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of order, the wasting away of all vital energy classics, such as Lucretius II., 600 seq., Ovid, and beauty. Hence as Sise describes the un- mention of the pillars of the earth” in ch. ix.
Fast. II., 269 seq.) does not conflict with the derworld as the insatiable receptacle of the de- 6, for the reason that the “ pillars” are conparted, demanding and drawing men into itself, ceived of as the inner roots or bones, the skele
pax, 1173x gives us a glimpse yet deeper ton as it were of the body of the earth. It is into its abysmal horrors, its destructive, wast-only quite indirectly that the passage before us ing potencies. Hence the fearful significance can be used to prove the creation of the world with which in Rev. (ix. 11) it is applied, as the out of nothing. We may suggest as worthy of Hebrew equivalent to the Greek Apollyon, to the note the descriptions, which remind us of the angel of the bottomless pit.-E.].
one before us, in the more recent oriental poets, Ver. 7. Who stretcheth out the north- as e. g. the Persian Ferideddin Attar (in v. Hamern heavens over empty space.-The Par- mer, Geschichte der schönen Redekünsie Persiens, ticiples in this and the two following verses at. p. 141, 143): tach themselves to God, the logical subject of the
" Pillarless be spreads ont the heavens ver. preceding (and are used to describe the di
A cinopy above the earth
What bears the atmosphere? 'Tis nothing, vine activity herein specified as continuous).
Nothing on nothing, and only nothing;" Our rendering of jipy in the sense of the north- also the Arabian Audeddin Alnasaph (de reliern heavens, the northern balf of the heavenly gione Sonnitar., princ. v. 2): vault, has decisively in its favor the verb 0703, “Out of a breath He made the heavens ;" which is never used of the stretching out or ex- and already in the Koran, in its Sur. 13, v. 2, pansion of the earth, or a part of it, but always it is said: “It is Allah, who has built the heaof the out-stretching of the heavenly vault, vens on high, without founding it on visible which is conceived of as a tent; comp. chap. ix. pillars.” Comp. Umbreit on the ver. 8; Is. xl. 22; xliv. 24; Zech. xii. 1; Ps. civ. 2, Third Strophe: vers. 8-10. Who bindeth etc. It would be singular, moreover, if Job had up (or “shuts in," comp. Prov. xxx. 4, c) the first mentioned only a part of the earth, the waters in His clouds: which accordingly northern, and not until afterwards had men are regarded as vessels [bags, bottles, etc.) or tioned it as a whole, however true' it might be transparent enclosures for the waters of the that the popular notion of oriental antiquity, heavens above: without the clouds burstwhich represented the north of the earth as a ing under them (the waters); i. e. so that the part of it which abounded most in mountains, weight of these masses of water does not cause and was highest and heaviest, would seem to fa- them to pour themselves forth in torrents of vor tbis view (against Hirzel, Ewald, Heiligst., rain out of their cloud-vessels, implying that Schlottmann, Dillmann). [Ewald calls atten- this is as God expressly wills and orders it; tion to the corresponding Hindu notion concern-comp. Gen. vii. 11; viii. 2. [" By which nothing the north. Scblottmann thinks such a re-ing more or less is meant than that the physical ference to the north as the heaviest part of the and meteorological laws of rain are of God's apearth best suited to the connection. Dillmann pointment." Del.]. argues that it could not properly be affirmed of Ver. 9. ["describes the dark and thickly the heavens, that they are stretched out over the clouded sky that showers down the rain in the ). The reference of pip to the northern shroudeth the outside of His throne-lit.
appointed rainy season. Del.] Who hemisphere of the heavens (Umbreit, Vaih., Hahn., “ of the throne,” for 702, as in 1 Kings x. 19 Olsh., Del., etc.) is favored also by this conside is for XDJ, scarcely, as Hirzel thinks, by an ertion in addition to those already mentioned, that all the more important constellations which our
ror of transcription for ARDI. But unquesbook mentions (the Bear, Pleiades, etc.) belong tionably “the throne” is simply="His throne," to this northern hemisphere, and that moreover God's throne in heaven (comp. Is. Ixvi. 1; Matt. among other people of the ancient world, the v. 34). It is said of the face or outside (?) of “pole" (i. e. the north pole), and heaven,” this throne, i, e., that side of it which is turned are used as synonyms ; so especially among the towards this earth, that God “encloses " or Romans (Varro, de L. L. vii. 2, 14; Ovid, Fast.
“ enshrouds” it by causing the clouds to come 6, 278; Horace, and other poets). The correct between it and the earth. inap, Piel from inx, view was substantially given by Brentius : Sy- used here of the artificial veiling, or unclosing, necdoche, a part for the whole; for Aquino, which is Septentrio (North) is used for the draping it as it were) ["ins signifies to take
hold of, in architecture to hold together by whole heaven or firmament. Hangeth the
means of beams, or to fasten together. . . then earth upon nothing: mpya
, not anything also as usually in Chald. and Syr. to shut (by [lit. “not-what']=nothing, here substantially means of cross-bars, Neh, vii. 3), here to shut synonymous with the empty space," 170 (comp. not exactly to hold back," E. V. but to "fasten
off by surrounding with clouds." Del. Hence Gen. i. 2), hence denoting the endless empty up.” Merx understands the verb of bearing, space in which the earth (which according to holding up, and the verse to set forth the miraver. 10 is conceived of as a fiat disk, rather than cle that God bears up the throne on which He as a ball), together with the overarching north
sits But in that case 'JD would be superfluous. ern heavens, ngs freely. The cosmological E.]. Spreading over it His clouds—tbis conception of the suspension of the earth in the member of the verse explaining the former. empty space of the universe (with which may be compared parallel representations from the lrefers to İND? ??, and the quadril. verb
.פרז and פרש from
099 is Inf. Absol. and may thus be rendered in the phenomenon of an earthquake, or that of a Latin by expendendo, in our language by the Pres. tremendous thunderstorm (comp. Ps. xxix.; also Active Participle (comp. Ew. 141, c; and Del. on
Rev. vi. 12 seq.; xx. 11). the ver.) [According to others, e.g., Dillmann,
Ver. 12. By His power Ee frightens up Green, 189 a, the vb. is preterite. Gesenius the sea.-yiz here not intransitive as in ch. (Lex) regards the quadriliteral as a mixed form, vii. 5; but transitive in the sense of “frighten
. Delitzsch argues forcibly ing up, arousing,” tapácoelv (comp. Is. li. 15; against this, and regards it as an intensive form Jer. xxxi. 35); hardly in the sense of intimidaof ind, formed by prosthesis, and an Arabic ting, or putting at rest, as some expositors change of Sin into Shin.]
(Umbreit, Dillm. [Conant, Carey, Rod.], etc.) Ver. 10 (passes from the waters above to the render the verb after the LXX. (karénavoev). waters below). He hath rounded off (encir- [E. V. "divideth” (and so Bernard) here, and cled, 1ņ, comp. the èyópwoev of the LXX.) a
in all the passages cited: but unsupported and
less suitably.)-And by His understanding bound (pri as in ch. xiv. 5) for the face of He smites Rabab in pieces.-Comp. on ch. the water, to the ending of the light be- ix. 13, where already it was shown to be necesside the darkness : or “to the extremity sary to understand In! (LXX.: TÒ KŘTOC) of a (the confines, the boundary line) of the light colossal demon-monster of legendary antiquity with the darkness, ad lucis usque tenebrarumque (not of Egypt, nor of the raging fury of the sea, confinia (Pareau). So correct. Del. and Dill.
to which yno, “to shatter, to dash in pieces" [E. V. Con., Words., Carey, Renan., Rod. Merx), would not be suitable). while most moderns (Rosenm., Ewald, Hirz.,
Ver. 13. By Bis breath the heavens Schlottm., Hahn, etc.) take nyan-by itself become bright: lit. “are brightness,” 720p, in an adverbial sense, “most perfectly, most accurately," (comp. ch. xxviii. 3), take his does not denote a permanent quality of the bea
a substantive found only here, which, however, either as a remoter accus. of JN (so Hirz.), or
vens (Rosenm.), but one that is transiently as Genit. to pri, standing at the head of the occasionally) produced by God [by His breath clause in the construct state (s0 Ewald). In He scatters the clouds, and brightens the face either case, however, we get a construction of heaven); His hand hath pierced the which is much too harsh. As proving that fleeing serpent.-95, Po. from Sbn, Is. li. Man-hy is by no means necessarily used ad. 9, hence perforavit, trucidavit; not Pil. from verbially, comp. above ch. xi. 7. The meaning in or Son, so that it would express the idea of the verse will be rightly apprehended only by of forming, creating as the Targ., Jer., Rosenm., referring it not to the limit in time between lighat Arnh., Vaih., Welte, Renan [E. V., Con., Noy., and darkness, i. e. to the regular succession of Ber., Rod.], explain. For here again the disday and night (Schlottm.), but to the limit in course treats not of a creative energy of God, but space, the line separating between the light and of one that is exercised as a part of the estabdark regions of the heavenly circle, which runs lished order of nature, and in all probability it along the surface of the waters of the ocean, en discusses the same theme as that to which ch. circling the earth. “That is to say this descrip- iii. 8 refers, to wit, the production of eclipses of tion, like that in Prov. viii. 27, has for its basis the sun and moon. For the popular superstition the conception, prevalent also among the classic prevalent at the time of the composition of our nations, and down into the middle ages, that the book conceived of this phenomenon as consistearth is encompassed all around by water, or a ing in the attempt of a dragon-like dark monsea, -that upon this earth-encircling ocean is ster to swallow up these luminaries, accompamarked out the circle of the celestial hemis- nied by an intervention of God, who slays or phere, along which the sun and stars run their strangles this monster ["80 that it was custocourse (so that a part of the water lies within mary to say, when the sun or moon was eclipsed: this circle)—that the region of the stars, of the The Dragon, or the Flying Serpent, bas wound light, lies inside of this circle, and that the around it;' and on the other hand when it was region of darkness begins outside of it; comp. released from the obscuration: God has killed Voss on Virg. Georg. I., 240 seq." Dillm. the Dragon. Dillm.] It is to this exercise of
Fourth Strophe : vers. 11-13.–The pillars of God's power, bringing deliverance, that the heaven are made to tremble, and are astonished at His rebuke. Pillars of heat clause it in refers, while a un? (the ven" is the name which the poet gives to the
same expression also in Is. xxvii. 1) denotes the mountains towering upon high, which seem as
monster referred to, which is represented as it were to bear up the arch of heaven; comp.
seized upon in the act of fleeing (before God), the ancient classic legend of Atlas, and see above hence as "a fugitive, fleeing serpent.” In that on ch. ix. 6. In speaking of these pillars as parallel passage in Isaiah, the LXX. rightly “moved to trembling" (15717?, Piel. from 77, in the passage before us, Spákovra á fogtárny,
translate by όφιν φεύγοντα, while their rendering Teváovelv) ["the signification of violent and quick whether we regard the language or the thought, motion backwards and forwards is secured to is equally inadmissible with the coluber tortuosus the verb” by forms in the Targ., Talm. and of the Vulg. [followed by E. V. "crooked serArabio.—Del.], and as fleeing in astonishment pent"], or the serpenlem vectem of the same verbefore God's rebuking thunder (comp. Ps. civ. sion in Is. xxvii. 1 (comp. the Öölv ovykheiovra, 7; Is. 1. 2; Nah. i. 4), the poet describes here the barring serpent," or Symmachus).
Ver. 14. A recapitulating closing verse, stand-, relatively friendly-in a way in which the final ing outside of the schema of scrophes.—Lo, peaceful termination of the conflict (ch. xlii. these (758 pointing backwards, as in ch. xviii. 7-9) is remotely intimated. That which Bildad
actually brings forward is a truth which does 21) are the ends of His ways; or, “of His not at all touch the real point at issue, which way,” according to the K'thibh; the same wa Job himself has on former occasions expressly vering between 19?? and 177? to be seen also conceded (see ch. ix. 2; xiv. 4), the same truth in Prov. viii. 22. "The “ends, or "borders" which Eliphaz had in his first two discourses (Delitzsch) [Conant, Words., etc.,] of God's ways prominently emphasized, and in the renewed are the extreme outlines of 'what He is doing in statement of which, at this time, Bildad closely governing the world, those intimations of His copies even the expressions of his older associate. beavenly activity which are lowest, and nearest, He only reminds Job of the universal sinfuland most immediately accessible to our power
ness of the human race once again, without of apprehension.-And what a faintly whis- direct accusation, in order that Job may himself pering word (it is) that we hear!—ppu-up, derive from it the admonition to humble himself
and this admonition Job really needs, for his 777, lit. “and wbat a whisper of a word.
speeches are in many ways contrary to that this combination of op with a substantive in bumility which is still the duty of sinful man, apposition, comp. Ps. xxx. 10; Is. xl. 18; and
even in connection with the best justified confor you with of the attentive bearing of sciousness of right thoughts and actions towards
the holy God” (Del.). anything, see above ch. xxi. 2; also ch. xxxvii. 2. of the fact that Job is still wanting in pro2; Gen. xxvii. 5; Ps. xcii. 12. Against the per humility, and in a profound perception of partitive rendering of 19, advocated by Schlott. sin, he at once proceeds to give evidence in his and Delitzsch, may be urged the plur. form rejoinder in ch. xxvi. In this he appears as 1977, preferred by the Masoretes, as well as decisively victorious over his opponents, who the probability that to express this meaning the have shown themselves totally unequal to the preposition 1? would rather have been used. problem to be solved, wbile he, by his eraphatic
reference to the incomprehensibleness and un[Here again, as in ch. iv. 12, the incorrect rendering of E. V.: “How little a portion is heard searchableness of God's ways, had made at least of Him,” mars the poetic beauty and graphic and had shown his appreciation of the mys
an important advance towards its solution, contrast of the passage. On pou Wordsworth
tery as such in its entire significance. But remarks: “We feel as it were a zephyr of God's he makes bis vanquished opponents duly Presence walking in the garden of this world in sensible of this superiority which he had the cool of the day.”]-But the thunder of over them, when in replying to Bildad, the His omnipotence (according to the K’ri last speaker of the number, he wields the rminada, “his energies") who can under- wenpon of sarcasm in a way that is altogether stand ? i. e. the full, unmodified manifestation merciless, and seeks to bumiliate him by a euof His energies, the unsmothered “thunder- logy of the divine omnipotence and exaltation course” of Èis heavenly spheres (comp. what which is visibly intended to surpass and eclipse Raphael says in the Prologue to Faust) would that which had been said by him. It is true be unbearable by us, frail, sinful children of indeed that this very description in its incomearth. [**Job could not have uttered in nobler parable grandeur gives us to understand clearly language bis deep feeling of the degree in which enough how entirely filled and carried away Job the divine glory surpasses all human knowledge. is by its infinitely elevated theme, and how by There resounds in it in truth an echo of the far- virtue of his flight to this height of an inspired off divine thunder itself, and before this the poet contemplation of God. every thought respecting has the friends now become entirely dumb.”
the unrelenting, or even vindictive persecution Schlottm.]
of his opponents disappears, so that the closing reference to the unattainable height and glory
of the divine nature and activity (ver. 14) is unDOCTRINAL, ETHICAL AND HOMILETICAL.
accompanied by any expression whatever of tri1. That which Bildad brings forward against vmphant pride, or bitier enjoyment of their Job in ch. xxv. is so meagre, and possesses so discomfiture (comp. V. Gerlach below, Homilittle novelty, that it may be said, that in his letic Remarks on ch. xxvi. 2 seq.). The pure discourse the opposition of the friends dies the and undivided enthusiashi with which he surdeath of exhaustion, and that the bitter irony renders himself to the contemplation of the Diof Job's rejoinder to it seems fully justified. vine has manifestly an ennobling, purifying, and For the real problem which underlies the whole elevating influence on his spirit. It shows that controversy—the great mystery touching the he is not far removed at length from the goal of frequency with which the innocent suffer, which a perfectly correct and true solution of the dark Job had again set forth so eloquently just before mystery which occupies him
It makes it ap-that problem Bildad certainly does not consi- parent that essentially one thing is lacking to der. He avoids indeed those bitter personalities him that he may press upward through the dark and odious accusations against Job with which scenes of his condict to the light of pure truth Eliphaz had made his exit just before in a man- and peace with God, and that is-a humble subner that was altogether unworthy, and takes his mission beneath the dealings of the only wise leave of the sufferer, whom he himself also had and true God, dealings which are righteous even heretofore violently assailed, in a way that is towards him, sincere repentance and confession
of the errors and failures of which he had been of heaven, so is their brightness a type of the guilty even during the hot conflict of suffering holiness of the inbabitants of heaven, just as imthrough which he had passed, that “ repenting mediately after (in ver. 6) the mortality and in dust and ashes” to which God's treatment wretchedness of man is a type of his sinfulness. brought him at last, as one who had been af- | In this contra-position there lies a profound flicted by his Heavenly Father, not indeed in ac-truth: Holiness and shining brightness, and sin cordance with the ordinary standard of retribu- and death's corruption correspond to each other. tion, but nevertheless not unjustly, not without In his frailty and mortality man has an incesa remedial and loving purpose.
sant reminder of his sin and corruption; in see3. That which is of greatest interest in the ing his outward lot he should humble himself two short sections preceding not only to the inwardly before God. scientific, but also to the practical and homiletic Ch. xxvi. 2-4. WOHLFARTH: After that Job expositor, are those elements of a poetic cosmo- has ironically shown to his friend the irrelevancy logy and physical theology, which in Bildad's of his reply, he takes a nobler revenge upon discourse are presented more briefly and more bim, by delivering a much worthier eulogy on in the way of suggestion, but which in that of God s exalted greatness, of which notwithstandJob are exhibited in a more developed and com- ing and during his suffering he has a most vivid prehensive form. It is that material which at and penetrating conviction.–V. GERLACH : Job's an earlier day was treated by Baur in bis Syste- frame of mind bordering on pride, which causes ma Mundi Jobzeum (Hal. 1707), Scheuchzer in him altogether to misunderstand that which is his Jobi Physica Sacra, etc., and which to this glorious and exalted in Bildad's last discourse, day is a theme of no small interest in its theolo- belongs to the earthly folly which clings to him, gical aspects as well as in those related to cos which is to be stripped away from him by the mology and the history of civilization. The fact sufferings and condicts of his inner man, and that certain mythological representations, and which does at last really fall away from him. in particular a few traces of astronomical myths, The splendid description which follows, and esare scattered over this magnificent picture of pecially its humble conclusion (ver. 14), proves creation, and that the teachings of modern in the meanwhile that the fundamental disposiscience concerning the mechanism of the hea- tion of Job's heart was different from that which vens cannot be derived from it, cannot injure the the particular expressions uttered by bim in his peculiarly bigh value of the description, nor de- more despondent moods would seem to indicate. stroy its utility for practical purposes. It is in Ch. xxvi, 7 seq. BRENTIUS: The fact that God any case a view of the universe of incontroverti- stretches out the heavens, and supports the ble grandeur, which in all that is described in earth, without the aid of pillars, is a great arch. xxvi. 5-13 beholds only the “fringes” of gument in proof of His power (Ps. cii. 26). The God's glory as they hang over on earth (comp. poets relate that Atlas supports heaven 'on bis Is. vi. 1), only a few meagre lineaments of the shoulders; but we acknowledge the true Allas, entire divine manifestation, only a muffled mur the Lord our God, who by His word supports mur echoing from afar off as a poor substitute both heaven and earth.-WOHLFARTH : The look for the thunder of His omnipotence. And in re to heaven which Job bere requires us to take, spect to the purity and correctness of its repre- does not indeed reach upwards to the throne of sentations in detail, this physical theology of the Eternal (ver. 7 seq.). But although we canJob ranks sufficiently high, as is shown by that not now behold Him, who dwells in His inacceswhich is said of "hanging the earth upon noth- sible light, we can nevertheless feel His nearing" (ver. 7), a description of the fact no less ness, recognize His existence, experience His surprising than the following descriptions of me- influence, see His greatness and majesty, when teorological and geological processes are poeti- we pray to Him as the Being who stretches out cally bold and elevated.
the heavens above the earth like a tent, at whose
beckoning the clouds open and water the thirsty Particular Passages.
earth, who has given to the water its bounds, Ch. xxv. 4 seq. Coccrius: Although in our As the work bears witness to its master, so eyes the stars may seem kaðapós TI oTíaßelv (to does the universe to its Creator, Preserver, and shine with some degree of purity), nevertheless Ruler (Ps. xix. 5); and no despairing one bas even they are outside of God's habitation, being ever beheld the eternal order which stands beesteemed unworthy to adorn His dwelling-place. fore him, and its mysterious, but ever beneficent ... How therefore can miserable man, who is movements, no sinner desiring salvation has ever mortal and diseased and liable to death, who is tarried in the courts of this great temple of God, a son of Adam, who is no worthier than a worm, without being richly dowered with heavenly or a grub, who is made of earth, who crawls on blessings the earth, who lives by the earth, who is at Ch. xxvi. 14. OECOLAMPADIUS: These tokens once foul and defiled, who in a word is of divine power however great will nevertheless as far below the stars, as the worm is below rightly be esteemed small, as being hardly a himself-how shall be dare or be able to face slight whisper in comparison with the mighty God in His court, and on equal terms to argue thunder. There is nothing therefore so frightwith Him? Let him, along with the moon and ful, but faith will be able to endure it, when it the stars, keep himself in his own station, and he thus exercises itself in the works of God's power, will enjoy God's favors; but let him attempt to especially with the word of promise added.exalt himself, and he will be crushed by the Wo H: We can survey only the smallest weight of the divine majesty.-V. GERLACH: As portion of God's immeasurable realm! What is the hosts of heaven are types of the pure spirits the knowledge of the greatest sages but the
short-sighted vision of a worm ! Our earth do we know of Him; how great is the sum of is a grain of sand in the all, the “drop of that which is hidden from us! (1 Cor. xiii. a bucket," as the prophet says; and how little 9 seq.).
III. Job alone : His closing address to the vanquished friends. Chap. XXVII-XXVIII.
a. Renewed asseveration of his innocence, accompanied by a reference to his joy in God, which had not
forsaken him even in the midst of his deepest misery. Chap. xxvii. 1-10. 1 Moreover Job continued his parable, and said: 2 As God liveth, who hath taken away my judgment;
and the Almighty, who hath vexed my soul; 3 all the while my breath is in me,
and the spirit of God is in my nostrils ;4 my lips shall not speak wickedness
nor my tongue utter deceit. 5 God forbid that I should justify you :
till I die I will not remove mine integrity from me. 6 My righteousness I hold fast, I will not let it
my heart shall not reproach me so long as I live. 7 Let mine enemy be as the wicked,
and he that riseth up against me as the unrighteous. 8 For what is the hope of the hypocrite, though he hath gained,
when God taketh away his soul ? 9 Will God hear his cry
when trouble cometh upon him ? 10 Will he delight himself in the Almighty ?
will he always call upon God ?
6. Statement of his belief that the prosperity of the ungodly cannot endure, but that they must infallibly
come to a terrible end. Vers. 11-23. 11 I will teach you by the hand of God;
that which is with the Almighty will I not conceal. 12 Behold, all ye yourselves have seen it;
why then are ye thus altogether vain ? 13 This is the portion of a wicked man with God,
and the heritage of oppressors, which they shall receive of the Almighty. 14 If his children be multiplied, it is for the sword ;
and his offspring shall not be satisfied with bread. 15 Those that remain of him shall be buried in death;
and his widows shall not weep: 16 Though he heap up silver as the dust,
and prepare raiment as the clay; 17 he may prepare it, but the just shall put it on,
and the innocent shall divide the silver. 18 He buildeth his house as a moth,
and as a booth that the keeper maketh. 19 The rich man shall lie down, but he shall not be gathered ;
he openeth his eyes, and he is not ! 20 Terrors take hold on him as waters,
a tempest stealeth him away in the night.