. The speed would difficulties, and the line they take be only 7 words per minute less— has already been fairly well surthat is, 18 words instead of 25. veyed.
In connection with a long sec It only remains for the Imperial tion, however, it must be remem Parliament to sanction the carrybered that the increase in the ing out of a project which the Colweight of the core, in order to onies have so much at heart. The make it yield the same speed as liability incurred is insignificant. a short section, adds considerably It consists of a third share of a to the weight of the cable when capital of £1,600,000, which Mr sheathed. Thus the Anglo-Amer- Sandford Fleming calculates to be ican Atlantic cable of 1894, with sufficient for the undertaking. The a core of 650 lb. per mile of copper interest on £1,600,000 at 2per to 400 lb. of dielectric—the heaviest cent, together with any unforeseen core yet made — reached a total expenses, would not amount to weight of 2.01 tons per mile, or more than £45,000, which, with nearly double the ordinary deep- £30,000 for working expenses, sea type. This weight at a depth makes a total of £75,000. The surof 3000 fathoms entails a great plus of revenue over expenditure strain on the cable when being for the first three years is estimated heaved up to the surface for re- at £154,000. The contractor who pairs ; but the modern type of lays the cable undertakes to keep it sheathing, in which each wire in repair for three years; but after abuts the next one so as to form that the cost of repairs will have a continuous archway, which re- to come out of revenue, so that in sists the lateral pressure caused the tenth year the total surplus by a longitudinal strain, greatly will be £742,000, and the whole minimises any chance of the core £1,600,000 would be paid off in being damaged through this cause. twenty years without costing the Moreover, the method of taping taxpayers a single penny.