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ley Franklin had no remedy. months, and many persons who have Upon whichever side the right been in other

colonies have said that may have been, it is certain that never was a Governor more beloved, the treatment he received at the

and whose departure was more deeply hands of the Colonial Office was

deplored. The whole town turned out not only unjust, but unheard Never, it is said, has there been a

to accompany him to the vessel. of. He was superseded by Sir larger concourse in the island.” Eardley Wilmot, who arrived, totally unexpectedly, by the same

Nor is this merely the ex parte ship that brought out the despatch statement of a devoted daughter, acquainting Franklin for the first

as is evident from the shoals of time of his supersession. Mr

letters and addresses which poured Traill remarks that, though Lord in from every class of society. Stanley did many remarkable

Among all these worries and things in his life besides taking trials of official life, one incident his famous political “leap in the occurred which must have cheered dark,” one may well doubt whether Franklin on his path and revived he ever rivalled the feat of appoint- with double strength all his longing a Colonial Governor to fill a ings for a return to his work of chair which had not yet been Polar exploration—the visit of vacated :

Ross to Hobart on his ever-mem

orable Antarctic voyage in the “It was a supersession of the occu- Erebus and Terror; the very ships pant in the strictest etymological which, under Franklin's command, sense-a supersession in the sense in were destined for so melancholy a which the Archbishop of York under- fate at the northern Pole. We stood the word when, in the famous medieval struggle between the north- cannot forbear the quotation here ern and southern archiepiscopates for of a most pathetic passage in Mr precedence, he asserted his claim to Traill's book :the place of honour on the right of the sovereign by the direct method Erebus and Terror, these two compan

"It was singular enough that the of seating himself on his brother of ion vessels which had done so much, Canterbury's lap."

and were destined to do yet more battle It is not astonishing that Frank- with the Arctic ice, should have been lin felt deeply hurt. The ill-will them, at the other Pole of the world,

selected for a service which brought that his subordinates bore him, into such close contact with the last however, brought about a result commander the Erebus was ever to they were not likely to have fore- have; but this strange accident was seen. A letter from Eleanor to be yet more strikingly emphaFranklin, in the writer's collec- sised. During the sojourn of the extion, which may be quoted here, the hospitalities customary in such

plorers at the port of Hobart Town, testifies to the hearty sympathy cases were exchanged between ships accorded by the people to their and shore, and among the Franklin Governor on his departure. papers of the year 1841 is still pre

served one of those usually 'trivial, “These calumnies,” she writes, fond records of past festivities to “have only served to increase the which later events have lent a pathattachment and affection of the colon- etic significance. It is the invitation ists. This has been strongly appar- card to a ball which was given on ent since papa resigned the govern- board the Erebus by the officers of ment; indeed, nothing can exceed the that ship and of the Terror, and courtesy and respect which has been which the Government House party shown him within the last three duly honoured with their presence.

1897.)

Franklin and the Arctic.

255

as

Virgil himself could have asked for quested to report and advise upon no more grimly ironic commentary

the projected expedition. It ended on his apostrophe of the

in his being offered the command. Nescia mens hominum fati sortisque We may imagine with what futuræ !'

joy he accepted it. "Have you than this light-hearted meeting of thought seriously of the nature of Crozier and Franklin, host and guest, the undertaking at your age--for, on the deck of the doomed vessel you know, you are fifty-nine ?" which five years later was to bear the asked Lord Haddington of him. elder and accompany the younger to “No, not quite,” was the instant their Arctic grave, and to leave her own stout timbers, so gaily trodden reply, ignoring the question ; but throughout that warm southern night

Franklin might as truthfully have by the tripping feet of the dancers, said that, so far as his feelings to be slowly crushed in the cruel were concerned, he was but half clutch of the ice-pack amid the iron that age. Indeed, those who saw fastnesses of the Pole."

him after his appointment re

marked upon the rejuvenating Arriving in London in May effect it had had upon him—“he 1844, sick of civil work and all looked ten years younger," it was connected with it, and hungering said. He had need of all his only to find a rest for his foot on youth and energy, however, for his own quarter-deck, Franklin, it the amount of work to be accommay be presumed, would have plished before the departure of jumped at almost any command. the ships was enormous.

How in It so happened that the very thing addition to this he found time for above all others that he desired the voluminous letters belonging presented itself.

In his absence to this period, of which Mr Traill many additions had been made to gives several, is

matter for the knowledge of the northern wonder. It affords, as our author seaboard of America. Dease and remarks, most striking testimony Simpson had filled in the two gaps to his extraordinary energy. But that had remained unknown at even he must have been glad the east and west of his own ex- when, on that May morning in plorations, and the coast was now 1845, the Erebus and Terror mapped from Bering's Strait to slowly dropped down the river long. 95° W.

But Parry had from Greenhithe, and the voyage already overlapped this meridian, began — that voyage from which though in higher latitudes, having he was never to return. sailed into Melville Sound through The story of this, the great Lancaster Sound and Barrow

romance of Arctic navigation, has Strait. All that was wanted, often been told, but familiar then, to connect the two and prove though it may be, we the existence of a North-West re-read it. Mr Traill has, of Passage, was a north and south course, nothing to add to it — it channel of some 300 miles in is scarcely likely now that anylength, and the existence of this thing ever will be added to itit was the great desire of Sir John

but he puts freshly and clearly Barrow still Secretary at the before us all that is known. As Admiralty - to prove. An at

we turn over his pages its details tempt at the solution of the prob

come back vividly enough to our lem was accordingly resolved on, memories, and we catch ourselves and Franklin was formally re- wondering at the paucity of them,

for to this day we know only the trivial politics of the Rainbow's
broadest outlines of what hap- commission, and to the teacup
pened. We know that the vessels storm in Tasmania, which rages
passed through Lancaster Sound over fourscore pages, while Frank-
and Barrow Strait in the summer lin's Arctic land-journeys suffer a
of 1843, and, since they then ex: severe and inexplicable curtail-
plored Wellington Channel and ment. In this connection we can-
circumnavigated Cornwallis Island not do better than quote a passage
instead of proceeding southward from a letter of Lady Franklin to

intended, we assume that they her husband. “The interest.--I
found this latter course impos- may say celebrity-attaching to
sible on account of the ice. We your name," she writes, “ belong
know that, after wintering in to the expeditions, and would
Beechey Island, the voyage was never have been acquired by the
resumed, that Peel Strait and career you have run, however fair
Franklin Strait were happily and creditable, in the ordinary line
passed, and that a position was of your profession;" and this truth,
reached which must have caused so justly realised by one who knew
every man to feel that the object him best, would have been better
of their mission was within grasp

. expressed by a different apportion-
Then, with merciless irony, the ing of the biographer's material,
ice-pack bad them in its clutch, That Mr Traill is apt to omit the
and their hopes slowly withered, provenance of quoted passages and
to give place to a doubt which two the dates of letters, and adheres
protracted years of suffering in to the common misspelling of Be.
action converted to despair. Of ring's name, are perhaps trivial
the final end we have no record. faults ; but we can hardly class as
Only, along the shores of King such a blemish which we have
William Land, long years after found on more than one occasion,
wards, M'Clintock's search parties In his Preface be mentions the
found the line of skeletons and "important and indeed invaluable
boats, and learnt from the Eskimo help which has been derived from
of the feeble band of white men tbe able and exhaustive mono-
who, struggling southward, "fell graph on Franklin contributed to
down and died as they walked the World's Great Explorers'
along." Where the last man series by Admiral A. H. Mark.
perished and the deserted Erebus ham.” But this scarcely justifies
and Terror left their bones we the adoption of paragraphs from
shall never know. One thing that work without quotation marks,
alone relieves the gloom of the yet only altered here and there by
story – Franklin had passed to his the addition or elimination of a
rest before that ghastly retreat word or two, or the turning of
began.

a phrase. Mr Traill has too good
Of the numerous search expedi- a reputation to render such a
tions to which the tragedy gave proceeding either necessary or ad-
rise we have in the volume a toler- visable,
ably comprehensive account. This As we lay down the volume the
is as it should be. If we had to character of the man whose stirring
find fault with Mr Traill it would life it sketches takes definite shape
be, as we have already hinted, in our mind. In one respect the
upon the score of allotting far too world at large has, perhaps, in-
large a portion of his book the accurately gauged it.

To the

а

can still

were

for to this day we know only the trivial politics of the Rainbow's broadest outlines of what hap- commission, and to the teacup pened. We know that the vessels storm in Tasmania, which rages passed through Lancaster Sound over fourscore pages, while Frankand Barrow Strait in the summer lin's Arctic land-journeys suffer a of 1845, and, since they then ex severe and inexplicable curtailplored Wellington Channel and ment. In this connection we cancircumnavigated Cornwallis Island not do better than quote a passage instead of proceeding southward from a letter of Lady Franklin to as intended, we assume that they her husband. “ The interest-I found this latter course impos- may say celebrity-attaching to sible on account of the ice. We your name,” she writes, “belong know that, after wintering in to the

to the expeditions, and would Beechey Island, the voyage was never have been acquired by the resumed, that Peel Strait and career you have run, however fair Franklin Strait

happily and creditable, in the ordinary line passed, and that a position was of your profession;" and this truth, reached which must have caused so justly realised by one who knew every man to feel that the object him best, would have been better of their mission was within grasp. expressed by a different apportionThen, with merciless irony, the ing of the biographer's material. ice-pack had them in its clutch, That Mr Traill is apt to omit the and their hopes slowly withered, provenance of quoted passages and to give place to a doubt which two the dates of letters, and adheres protracted years of suffering in to the common misspelling of Beaction converted to despair. Ofring's name, are perhaps trivial the final end we have no record. faults; but we can hardly class as Only, along the shores of King such a blemish which we have William Land, long years after found on more than one occasion, wards, M'Clintock's search-parties In his Preface he mentions the found the line of skeletons and “important and indeed invaluable boats, and learnt from the Eskimo help which has been derived from of the feeble band of white men the able and exhaustive monowho, struggling southward, "fell graph on Franklin contributed to down and died as they walked the World's Great Explorers' along.” Where the last man series by Admiral A. H. Markperished and the deserted Erebus ham.” But this scarcely justifies and Terror left their bones we the adoption of paragraphs from shall never know. One thing that work without quotation marks, alone relieves the gloom of the yet only altered here and there by story—Franklin had passed to his the addition or elimination of a rest before that ghastly retreat word or two, or the turning of began.

a phrase. Mr Traill has too good Of the numerous search expedi- a reputation to render such a tions to which the tragedy gave proceeding either necessary or adrise we have in the volume a toler- visable. ably comprehensive account. This As we lay down the volume the is as it should be. If we had to character of the man whose stirring find fault with Mr Traill it would life it sketches takes definite shape be, as we have already hinted, in our mind. In one respect the upon the score of allotting far too world at large has, perhaps, inlarge a portion of his book to the accurately gauged it. To the

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MONARCH OR MONK? A LEGEND OF TOMSK.

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mystery which for so many years minded, unspoilt, unselfish, deeply
surrounded his fate Franklin with religious, with the straightforward
out doubt chiefly owes his fame; and older-fashioned religion which
and, after this, to his first land- held by deeds rather than words,
journey, where the sufferings and and by works rather than the
privations endured reached their hair-splittings of creeds,-his was
extremest limit. Combined, these pre- eminently a lovable nature.
have stamped him in the popular That this was so is shown in a
mind as a great Arctic explorer, thousand ways—the instant readi-
as one whose knowledge of that ness of his old comrades to join
region and the methods of travel him in fresh expeditions, the affec-
peculiar to it were at that time tion with which all his officers
unsurpassed, whose opinion and write of him, and the devotion of
counsel in these matters it were

his men.

Richardson, in his narwell always to appeal to. But, rative, naming Franklin Bay after making every allowance for the his leader, speaks with the warminexperience, the lack of appli- est enthusiasm of “the gratitude ances, and the difficulty of the and attachment to our late comfood-supply in those days, it has manding officer which will animate always seemed to us that, so far our breasts to the latest period of as regards his practice of the art our lives," and of the hold he of travel, Franklin should be rated acquires upon the affections of below most of his contemporaries; those under his command by a and the very two expeditions which continued series of the most conhave just been instanced as making ciliatory attentions to their feelhim famous stand more or less in ings.” It was this constant conproof of it, as does also an incident sideration for others which won in Tasmania in which the Govern the hearts of all with whom he ment House party, lost in the bush, had to do. A letter in the writer's were within measurable distance possession shows that this was no of death from starvation. Pos mere outcome of good nature, but sessed, indubitably, of pluck, dar

was rather regarded by him as ing, and power of endurance in part of his daily duty.

" That no ordinary degree, Franklin at mind,” he writes, in the quaintly the same time appears seldom to

stiff phraseology of his time, "ap. have foreseen difficulties, and to pears to me the best regulated have been almost culpably careless which, being disposed to pay every about his commissariat.' It is a possible respect to rank and station good thing never to say die, but in society when the persons duly it is also advisable to have a shot exercise their trust, can yet look in the locker,

with pleasure and cordiality on But if, as in this case, the worst

every member of society who credaccusation we can bring against itably fills his station.” This, a man is that he does not in all then, was one of Franklin's aims, respects satisfy our ideal of what and in part the secret of his suca good traveller should be, surely Whether he was or was not "thus to be dispraised were

a great navigator matters little. small praise." In Franklin, it It is suflicient that he died, as may be truly said, were united the Gordon died, one of the most loved best qualities of a sailor. Simple of England's heroes.

Tomsk town, which with its power, that one becomes aware
five-and-forty thousand souls still of the presence of human habi.
ranks as second in all Siberia, lies tations. After gaining the other
in a province of the same name, side, the traveller passes be-
the most populous after Tobolsk. tween two brick pillars, each sur-
It may, in truth, be called a gold- mounted by the imperial eagle.
born township, for before 1830 it These mark the entrance to the
was little more than a Siberian town, as also the beginning of
village. But, in addition to the long broad street (if the rough and
discovery of gold in the vicinity deeply rutted thoroughfare can be
about that date, it owes much of dignified with such a name) that
its importance to its position on traverses the lower quarter with a
the

great highroad that unites the continual though gradual ascent,
East and West. After eight weary Here the appearance of the build.
days on a river-boat from Tiumen, ings still resembles that of a Si.
or half as many in a tarantassberian village, for they consist
from Krasnoyarsk, men gather of two rows of decrepit shanties,
hope when suddenly Tomsk bursts each with its little yard enclosed
upon their view. Part of the by more or less of a high wooden
town is built on the edge of a paling. Sometimes these squalid
high plateau, which, extending tenements lack the power of even
from the foot of the Altai Moun- standing squarely on their founda-
tains in the south, somewhat tions by the roadside, -- probably
abruptly descends about this lati- because they have none. But
tude to the lowlands of the Ob, as you penetrate farther, by
that are in turn continuous with degrees all this is left bebind,
the treacherous tundral of the till at one sbarp steep bend you
north. Part also is situated on pass into the upper terrace, and
the plain below, wedged in be- soon find yourself in the central
tween the right bank of the river square, in the middle of which
Tom, a tributary of the Ob, and stands the massive white Troitsa
the bold bluff above. So, in Cathedral, with its golden bulbous
approaching the town from the dome attended by four cupolas re-
East, the traveller is unaware of flecting a pale-blue tint. Opposite
its existence until he wellnigh its main entrance is the long white
reaches the broken brink of the Government building, at one corner
higher level; and it is this half, of which is the artistic little resi.
too, with its statelier buildings, dence of the Governor. Tomsk is
that first attracts the notice of a strangely unequal town in every
the river-voyager.

sense of the word, for not only is
The road from the south affords it built on many different levels,
the same pleasant surprise, for it but habitations glorious and mean
is only when one stands on the contrive to set off one another
left bank of the Tom, awaiting the even in the more aristocratic parts.
paddle ferry-boat of three horse- Towards the north side the irregu.

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1 The belt of land that skirts the Arctic Ocean, swampy and treeless for the greater part, and extending inland for a distance that varies from 150 to 400 miles,

MONARCH OR MONK? A LEGEND OF TOMSK.

Tomsk town, which with its power, that one becomes aware five-and-forty thousand souls still of the presence of human habiranks as second in all Siberia, lies tations. After gaining the other in a province of the same name, side, the traveller passes bethe most populous after Tobolsk. tween two brick pillars, each surIt may, in truth, be called a gold- mounted by the imperial eagle. born township, for before 1830 it These mark the entrance to the was little more than a Siberian town, as also the beginning of a village. But, in addition to the long broad street (if the rough and discovery of gold in the vicinity deeply rutted thoroughfare can be about that date, it owes much of dignified with such a name) that its importance to its position on traverses the lower quarter with a the great highroad that unites the continual though gradual ascent. East and West. After eight weary Here the appearance of the builddays on a river-boat from Tiumen, ings still resembles that of a Sior half as many in a tarantass berian village, for they consist from Krasnoyarsk, men gather of two rows of decrepit shanties, hope when suddenly Tomsk bursts each with its little yard enclosed upon their view. Part of the by more or less of a high wooden town is built on the edge of a paling. Sometimes these squalid high plateau, which, extending tenements lack the power of even from the foot of the Altai Moun- standing squarely on their foundatains in the south, somewhat tions by the roadside, — probably abruptly descends about this lati- because they have none. But tude to the lowlands of the Ob, you penetrate farther, by that are in turn continuous with degrees all this is left behind, the treacherous tundral of the till at one sharp steep bend you north. Part also is situated on pass into the upper terrace, and the plain below, wedged in be soon find yourself in the central tween the right bank of the river square, in the middle of which Tom, a tributary of the Ob, and stands the massive white Troitsa the bold bluff above. So, in Cathedral, with its golden bulbous approaching the town from the dome attended by four cupolas reEast, the traveller is unaware of flecting a pale-blue tint. Opposite its existence until he wellnigh its main entrance is the long white reaches the broken brink of the Government building, at one corner higher level ; and it is this half, of which is the artistic little resitoo, with its statelier buildings, dence of the Governor. Tomsk is that first attracts the notice of a strangely unequal town in every the river-voyager.

sense of the word, for not only is The road from the south affords it built on many different levels, the same pleasant surprise, for it but habitations glorious and mean is only when one stands on the contrive to set off one another left bank of the Tom, awaiting the even in the more aristocratic parts. paddle ferry-boat of three horse- Towards the north side the irregu

as

1 The belt of land that skirts the Arctic Ocean, swampy and treeless for the greater part, and extending inland for a distance that varies from 150 to 400 miles,

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