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sative particle, as in ch. xvi. 7; x5, however, I calamity). On i comp. ch. xix. 12, 15 seq. The interrogative for xba, comp. ch. ii. 10 b. The dr. ney. Dar, "to be troubled, grieved,” is not

different in sense from DJx, Is. xix. 10. view that 'Y? is compounded of ? and ?

Ver. 26. For I hoped for good, and there “ruin, fall, destruction” (comp. Mic. i. 6, also

came evil, etc. -For the thought comp. Is. lii. the more frequent plur., O'Y., ruins), is favored by the parallel expression top in the second 9; Jer. xiv. 19. Respecting 1989 (Imperf. member. 7 no finally, in the sense of stretch

cons. Pi-l), comp. Ewald, & 232, h; the strength

ening nin the final vowel as in ch. i. 15. ing out the hands in supplication, prayer, is at

Ver. 27. In regard to the boiling" (not as least indirectly supported by Ex. xvii: 11 seq.; in ch. xli. 23 [31]) of the bowels, comp. Lam.i. and similar passages (such as Ex. ix. 29; 1

20; ii. 11; Is. xvi. 11; Jer. xxxi. 20, etc. [My Kings viii. 38; Is. i. 15; Ixv. 2, etc.). –Or in

bowels boiled.” E, V., does not quite express his overthrow (will one not lift up) a cry on

the Pual inn?, “are made to boil,” the result that account ?–The interrogative «S=$5 of an external cause.] On dyp, “to encounter extends its influence still over the second mem

any one, to fall upon him” [E. V. “prevent” ber. The suffix in 17?? refers back to the obsolete), comp. Ps. xviii. 6 [5] indefinite subject in om, and belongs there the heat of the sun, i e. not by the heat of

Ver. 28. I go along blackened, without fore to the same one orertaken by the fall, and the sun, not as one that is burnt by tbe beat of threatened with destruction (79 as in ch. xii. the sun. Since OPM (comp. Cant. vi. 10; Is. 5). Respecting jantan “on that account, there- | XXX. 26) denotes the sun as regards its heat, fore,” see Ewald, 217, d; and on vv=7?w, naka (instead which the Pesh. and Vulg. “a cry,” comp. ch. xxxvi. 19 a.—It is possible read hipn 872) is not to be explained without that instead of the harsh expression yaa jos the sun light=in inconsolable darkuess" (SO we should read something like J?W? *** (accord-Hahn, Delitzsch, Kamp.) [and probably E. V.: ing to Dillmann's conjecture). On the whole

“I went mourning without the sun”]; which is the expianation here propounded of this verse, all the less probable in that 7.1 can scarcely which was variously misunderstood by the an- denote anything else than the dirty appearance cient versions and expositors, gives the only of a mourner, covered with dust and ashes meaning suited to the context, for which reason (coup. ch. vii. 5), such a blackening of tbe skin the leading modern commentators (Ewald. Hir: accordingly as would present an obvious contrast zel, Delitzsch, Dillmann, and on the whole Hahn, with that produced by the heat of the sun. On etc.) adhere to it. (Delitzsch thus explains the connection : " He kuows that he is being hurried 72.7 comp. ch. xxiv. 10. — 1 stand up in the forth to meet death; he knows it, and has also assembly, complaining aloud, giving free already made himself so familiar with this expression to my pain on account of my sufferthought, that the sooner he sees an end put to

ings. bap here indeed not of the popular this his sorrowful life, the better-nevertbeless does one not stretch out one's hand when one is assembly in the gates-for the time was long falling? ... or in his downfall raise a cry for since passed, when he, the leper, might take bis help?” As Dillmann remarks, this meaning is place there (comp. ch. xxix. 7 seq.)-but ibe striking in itself (besides being simple and assembly of mourners, who surrounded him in,

or near his house, and who, we are to undernatural), and is in admirable harmony with the context The E. V., after some of the, Rabbis, stand, were by no means limited to the three takes Y in the sense of “grave,” although the friends. The opinion of Hirzel and Dillmann, meaning of its rendering is obscure. It would that 57722 means publice, is without support; seem to be that God will not stretch out His 67272, Prov. xxvi. 26 argues against this signihand, in the way of deliverance, to the grave, although when He begins to destroy, men cry

fication, rather than for it, for there in fart the out for mercy. Wordsworth translates :

language does refer to an assembly of the peoonly will He (God) not stretch out His hand (to ple, not to any other gathering. help, see Prov. xxxi. 20; Hab. iii. 10) upon me,

Ver. 29. I am become a brother to jackwho am like a desolation or a ruin? And will als (Vulg., E. V.: "dragons' ], a companion not crying therefore (reach Him) in His destruc

of Ostriches [E. V. here as elsewhere incor. tion of me?”—Others (Ges., Con., Noyes, Carey, rectly owls"], ė. e. in respect to the loud, take 'Y? (from 17p) to mean "prayer;" "Yea, mournful howling of these animals of the desert there is no prayer, when He stretches out the (see Mic. i. 8). The reference is not so weil hand: nor when He destroys can they cry for

taken to their solitariness, although this also help,” wbich is not so well suited to the connec

may be taken into the account; for the life of a tion, and is against the parallelism which makes leper, shut off from all intercourse with the pub

lic, and put out of the city, must at all times be it probable tbat? before 'Y. is a preposition as

comparatively deserted, not withstanding all the

groups of sympathizing visitors, who might Ver. 25. Or did I not weep for him that occasionally gather about him. [See note in was in trouble ? lit, for “the bard of day,” Delitzsch ii. 171; also Smith's Bib. Dict.“ Dra. for “ him that is aflicted by a day(a day of gon,” “Ostrich.”]


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Ver. 30. My skin, being black, peels off | 13, where also may be found the parallel ong, from me: lit. "is become black from ine."

" inheritance.” On hypp, “ from above,” comp. as in ver. 17; the blackness of the skin ch. xvi. 19; xxv. 2; and in particular such New (produced by the heat of the disease) as in Testament passages as Rom. i. 18 (år' oupavov), ver. 19 (where, however, it is referred rather James i. 17 (åvotev), etc. to the dirt adhering to it]; comp. ch. vii. Ver. 3 seq. The answer to that question itself 5.-Respecting 77n from yin, “to glow, to given in the form of a question. On 7'X comp. be hot," comp. Ezek. xxiv. 11; Is. xxiv. 6.

Ver. 31 forms a comprehensive close to the above on ch. xxx. 12; on Szy, ch. xviii. 21 ; on whole preceding description: And so my 7??“calamity,” Obad. 12. harp (comp. ch. xxi. 12) was turned to Ver. 4. Doth not He (Xin, referring back mourning, and my pipe (comp. the same pas: to Disa, ver. 2) [and emphatic: Hedoth He sage) to tones of lamentation; lit. "to the voice of the weeping.” Job's former cheerful- | not see, etc.) see my ways, and doth He not ness and joyousness (comp. ch. xxix. 24) appears count all my steps ?--Comp. Ps. cxxxix. 2 here under the striking emblem of the tones of seq. It was accordingly the thought of God as musical instruments sounding forth clearly and the omniscient heavenly Judge, which influenced joyously, but now become mute. Simil de- Job to avoid most rigidly even such sinful desires scriptions in Ps. xxx. 12 (11); Lam. v. 15; and thoughts as were merely invernal! Amos viji. 10, etc. [“ Thus the second part of

Vers. 5-8. The first in the series of the many the monologue closes. It is Job's last adjurations, beginning with or, in which Job sorrowful lament before the catastrophe. What continues the assertion of his innocence to a delicate touch of the poet is it that he makes the close of the discourse.--If I have walked this lament, ver. 31, die away so melodiously. [had intercourse) with falsehood (X!! One hears the

prolonged vibration of its elegiac here as a synonym of the following op??, not strains. The festive and joyous music is hushed; the only tones are tones of sadness and lament, simply “vanity” [E. V.] but “falsehood, a mesto flebile.Delitz-ch].

false nature, lying ”j and my foot hath hasThird Division : Job's asseveration of his inno. tened to deceit.-on from a verb nun, cence in presence of the God of the future: ch. xxxi. not found elsewhere; and signifying not "

First Strophe: Vers. 1-8. The avoidance of all silent,” but “to hasten " (like van) is an altersinful lust, which he bad constantly practiced.A covenant have I made with mine eyes,

nate form of the more common Din (comp. 03", and how should I fix my gaze on a maid 1 Sam. xv. 19, from a root non, synonymous en? i. e., with adulterous intent (comp. repòs to with Oy). ÉT CUvuñoal avtir, Matth. v. 28; comp. Bir. ix.

Ver. 6. Parenthetic demand upon God, that 6). Tbe whole verse affirms that Job had not

He should be willing to prove the truth of Job's once violated the marriage covenant in which he

utterances (not the consequent of the hypothetic lived (and which, ch. ii. 9—comp. ch. xix. 17– antecedent in the preceding verse, as Delitzsch shows to have been monogamous) by adulterous [E. V.), would make it). -Let Him (God) inclinations, to say nothing of unchaste actions. weigh me in a just balance; or “ in the baIn respect to the significance of this utterance of lance of justice," the same emblem of the decia godly man in the patriarchal age, in connec

rive Divine judgment to wbich the inscription in tion with the history of morals and civilization, the case of Belshazzar refers (Dan. v. 25), and comp. below “Doctrinal and Ethical Remarks.”

which appears in the proverbial language of the The words d'a'y? na ngaļ instead of -nx Arabs as “ the balance of works;" in like manor -Dy) are literally rendered : “10 prescribe, io

ner among the Greeks as an attribute of Themis,

or Dike, etc. dictate a covenant to the eyes. Job appears ac- Ver. 7. Continuation of the asseveratory ancordingly as the superior, prescribing to his or

tecedent in ver. 5, introduced by an Imperf. of gan of vision its conduct, dictating to it all the the Past-expressing the continuousness of the conditions of the agreement. It is unnecessary, actions described_interchanging with the Perf. and even erroneous, to translate the verbs as

(as again below in vers. 13, 16-20, etc. )-If my pluperfects (“I had made a covenant- .. how steps turned aside from the way, i. e., from should I bave looked upon," etc.—so e.g., Um- the right way, prescribed by God (comp. ch. xxiii. breit, Hahn, Vaih.), for Job would by no means 11), which is forsaken when, as the thouglit is describe these principles of chastity, which he expressed in 6, one “ walks after his own eyes," observed, as something belonging merely to the i.e., allows himself to be swayed by the lusts of earlier past.

the eye (comp. Jer. xviii. 12; 1 John ii. 16).Vers. 2-4 continue the reflections, beginning And a spot cleaved to my hands, to wit, a with ver. 16, which bad restrained him from spot of immoral actions, especially such as are unchaste lusts, and this in the form of tbree avaricious. Comp. Ps. vii. 4 [3] seq. ; Deut. questions, of which the first (ver. 2) is answered xiii. 17, etc.—DINO instead of the usual form by the second and third (vers. 3 and 4).–And Did (comp. ch. xi. 15), found also Dan. i. 4. (thus did I think-) what would be the Ver. 8. Consequent: then shall I sow and dispensation of Bload from above ?--p?n he enjoyed

by another, instead of myself (be

another eat; i. e., the fruits of my lubor shall is the portion assigned by God, the dispensation cause I have stained it by the fraudulent approof His just retribution; comp. ch. XX. 29; xxvii. | priation of the property of others); the same


thought as above in ch. xxvii. 16 seq. ; comp. humane friendliness of Job's conduct toward Lev. xxvi. 16; Deut. xxviii. 33 ; Amos v. 11, etc. his house-slaves. If I despised the right of -And may my products be rooted out! my servant, of my maid-if those who were D'x3x3 used here not of children, offspring [E. often treated as absolutely without any rights, V.] (as in ch. v. 25; xxi. 8; xxvii. 14), but ac- certainly not on the basis of the Mosaic law cording to a of the growth of the soil as planted (comp. Ex. xxi. 1 seq., 20 seq.). Job, the peby the owner, which so far as it shall not fall triarchal saint, appears accordingly in this reinto the bands of others shall be destroyed (comp. spect also as a fore-runner of the theocratic 18. xxxiv. 1; xlii. 5).

spirit; comp. Abraham's relations to Eliezer, 9. Continuation. Second Strophe : Vers. 9–15. Gen. xv. 2; xxiv. 2 seq. The rigbteousness which he bad exercised in all

Ver. 14. What should I do when God the affairs of his domestic life. If my heart arose ? etc. Umbreit, stickel, Vaih., Welte, Dehas been befooled on account of (or en

litzsch [E. V. Con., Carey, Noy., Words., Merx), ticed towards] a woman; i.e., a married correctly construe this verse as the apodosis of woman,—for the sins of whicb Job here acquits the preceding, here exceptionally introduced by his conscience are those of the more flagrant sort, , not as a parenthetic clause, which would then like David's transgression with Bathsheba, pot have no consequent after it (Ewald, Hirzel, Dillsimple acts of unchastity, such as were described mann), [Schlottmann, Renan, Rod., Elz.). In above in ver. 1.-As to b, comp. ch. xxiv. 15, and respect to the “rising up" of God, to wit, for particularly Prov. vii. 7 Beq.

judgment, comp.ch. xix. 25; op po to “inquire Ver. 10. Consequent: Then let my wife into,” comp. Ps. xvii. 3; on 'w?, “to reply," grind for another; i, e., not simply grind with

ch. xiii. 22. the hand-mill for him as his slave (Ex. xi. 5;

Ver. 15. In the womb did not my Ma. Isa. xlvii, 2; Matth. xxiv. 41), but according to the testimony of the Ancient Versions (LXX.: canx, one and the same God) fashion us in

ker make him (also), and did not One Vulg., Targ.) and the Jewish expositors-it refers to sexual intercourse in concubinage—this the belly ? 1D, syncopated Pilel-form, with obecene sense being still more distinctly ex- suffix of the 1st pers. plur., for 13 (Ewald, pressed in b.—'?, Aram. plur. as in ch. iv. 281, a; comp. & 250, a). For the thought 2; xxiv. 22.

comp. on the one side, ch. x. 8-12; on the other Vers. 11, 12. Energetio expression of detesta- side the use made of the identity of creation and tion for the sin of adultery just mentioned.-For community of origin on the part of masters and such a thing (X177) [this] would be an in- servants as a motive for the humane treatment famous act, and that (??) a sin (crime to of the latter by the former in Eph. vi. 9 (also be brought] before the judges. So accord - Mal. ii. 10). [The position of joaa gives some ing to the K'thibh, which with 1977 points back emphasis to the thought that the womb is the to tbat which is mentioned in ver. 9, but with common source of our earthly life, or as De**?? points back to 7p?, “ transgression, deed of litzsch expresses it, that God has fashioned us infamy" ["the usual Thora-word for the shame in the womb in an equaly animal way,” a less, subtle encroachments of sensual desires,” thought "which smites down all pride.”—E.).

Continuation. Third Strophe; vers. 16-23 : Del.], while the K ri unnecessarily reads Xin in

His righteous and merciful conduct toward bis both instances—opily would be, so written neighbors, or in the sphere of civil life (comp. (with jly in the absol. state) E crimen, et crimen above ch. xxix. 12-17). After the first hypoquidem judicum (comp. Gesen., & 116 [9 114). the parenthesis, in ver. 18, then three new an

thetic antecedent, in ver. 16, follows immediately Rem.). Still the conjecture is natural that we are to read either, as in ver. 28 5 29 jy tecedent passages, beginning with ox (or MS-ox),

until finally, in ver, 22, the common consequent judiciale, or, diboho jie, cr. judicum. The mean

of these four antecedents is stated. If I reing of the expression is furthermore similar to fused to the poor their desire (or, if I held Ivo yog kpigel, Matth. v. 21 seq.

back the poor from their desire) (Via conVer. 12.' For it would be a fire which strued otherwise than in ch. xxii. 7; comp. would devour even to the abyss, i. e., which Eccles. ii. 10; Num. xxiv. 11); and caused would not rest before it bad brought me, con- the widow's eyes to fail-from looking out sumed by a wicked adulterous passion, to me- with yearning for help; comp. ch. xi. 20; xvii. rited punishment in the abyss of hell; comp. Prov. vi. 27 seq. ; vii. 26 seq. ; Sir. ix. 8; James 5; and in particular on no comp. Lev. xxvi. iii. 6, and in respect to 91.72x see above ch. xxvi. 16; 1 Sam. ii. 33. 6: xxviii. 22,-and which would root out

Ver. 18. Parenthesis, repudiating the thought all my increase, i. e., burn out the roots bencath that he could have treated widows or orphans

80 cruelly as he had just described_introduced it. The ? before 'mpuan-, may be expressed by I in the signification" nay, rather" comp. by the translation: “and which should under. Ps. cxxx. 4; Mich. vi.4, and often). Nay indeed take the act of outrooting upon my whole pro- from my youth he grew up to me as to a duce,” (Delitzsch) [Beth objecti, corresponding to father, viz., the orphan; the position of the subthe Greek genitive expressing not an entire full jects in respect to those of ver. 16 and ver. 17 coincidence, hut an action about and upon the is chiastic (inverted]. The suffis in phu has object. See Ewald, & 217].

Ver. 13 seq. A new adjuration touching the the force of a dative (Ewald, 315, 6), and JN?


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.14 .ch. viii ,מִבְטָח and פֶּסֶל


is an elliptical comparison for 3?-in?. The might (or ought to] come upon me, the destrucconjecture of Olshausen, who would read 357 tion. Continuation: Fourth Strophe: vers. 24

of God.Kampb.) “ he honored (magnified] me," is unnecessary. 32. Job's conscientiousness in the discharge oi And from the womb I was her guide.

his more secret obligations to God and his neighOccasioned by the parallel éxpression '219?? in bor. Within this strophe, vers. 24-28 constitute a, the meaning of which it is intended to inten. first of all one adjuration by itself, consisting of sify, the phrase PN 12, “from my mother's three antecedents with Dx, to which ver. 28 is womb," i. e. from my birth, presents itself as a related as a comiaon consequent. (According to strong hyperbole, designed to show that Job's the assumption of Ewald, Dillmann, Hahn, etc., humane and friendly treatinent of widows and that ver. 28 is only a parenthesis, and that a orphans began with his earliest youth ; he had consequent does not foliow within the present drank it in so to speak with his mother's milk. strophe, the diecourse would be too clumsy). ["8o far back as he can remember, he was wont Job here expresses his detestation of two new to behave like a father to the orphan, and like a species of sins: avarice (vers. 24-25), and the child to the widow.” Del.).

idolatry of the Sabian astrology, which are here Ver. 19. If I saw the forsaken one (or: closely united together as the worship of the one perishing) without clothing, etc. iais glittering metal, and that of the glittering stars ;

comp. Col. iii. 6. as in ch. xxix. 13; yan, as in ch. sxiv. 7. The

Ver. 24. If I set up gold for my coniisecond member 101 1'*? forms a second object dence, etc. On "gold” and “fine gold” comp. to 07872, lit. “and (saw) the not-being of the ch. xxviii. 16; on poor with covering."

Ver. 20. In respect to the blessing pronounced Respecting the masc. 139 used as a neuter in by the grateful poor (tbe blessing described as

ver. 25 b, of that which is great, considerable in proceeding from his warmed hips and loins, number or amount, comp. Ew., 17:2, 6. which in a truly poetic manner are named in-light” simply, or the light of this world,”

Ver. 26. If I saw the sunlight (nix, “the stead of himself) comp. ch. xxix. 13.

Ver. 21. If I shook my hand over the John zi. 9; used also of the sun in ch. xxxvii. orphan (with intent of doing violence, comp. III. 355, and often), how it shines (?) as in

21; Hab. iii. 4; comp. the Greek páos, Odyss. Is. xi. 15; xix. 16) (“as a preparation for a crushing stroke"], because I saw my help ch. xxii. 12), and the moon walking in in the gate (i. e. before the tribunal, comp. cl. splendor. a prefixed accus. of nearer xxix. 7)—a reference to the bribery which he had practiced upon the judges, or to any other specification to 72 hence used as an adverb, abuse of his great influence for the perversion splendide (Ewald, & 279, a). (“is the moon of justice.

as a wanderer (from 1778-17) i.e., night-wanVer. 22. Consequent, corresponding immedi. ately to ver. 21, but having a wider reference to derer, noctivaga. . . . The two words 72.7 2; all the antecedents from ver. 16 on, even though describe with exceeding beauty the solemn mathe sins described in the former ones of the jestio wandering of ihe moon.

Del.] number were not specially committed by the Ver. 28. And my heart was secretly behand, or arm. Then let my shoulder fall guiled, so that I threw to them (10, these from its shoulder-blade. — 993 signifies stars, having reference to the heathen divinities shoulder, or upper arm, even as yh in 6 de represented by them, hence the dinin x3y, signates the arm. Dan is the nape, which sup- that I touclied with a kiss-my hand to my

Deut. iv. 19) a kiss by the hand (lit. "80 ports the upper arm, or shoulder (together with mouth;” respecting this sign of adorativ, or the shoulder-blades); “a pipe,” but used pookiuroi, comp1 Kings xix. 18; Hns. xiii. to denote the shoulder-joint to which the arm is 2; also Plin. II. N XXVIII., 2, 5: Inter adoranattached; less probably the hollow bone of the dum dexterum ad osculuin referimus et totum corpus arm itself (against Delitzsch). Concerning the circumugimus ; and Lucian Tepi ÖP XÝDeus, who rea raphatum in the suffixes Oppo and 1777?, comp. Western Asia and Greece as performing their

presents the worshippers of the rising sun in Ewald, & 21, f; 247, d.

devotion by kissing the hand (την χείρα κίσαντες). Ver. 23. Assigning the reason for what pre- In the case of Job it was the worsbip of the stars cedes, sustaining the same relation to ver. 22, as practiced by the Aramæans and Arabians as ver. 11 seq to ver. 10. For the destruc- (the Himjarites in particular among the tion of God (comp. ver. 3) is a terror for me latter worshipping the

and (yg meaning “in mine eyes,” comp. Eccles. ix. [Urotal and Alilal] as tbeir chief divi. 13), and before His majesty ( 1? compar.;




nities) which might from time to time pre

sent itself to him in the form of a temptation to AND as in ch. xiii. 11) I am powerless—I can apostatize from one invisible God; comp. L. do nothing, I possess no power of resistance. Krehl, Die Religion der vorislamitischen Araber, Job emphasizes thus strongly his fear and entire 1863; L. Diestel, Der monotheismus des ältesten impotence before God, in order to show that it Heidenthums, Jahrbücher für deutsche Theologie, would be morally impossible for him to be guilty 1860, p. 709 seq. Against Ewald's assumption of such practices, as those last described. The that there is here an allusion to the Parsee worhypothetic rendering of the verse: “for terror ' ship of the sun, and that for that reason our




.ארם or אִישׁ אֹרַח=is rather to be taken as אֹרַח ,what traits he ought to introduce into the pic

book could not have been written before the 7th | obliged to say: where would there be Cent. B. C., it may be said, that the kissing of one who has not been satisfied with his the hand does not appear in the Zoroastrian flesh ? lit. “who gives one not satisfied with ritual of prayer, and also that the sun and moon bis flesh ?” IA: ? as in ch. xiv. 4; you, are represented in the Avesta as genii created Partic. Niph. in the accus. depending on yning by Aburamazda, and consequently not as being themselves gods to be worshipped. Equally (comp. also ver. 35, and above ch. xxix. 2).arbitrary with this derivation of the passage iniup here means the same with innao, 1 Sam. from the Zend religion by Ewald, is Dillmann's xxv. 11, the flesh of his slaughtered cattle. The assertion, that it was only from the time of King figurative expression: “to eat any body's flesh" Ahaz, and still more under Manasseb, that the in the sense of backbiting, calumniating (ch. adoration of the "host of heaven” began pro xix. 22) is not to be found here. perly to exercise a seductive influence on the Ver. 32. The stranger did not pass the people of Israel, and that it was only from that night without; I opened my doors to the point on that it could be regarded as a sign of particular religious purity that one had never, traveller

. - Oqxs might of itself signify, not even in secret, yielded to this temptation. “towards the street" (Stickel, Delitzsch). But As though our poet did not know perfectly well since this qualification would be superfluous, ture of his hero, who is consistently represented as to the thought, comp. the accounts of the as belonging to the patriarchal age! Comp.

hospitality of Abrabam at Mamre, of Lot at against this unnecessary assumption of an ana. chronism, of which the poet had been guilty, in Sodom, of the old man at Gibeah (Gen. xviii. 19; the history of civilization or religion, the Intro- comp. Heb. xiii. 2; Judg. xix. '15 seq.); also

the many popular anecdotes among the Arabs duction, $ 6, II., f. Ver. 28. Consequent (see above): This also ble (“to open a guest-chamber" is in Arabic

of divine punishments inflicted on the inbospitawere a crime to be punished, lit. a judi- the same as to establish one's own household), cial crime, one belonging to the judge : comp. and the eulogies of the hospitality of the departed on ver. 11'; and respecting the thought, Ex. xvii

. in the Egyptian Book of the Dead. Comp. Wetz2 seg.-Because I should have denied the God above (ver. 2): lit. “I should have denied stein in Delitzsch (ii. 193], Brugsch, Die egypt.

Gräberwelt, 1868, p. 32 seq.; L. Stern, Das egypt. [acted falsely] in respect to the God above; Todtengericht, in " Ausland," 1870, p. 1081 seq. ļ vino means here the same with ? Und else- 12. Conclusion: Fifth Strophe: vers. 33-40.where (ch. viii. 18; Is. lix. 13).

Job is not consciously guilty even of the hypoVers. 29, 30. A new asseveration with an oath critical concealment of his sins, nor of secret repudiating the suspicion that he had exhibited misdeeds—a final series of asseverations, which toward his enemies any hate or malice.

For is not only related to the preceding enumeration this hypothetic antecedent, as well as for all (as though the same were incomplete, and might

be supposed to have been silent in regard to those which follow, beginning with DX down to

some of Job's transgressions), but which simply ver. 38, the special consequent is wanting; not links itself to all the preceding assertions of his until ver. 38 seq. does this series of antapodota innocence, and concludes the same. [antecedents or protases] reach its end. The Ver. 33. If I covered after the manner consequent in ver. 40, however, is, in respect of of men my wickedness; DTXJ, afier the its contents, suited only to the antecedent pas, way of the world, as people generally do; comp. sage immediately preceding, in vers. 38, 39, and Ps. lxxxii. 7 and Hog. vi. 7; for even in the latnot also to the verses preceding those. — Vers. 30, 32 and 35-37 are accordingly mere parenthe-than that which implies a reference to Gen. iii.

ter passage this explanation is more natural ses.-If I rejoiced over (or in] the destruc- 8: “as Adam (Targum, Schult., Rosenm., Hittion (79 as in ch. xxx. 24) of him that hated zig, Umbr., v. Hofm., Del.) [E. V., Good, Lee, me.—That the love of our enemies was already con., Schlott., Words., Carey, etc.; and comp. required as a duty under the Old Dispensation Pusey on Hos. vi. 7. Conant observes of the is shown by Ex. xxiii. 4; Lev. xix. 18 (the lat- rendering ut homo that “there is little force in ter passage not without a characteristic limita- this. On the contrary there is pertinency and tion), but still more particularly by the Chok-point in the reference to a striking and wellmah-literature, e. g. Prov. xx. 22; xxiv. 17 seq. ; known example of this offense, as a notable xxv. 21 seq.

illustration of its guilt.” Such a reference to Ver. 31. Yet I did not (to's! with an adver- primeval history in book that belongs to the sative meaning for the copula) allow my pal literature of the Chokmah is, as Delitzsch ate (which is introduced here as the instrument remarks, not at all surprising. And certainly of speech, as in ch. vi. 30 [where, however, it is the extra-Israelitish cast of the book is no objecrather the instrument of tasting, and so is used tion to the recognition of so widely prevalent a for the faculty of moral discrimination]) to sin, tradition as that of the Fall in the monotheistic by a curse to ask for his life; i. e. by cur- East.]–Hiding (joo, Ew. & 280, d) in my sing to wish for his death.

bosom my iniquity-an is a poetic equivaVer. 31 seq. He has also continually shown lent of pin, found only here (but much more himself generous and hospitable towards his neighbor.-If the people of my tent (i. e. my

common in Aram.). household associates, my domestics) were not Ver. 34, closely connected with the preceding


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