Obrazy na stronie

Ver. 7 seq. : Coccrius: He addresses Job here when he becomes better known to himself, trem. almost in the same terms as God in ch. XXxviii. bles, carries with him his own torments, and but with another scope and purpose. Wisdom never hopes for good. Moses has finely illussays in Prov. viii. 25, that it was begotten trated this in Cain, Gen. iv.-CRAMER: The before the hills, i. e. that it is the eternal Son ungodly and hypocrites live in continual restof God. This Wisdom alone was acquainted lessness of heart; but blessed are they whose with all the mysteries of God the Father, to this sins are forgiven; they attain rest and peace Wisdom alone are owing the purification and of conscience.-Comp. Prov. xxvii. 1: "The justification of men, the full declaration of the wicked filee when no man pursueth, but the gracious will of God, and the gift of the spirit righteous are bold as a lion." of joy.

Ver. 29 seq.: BRENTIUS: Eliphaz proceeds Vers. 14–16: BRENTIUS: These words are with his recital of the catalogue of curses on most true: no one in himself is clean, pure and the wicked. “ His seed will burn up," i. e. just; but in God, through faith in Christ, we the blessing of the wicked will be turned into a come into possession of all cleanness, purity and curse; and as the branches of trees are burned justification (John xv. 3; Rom. xv. 1, etc.). - by fire, and scattered by the wind, which is MERCIER: Eliphaz finds fault with man's nature called the Spirit (breath] of God, so do all the which nevertheless by faith is made pure. - blessings of the wicked perish by the judgment Zeyns: Although the holy angels are pure and of God, and the Spirit of His mouth.-CRAMER: holy spirits, neither their holiness nor that of The dire punishments which befall the ungodly man is to be compared with the infinitely per- give courage to the pious, and strengthen their fect holiness of God, but God only is and faith, when they see how the former are recomremains the Most Holy One; Is. vi. 3.-Oeco- pensed for their ungodliness (Ps. xci. 8). LAMPADIUS (on ver. 16): Here is beautifully Although the ungodly have many friends and described the misery of man, who is abominable many dependents, their name must nevertheless by reason of innate depravity, a child of wrath, rot and perish (Prov. x. 7; Esth. vi. 13). — corrupted and degenerated from his first estate, ZEYSS (on vers. 31-33): As the sowing, so 'the and so inflamed with lust, that as one in the reaping. He who sows vanity will also reap dropsy drinks water, so does he drink sin, and vanity; calamity and destruction will happen is never satisfied.

to him for a recompense (Hos. viii. 7; Gal. vi. Ver. 20 seq.: IDEM: This is what he would 8). When the ungodly think that their life is say, that the wicked man, having an evil con at its very best, they are often enough quite science within himself, at every time of his life suddenly taken away (Luke xii. 17).

B.—Job: Although oppressed by his disconsolate condition, he nevertheless wishes and hopes that God will demonstrate his innocence, against the unreasonable accusations of his friends.


(A brief preliminary repudiation of the discourses of the friends as aimless and unprofitable):

CHAP. XVI. 1-5.
Then Job answered and said :


2 I have heard many such things :

miserable comforters are ye all. 3 Shall vain words have an end ?

or what emboldeneth thee that thou answerest? 4 I also could speak as ye do ;

if your soul were in my soul's stead, I could heap up words against you,

and shake mine head at you. 5 But I would strengthen you with my mouth,

and the moving of my lips should assuage your grief. 1. Lamentation on account of the disconsolateness of his condition, as forsaken and hated by God and men:

VERS. 6-17. 6 Though I speak, my grief is not assuaged;

and though I forbear, what am I eased ?


7 But now He hath made me weary :

Thou hast made desolate all my company. 8 And Thou hast filled me with wrinkies, which is a witness against me;

and my leanness rising up in

beareth witness to my face. 9 He teareth me in His wrath, who hateth me;

He gnasheth upon me with His teeth ;

mine enemy sharpeneth his eyes upon me. 10 They have gaped upon me with their mouth;

they have smitten me upon the cheek reproachfully;

they have gathered themselves together against me. 11 God hath delivered me to the ungodly,

and turned me over into the hands of the wicked. 12 I was at ease, but He hath broken me asunder;

He hath also taken me by my neck, and shaken me to pieces,

and set me up for His mark. 13 His archers compass me round about,

He cleaveth my reins asunder, and doth not spare;

He poureth out my gall upon the ground. 14 He breaketh me with breach upon breach ;

He runneth upon me like a giant. 15 I have sowed sackcloth upon my skin,

and defiled my horn in the dust. 16 My face is foul with weeping,

and on my eyelids is the shadow of death;
17 not for any injustice in mine hands;

my prayer is pure.
2. Vivid expression of the hope of a future recogaition of his innocences

CHAPTER XVI. 18–XVII. 9. 18 O earth, cover not thou my blood !

and let my cry have no place! 19 Also now, behold, my witness is in heaven,

and my record is on high. 20 My friends scorn me:

but mine eye poureth out tears unto God. 21 O that one might plead for a man with God,

as a man pleadeth for his neighbor! 22 When a few years are come,

then I shall go the way whence I shall not return. CHAP. XVII. 1. My breath is corrupt,

my days are extinct, the

graves are ready for me. 2 Are there not mockers with me?

and doth not mine eye continue in their provocation ? 3 Lay down now, put me in a surety with Thee;

who is he that will strike hands with me? 4 For Thou hast hid their heart from understanding?

therefore shalt Thou not exalt them. 5 He that speaketh flattery to his friends,

even the eyes of his children shall fail. 6 He hath made me also a byword of the people;

and aforetime I was as a tabret. 7 Mine


also is dim by reason of sorrow, and all my members are as a shadow. 8 Upright men shall be astonished at this,

and the innocent shall stir up himself against the hypocrite.

9 The righteous also shall hold on his way,

and he that hath clean hands shall be stronger and stronger.

3. Sharp censure of the admonitory speeches of the friends as unreasonable, and destitute of all power to comfort:

VERS. 10–16. 10 But as for you all, do ye return, and come now;

for I cannot find one wise man among you. 11 My days are passed,

my purposes are broken off,

even the thoughts of my heart. 12 They change the night into day:

the light is short because of darkness. 13 If I wait, the grave is mine house;

I have made my bed in the darkness. 14 I have said to corruption, Thou art my father ; to the worm, Thou art my mother and my

sister. 15 And where is now my hope ?

as for my hope, who shall see it? 16 They shall go down to the bars of the pit,

when our rest together is in the dust.


miserable comforters are yo all. EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.

Spy, lit. “comforters of distress” [Gen of 1. Heartlessly repulsed by bis friends, and attribute, Green, & 254, 6] are burdensome comleft without comfort, Job turns, more trustfully forters (consolatores onerosi, Jer.), who, instead than in his previous apologies, to the God who of comfort, minister only trouble and distress ; evidenced Himself in his good conscience, of comp. cb. xv. 11. whom he cannot believe that He will leave him

Ver. 3. Are windy worda (now) at an forever without testifying to his innocence, end? Comp. ch. xv. 2, where Eliphaz rehowever cheerless a night of despair may in the proaches Job with windy speech-a reproach meanwhile surround him. . It is in the expres

which Job now pays back in the same coin.sion of his confidence, and of his inward yearning Or what vexes thee [addressed more partiand waiting for this Divine testimony to his innocence (ch. xvi. 18 to xvii. 9) ihat the significance cularly to Eliphaz] that thou answerest ? of this discourse culminates, so far as it gives PDn, Hiph. of poo, "to be sick, weak” (see pleasing evidence of progress beyond Job's for on ch. vi. 25), signifies “to make sick, to afflict” mer frame of mind. Along with this indeed it (Ewald, Schlott., Dillm.), or again "to goad, gives evidence that the spirit of hopeless and incite, vex” (Del.) (see the examples in notes bitter complaint is, if not intensified, at least on vi. 25 favoring this definition] : not “to make substantially unchanged and undiminished. sweet, to sweeten,” as the Targ. interprets, as The first principal division of the discourse (ch: though yoo were without further qualification xvi. 6-17) which precedes that expression of yearning confidence in God's help contains in =p7o.-? moreover is not=quum (Hirz.), but particular an expression of cheerless lamenta- as in ch. vi. 11 quod: what vexes thee that tion over his condition, as one forsaken by God thou answerest,” or “to answer.” and men; while a shorter introduction prefaced

Ver. 4. I also indeed would speak like to this division (ch. xvi. 2-5), as well as the

you, i. e., would be minded to serve you with concluding section, or third division (ch. xvii 10-16) are particularly occupied with a bitter such like discourses as your own [Dillmann, complaint on account of the misunderstanding Conant, Renan, Rodwell, etc., with good reason and heartless conduct of the friends.—The whole prefer to render the subjunctive 7737 "I discourse comprises six long strophes, the first could." or "might,” rather than “would']:of which constitutes the introduction, extending If your soul were instead of mine; i. e. through four verses, or ten stichs (ch. xvi. 2-5), in case you had my place, your persons were while the first and second divisions contain each instead of mine. [Conant, however: “ Your two stropbes (of 6, 7 verses, or 14 stichs), the soul is not to be taken as a periphrasis of the third division, however, only one strophe (of

personal pronoun. Soul, the seat of intelligence, 7 verses, or 14 stichs).

mental activity and emotion, stands as the rep2. Exordium of the discourse, or introductory resentative of these faculties in man, and is spestrophe : A short preliminary repudiation of the cially appropriate bere, where there is imme discourses of the friends as aimless, and desti- diate reference to what is thought, felt and tute of all power to comfort: ch xvi. 2-5.

suffered. The force of the expression is lost Ver. 2. I have heard (already) many such therefore by substituting ye and me."]-Would things (nia), multa, as in ch. xxiii. 14), and (or could] weave words against you.

dana rano is not to make a league with that the friends had shown any such malignity words” (Gesen. [Rodwell], etc.), nor again : as would be thus suggested. What Job says is, "to affect wisdom with words”" (Ewald), but that he could multiply words of cold formal symto "combine words, string them together like pathy, that he could string out such words upon pearls.” Instead of the simple accus. of the them, or towards them; and again that he could object o'rn, the more choice construction with make with his bead the customary oriental ges? instrum. is used; comp. the following mem- ture of condolence (91J here like 113, see above, ber, also ver. 10; Jer. xviii. 16; Lam. i. 17 ch. ii. 11 and comp. Gesen. sub. v.), this being (Gesen. & 138 [& 135] 1, Rem. 3).' [-When he by implication all ihe sympathy he had received says: I would range together, etc., he gives them

from them.-E.]

3. First Division. to understand that their speeches are more arii

A lamentation concerning ficial than natural, more declamations than the the cheerlessness of his condition, as one for

Vers. outgushings of the heart.” Del.]-And shake saken and persecuted by God and men.

6-17. my head at you; viz., as a gesture of scorn and malicious pleasure; comp. Ps. xxii. : [?]; the miserable comforters,” who leave him in

First Strophe : vers. 6-11. From the friends, Is. xxxvii. 22; Jer. xviii. 16; Sir. xii. 18; his helplessness, he turns to himself, who is so Matt. xxvii. 39. It should be borne in mind that what is hateful in such conduct is not to be greatly in need of sympathy, because God has charged upon Job (who indeed only states what delivered him over to the scorn and the cruelty he could do if he had before him the friends,

of the unrighteous. weak and miserable as he is now, and should will continue the colloquy further. Already in

Ver. 6. ["He bethinks himself whether he then follow the promptings of the natural man), but on the friends, before whom Job here hold's the lamentation of ch. iii. Job had given vent to up as in a mirror the hatefulness of their own

his grief, and solicited comfort. The colloquy

thus far had shown that from them he had no conduct. [In regard to the rendering of hy comfort to expect. Should be then speak furby “against," and the explanation of you as a ther, in order to procure at least some alleviagesture of scorn, see below on ver. 5 ]

tion of his grief? but he cannot anticipate even Ver. 5. Would [could] strengthen you this as the result of his speaking. He must with my mouth: i. e. with mere words, in accordingly be silent; yet even then he is no stead of with deeds of a love that wins the heart better off.” Dillm.]-If I speak (voluntative [On the form DƏYPax with Tsere shortened to after ex, see Ew. & 355, 6) my grief is not Hbirik, see Green, 2104, h.)-And the sym- assuaged; if I forbear (voluntative without pathy of my lips (7'!, commisseration, sympa- DX, as in ch. xi. 17; Ps. Ixxiii. 16, etc.), what thy, only here; comp. the phrase, similar in departs from me, viz. of my pain? how much

The sound, binay '!, "fruit of the lips,” Is. lvii. of my pain goes away from me, do I lose ?

unexpressed answer would naturally be: Nought! 19) should assuage, scil. your grief. Un,

On :7577', comp. ch. xiv. 20. “10 soothe, restrain, check,” here without an

Ver. 7. Nevertheless-now He hath exobj. as in Is. lviii. 1.

The following verse easily hausted me, viz. God, not the pain (?X?, ver. " enables us to supply Ina, as the object. [The 6), which the Vulg., Aben-Ezra, etc., regard. As E. V., Wem., Bar., Elz., etc., render this as a contrast with ver. 4, as though Job, after there the subj. The particle 7x, which belongs to the describing what he might do if they were in his whole sentence, signifies neither: “of a truth, yea place, describes here what, on the other hand, verily!" (Ew.) nor “only" [=entirely), as though he really would do. But there is nothing to it belonged only to 'yxho (Hirz., Hahn, etc.), indicate such a contrast. Ver. 5 is most simply but it has here an adversative meaning, and and naturally the continuation of ver. 4.—The states, in opposition to the two previously menirony of the passage is most keen and cutting. tioned possibilities of speaking and being silent, If you were in my place, says Job, if your soul what is actually the case with Job; hence it were tried as mine is, I could speak windy words should be rendered “still, nevertheless," verum in abundance as you have done, I could string tamen : [Renan : Mais quoi ! “ He is absolutely them out one after another, and nod my head to incapable of offering any resistance to his pain, comfort: oh, yes! all such comfort-sympathy and care has also been taken that no solacing of the head, of the mouth, of the lips, I could word shall come to him from any quarter,” Del. lavish upon you—that is cheap enough, as your See the next clause). -Thou hast desolated conduct showg—but as for the heart, that is all my circle. 77. here not “rabble,” as in quite another matter! It will be seen from ch. xv. 34, but sensu bono-circle of friends and this paraphrase of Job's language that a some family dependents (Carey: all my clan). [" This what different view is taken of one or two mention of the family is altogether in place, seeexpressions, particularly in ver. 4, from that ing that the loss of the same must be doubly felt given above by Zöckler. It seems unnecessary by him now that his friends are hostile to him.” and unnatural to suppose that Job would in ver. Schlott.]. The Pesh. reads "all my testimony". 4 describe himself as framing words against (npy, i. e., all that witness in my behalf

, all them, and indulging in gestures of malicious mockery, and then in ver. 5 as strengthening and my prosperity (so also Hahn among the mo800thing them with words--but nothing more. derns), to which however Diko is not particuMoreover the expressions of ver. 4 would thus larly suitable. Note moreover the transition, lose their point, there being no reason to suppose bearing witness as it does to the vivid excite



ment of the speaker's feelings, from the declara- | me (a gesture of insolent mockery, as in Ps. tions concerning God in the tbird person (which xxii. 8 [7]; Jer. lvii. 4); with abuse (i. e. we find in the first member, and which appear with abusive speech) they strike me on the again ver. 9 seq.), and the mournful pluintive cheeks (comp. Mic. iv. 14 [v. 1]; Lam. iii. 30; address to Him here and in ver. 8, in which the John xviii. 22; xix. 8); together they description before us is directly continued. strengthen themselves against me,

Ver. 8. And hast seized me (not “Thou again: they complete; fill themselves up (= fill makest me wrinkled,” Vulg., Luther (E. V., Lee, up their ranks) against me, for xhon means Rodwell] or “shrivelest ine together," Del.- for upp siguifies “ to press together, to fasten firmly “10 gather themselves together to a dryp (Isa. together;" comp. ch. xxii. 16. [Wordsworth xxxi. 4), a heap;" not “to equip themselves attempts somewhat peculiarly to combine the two with a full suit of armor,” as Hirzel would exdefinitions: “ Thou hast bound me fust with wrin- plain, supplying 17.- The whole of this lamenness, viz., the fact that thou hast seized me; tation, which reminds us of Ps. xxii., is general the circumstance that God makes him suffer so

in its form; it contemplates nevertheless the severely is-s0 at least it seems-a witness of hostile attacks made by the friends on Job, as his guilt. [This clause, taken in connection es

in particular she word “ together" in the third pecially with the following parallelism, seems

member shows-in hearing which the friends certainly to favor the rendering of the Vulg;; | aimed at in the strong expressions of the speaker,

could not help feeling that they were personally E. V., etc. " thou hast filled me with wrinkles" The witness against Job is naturally sounething bilities hurt by such expressions as those of

even as he on his part must have had bis sensiwhich like his “ leanness" is visible. The corrugation of the skin was a feature of elephantia- Eliphaz in ch. xv. 10 (see on the passage). sismore marked even than the emaciation of the xxiii. 16 [15]) to the unrighteous, and

Ver. 11. God delivers me (comp. Deut. body, and would hardly be omitted in so vivid a description of his condition as Job here gives. casts me headlong into the hand of the The primary signification of “seizing,' wicked. ????, Imperf. Kal. of 07 (con“compressing" should not however he lost sight tracted from JÓ?", Ges., 270 [868], Rem. 3). of ; indeed it adds much to the terrible force of [". The preformative Jod has Metheg in correct the representation to retain it, and, with Words- iexts, so that we need not suppose, with Ralbag, worth, to combine the two definitions, only in a a 707 similar in meaning to 07!.” Del ]. præsomewhat different way from his; the true con- cipitem me dat; comp. LXX. šppipe and Symmaceprion being that God who in ver: 12 is repre, chus évéßane.—Say in the first member, " the sented as seizing Job and dashing him in pieces, -is here represented as seizing, compressing perverted one, the reprobate, the unrighteous," him, until his body is sbriveled, crumpled up or again-"the boy" (der Bube, or the boyish, into wrinkles.-E.). In opposition to Ewald, childish, knavish one'?] as Del. explains it, (rewho changes op into 07 ( = 7777, see ch. vi. ferring to cb. xix. 18; xxii

. 11), is used collec2; xxx. 13), and translates accor tingly: "and tively for the plur., as the parallel term 'yo? calamity seized me as a witness -comp. Del. in b shows. and Dillm, on the passage: [who object that it Second Strophe: Vers. 12–17. Continuation of would leave vy? without much of its force and the description of the cruel and hostile treat

ment he had received from God, notwithstanding emphasis, and that the construction would be too his innocence. condeused and artificial].--And my leanness Ver. 12. I was at ease, and He then shathas appeared against me, accusing me to

tered me. the face (speaking out against me, comp ch.

IS secure, unharmed, suspecting xv. 6b). On vnd consumption, emaciation, no evil; comp ch. xxi. 23; iii. 26.-1979. Pilp. comp. Ps. cix. 24. The signification rests on a

of 770 with strong intensive signification—" to metapbor similar to that by virtue of which a

shatter, to crush in pieces;" so also the followdried-up brook is called a " liar” (ch. vi. 15 ing rara, from 185, • to beat in pieces, to dash seq.).

to pieces.” [** He compares himself to a man Ver. 9. Eisanger has torn and made war who is seized by the hair of his head, and thrown upon me; He has gnashed against me down a precipice, where his limbs are broken. with His teeth; as mine enemy He has He probably alludes to some ancient mode of whetted His eyes against me. God, who is punishing criminals." Wemyss). Observe the now again spoken of in the third person, is ima- onomatopoetic element of these intensive forms, gined as a ferocious beast of prey, who is en which furthermore are to be understood not litraged against Job. 8o above in ch. x. 16.-Aserally or physically, but in a figurative sense of to the “tearing," comp. Hos. vi. 1; the “making the sudden shattering of prosperity, and peace war,” ch. xxx. 21; the " whetting” or “sharp- of soul.-And set me for a mark. 7709 acies oculorum of the Romans, and the modern target, mark, as in 1 Sam. xx. 20; Lam. iii. 12; ening” of the eyes, Ps. vii. 13 [12]: also the (from 193, tmpeīv, like okotós from OKÉNTECUNI), expression, “to shoot a murderous look at any comp. v?? above in ch. vii. 20. Ver. 10. Men also, like God, fall upon Job, as

Ver. 13 expands the figure in ch. xii. c.-His his enemies, resembling beasts of prey.-They arrows whirred about me. 139, not "luis have opened wide their month against troops, his archers” (Rabb. [E. V., Noy., Coo.,


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