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With reference to the Capitula, found in our MS., but wanting in most old Latin MSS., there is good reason to believe that they did not form part of the archetype from which the text of ff was copied, but were gathered from another MS. which had affinities with the parent of the DPGQ aur c group, whose Capitula are given by Wordsworth and White in their edition of the Vulgate Gospels ?.

As regards the paragraphs in ff, they exhibit a curious correspondence with those in e. It may be roughly stated that five out of every six breaks in the narrative in e are also found in f. The paragraphs in b and ff in St. John are almost identical.

The result of the comparison of the palaeography of ff with that of other ancient Latin MSS. has convinced the present writer that f must rank with a in point of antiquity. It is earlier than hacts or n, and also earlier than b. Many of the letters in ff resemble the uncial letters current in the fourth century. The M in ff is a replica of the M of the fourth century Cicero Palimpsest at Rome, Pal. Soc. ii. Pl. 160.

One cannot tabulate all the palaeographical impressions that are received from a MS. and that lead to the belief that it is earlier or later than another. The great simplicity of the letters in ff, the absence of all knobs or ornamental points, the smallness and plainness of the capitals, the straightness and thinness of lines marking abbreviations, the extreme rarity of punctuation -all these contribute to the conviction that ff belongs to a remote antiquity, and that it surpasses in age all other Old Latin MSS. with the exception of a.

Character of the Codex. The study of a MS. involves a twofold mental process—the ascertaining of the character of the scribe's exemplar and at the same time the ascertaining of the character of the scribe himself.

The licence of Western scribes is almost proverbial, and has been used by Hort as a strong argument for dismissing as summarily as he has done the evidence of Western MSS. When a MS. such as e writes, for example, capharnaum for naim, and capharnaum also for corozain, confounds Cleophas and Cephas and alters the context accordingly, the student may well hesitate about accepting any singular readings of such a codex. A witness who distorts even a few facts impairs the value of his evidence as a whole.

The striking character of ff is the absence of any such errors as those just named. There are unconscious errors of transcription such as are found in all MSS.; but of wilful alteration of the text from 'supposed fitness for immediate and obvious edification' there is, to the best of the present writer's belief, not a single instance.

The singular readings of ff are quite different in character from most of the singular readings of e, or even of b or k.

Another source of obliteration of ancient readings is the Harmonistic proclivity of many scribes—the result of such compilations as Ephrem's Diatessaron. Again, ff can be shown to be more free from this influence than any extant Latin or Greek MS.

1 The subscriptions after St. Matthew and St. John bear out this conclusion. The subscription after St. Luke varies.

Summary:
Evidence for assigning f' to as early a date as 375-425 may be discovered in

(a) The unfixedness of the spelling to a degree unparalleled in any other MS. Of this almost every page of the MS. furnishes proof.

(B) The exceeding rarity of punctuation,

(y) The absence of all observance of the rules of grammar; and the persistence of vulgarisms in both grammar and spelling.

(8) The shape and form of the letters, especially of E, T, M and O.

(6) The large amount of verbal variation from the Vulgate, especially in such well-known and often quoted verses as St. Matt. xi. 28, St. Luke ii. 14, St. Mark xiv. 24.

($) The comparative freedom of ff from the harmonizings which are found in other texts. The earliest texts would be the least harmonized. [Cf. St. Matt. xxiv. 35, xxvii. 34 ; St. Luke iii. 21, vi. 31 ; St. Mark iv. 39, xiv. 24.]

(0) The agreement of ff with the Old Syriac Version; and with Irenaeus and Origen in ancient readings lost in all other MSS.

The cumulative force of the evidence from these sources cannot be negatived by imputing to ff the textual timidity of the fifth century'. That the text of ff keeps on the whole nearer to the Text. Recept. than do the other ancient Old Latin MSS. (with the exception of a) is a fact which must be recognized, but it determines nothing either for or against the antiquity of our MS. or of its text. In this case, as in others, theories must be subserviated to ascertained facts. The large measure of support given by the two oldest Latin MSS. a and f to the Text. Recept. is a fact which can no longer be neglected, especially when it is remembered that 'the text has been preserved with less alteration in the versions than in the MSS.'

The reader is referred for a full discussion of this evidence to the writer's articles in the Journal of Theological Studies for October, 1905, and January, 1906.

The text that follows is an exact print, line for line and column for column, of the whole MS. Where italic type occurs, it always, except in the headings of the pages, denotes rubricated letters in the original. All corrections in the MS. earlier than the twelfth century have been faithfully given either in the text or in the Appendix at the end of the volume. The copious later Vulgate corrections have (for the most part) been omitted.

Postscript. My warmest thanks are due to the Rev. H. J. White, who, among other services, has revised the printed sheets of ff with the MS. itself, and has thus conferred on the present edition a high degree of accuracy.

I have also to thank my learned friends, Mr. A. Souter and the Rev. J. F. Bethune-Baker, and my obligations to Professor Burkitt, of Cambridge, and Dr. Sanday, of Oxford, are too many to be here set out in detail. From M. Henri Omont and the other authorities at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris I have received nothing but courtesy during the past eight years in which I have been a frequent visitor at their magnificent Library of MSS.

Postscript from London,

Feast of the Epiphany, 1907.

Fol. 1. Est pueris sedentib. Iudicii quam uobis in foro et adclama XXXI11125 In illo tempore tibus ad inuicem 17 et pondens iħs dixit Tres dicentibus · canta confiteor tibi pater uimus uobis . et no dñe caeli et terrae saltastis lamenta quia abscondisti haec uimus uobis et non a sapientibus et pru planxistis 18 uenit dentibus et reuelas iohannis neque ma ti ea paruolis 26 ita pa ducans neque bibens ter quoniam sic fu et dicunt demonium it beneplacitum an habet uenit filius te te

27 Omnia mihi tradita hominis manducas

sunt a patre meo et et] bibens et dicunt

nemo nouit filium ecce homo uorax et

nisi pater et patrem potator u ini amicus

quis nouit nisi filius publicanorum et pec et cui uoluerit fili catorum et iustdifica us reuelare

28 Uenite omnes qui

laboratis et onera . . . . . . . ti estis et ego uos (re

ficiam 20 tollite iu . . . . . . . gum me um super

Fol. 2. In domum đi et panes Consilium facie propositionis man bant · aduersus euTM ducauit quod non li ut eum perderent cebat ei manducare 151ħs autem secessit neque his qui cum illo i]nde et sequeban erant nisi solis sacer tu]r eum multi et dotibus

curauit eos 16 omnes 5 Aut non legistis in lege au tem quos cura quia sabbatis sacerdouit praecepit eis ne tes in templo sabbatu- per uulgarent eu uiolant et sine crimi 17 ut adi npleretur ne sunt dico autem quod dictum est uobis quia sabbato per esejiam profe maior est hic

tam di centem ? Si enim sciretis quid 18 ecce pluer meus est misericordiam

quem e legi dilec uolo et non sacri

tus meus in quo ficium numquam

bene conplacuit condemnassetis

anima mea · po innocentes & dñs est nam spiritum enim sabbati filius meum super eu“ hominis

et iudicium ge XXXU1° Et inde transies tibus adnuntia uenit in synagoga bit 1' non conten

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Uos et discite a me

Eorum 10 et ecce ho mo erat ibi manum habens aridam Et interrogabant dicentes si licet sa b batis curare ut alc cusarent eum 1 Ipse autem dixit (illis qui ex uobis qui habet ouem et ceciderit in foueam ssabbatis

Egerunt penitentia 31 Uae tibi corozain et bedsaida quia si in tyro et sidonae fac tae sunt in uobis olim in cilicio penitentia egissent 22 Uerum tamen dico uobis tyro et sidoni remissius erit in die iudicii quam uobis 23 Et tunc capharna um numquid usq. in caelum exaltaberis usquae in infernu“ discendis quia in so domis factae fuisse uirtutes quae factae sunt in te forte masissent usque in ho diernum 24 tame di co uobis quia ter rae so domorum Remissiu]s erit in die

BUCHANAN

quia mitis sunt et hu milis corde et inue nietis requiem ani mis uestris 30 iugum e nim meum suaue et onus meum leuae est XXXU 12' In illo tempore abiit iħs per segetes sabbatis discipuli au tem eius seruientes coeperunt uellere spicas et manduca[re 2 Pharisaei autem ui detes illos et dixersunt illi ecce disclipuli tui faciunt (quod non licet seis facere sab bastis

Ad . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .

nonne ene bit eam
et leuauit " quan
to magis melior
est homo (oue itaq.
licet sab{batis bene
facere
18 Tunc ait (homini ex
tende (manum tu
am [et extendit
man um suam et
restituta est sicut

et asltera
| "Et . . . . .

det neque clama
bit neque audiet
aliquis in plateis
uocem eius . 20 haru-
dinem quassata
non confringet
et linum fumiga
tem non extinguet
donec eiciat in
uictoria iudiciu
21 et in nomine eius

gentes sperabunt 22 Tunc oblatus est ei homo daemoniuhabens caecus et mu tus et curauit eum ita ut loqueretur et uideret 23 Et stupebant omnes uturbe et dicebant numquid hic est filius dauid 24 parisaei aute audientes dixerunt hic non eicit demonia

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Fol. 3. Nisi in belzebul pri- Non remittetur cipem daemonioru ei neque in hoc sae 25 Sciens autem iħs co culo neque in futuro gitationes eorum 39 Aut facite arborem dixit eis. omne reg bonam et fructum num diuisum con eius bonum aut fa tra se desolatur · et cite arborem malaomnis ciuitas uel et fructum eius ma domus diuisa con lum ex fructu enitra se non stabit. 20 si arbor cognoscetur enim satanas sata 84 Progenies uiperarum nan eicit aduersus quomodo potestis se diuisus est quomo bona loqui cum si do ergo stabit reg tis mali ex abundanum eius

tia enim cordis os lo 27 Quod si ego in belze quitur bul eicio demonia 36 Bonus homo de bono fili uestri in quo ei thensauro profert ciunt ideo ipsi iudi bona et malus homo ces erunt uestri

de malo tensauro 28 Si autem in sou diego profert mala eicio demonia · uti 38 Dico autem uobis quo que adpropiauit in niam omne uerbuuos regnum di otiosum quod locuti

Fol. 4. 4 Uiri nineuitae resur Tecum * ad ipse respo gent in iudicio cum dens dicenti sibi ait generatione ista et quae est mater mea condemnabunt ea aut fratres mei quia penitenitentia 4' Et extendens manuo egerunt in praedica in discipulos suos di tione ionae et ecce xit · ecce mater mea plus quam iona

et fratres mei 50 qui 42 Regina austri resur cumque enim fece get in iudicio cum ge rit uoluntate patris neratione ista et co mei qui in celis est demnauit eam quia ipse meus frater et benit ab ultimis par soror et mater est tibus terrae audire XXXUIIII 13" In illa die sapientiam solomo

sexit iħs et se nis et ecce plus hic debat secus mare quam solomon

et congraegatae 13 Cum autem inmun sunt ad eum tur dus sos exierit ab ho bae ita ut in nauicu mine ambulat per lam ascenderet loca arida quaerens sedere · et omnes requiem et non in turbae stabant in ueniet "tunc dicit re litore uertar in domum $ Et locutus est ad eos

multa in parabolis Meam unde exiui Dicens ecce exiit et ueniens inuenit qui seminat semina eam uacantem

re .et cum seminat scopis mundanta quaedam ceciderunt et ornatam 48 tunc secus uiam et uene uadit et adsumit runt uolucres et co secum septem alios mederunt ea quae sps · nequiores se dam autem caecide et introeuntes ha runt in petrosa ubi bitant in eo et fiunt non habebat terranouissima hominis multam et continuo illius peiora magis exhorta sunt quia quam priora sic erit non habebant alti generationi huic tudinem terrae sole pessimae quente autem orto aestua XXXVIII"6 Haec eo lo- uerunt et quia non ad turbas ecce ma habebant radicem ter eius et fratres aruerunt 'alia aute stabant foris quae ceciderunt in spinis rentes loqui cum eo et creuerunt spinae 97 dixit autem ei quida– et suffocauerunt ea ecce mater tua et 8 Alia uero caeciderunt fratres tui foris stant in terram bonam quaerentes loqui et dabant fructum

29 Quomodo potest quis Fuerint homines red intrare in domum dent de eo ratione fortis et uasa eius in die iudicii s7 unus diripere nisi prius quisque enim ex uer alligauerit forte

bis suis condemna et tunc domum illius uitur [derunt ei diripiet

XXXU1188 Tunc respon80 Qui non est mecum quidam de scribis contra me est et qui et parisaeis dicen non congregat me tes magister uolumus cum dispargit

a te signum uidere 81 Ideo dico uobis om $9 Ihs autem respondens ne peccatum et blas ait illis generatio ma phemia remittetur la et adultera signu hominibus · sos aute quaerit et signum blasphemia non non dabitur ei nisi remittetur homi signum ionae pro nibus

fetae · 40 sicut enim fu 32 Et quicumque dixe it ionas in uentre caeti rit uerbum aduer tribus diebus et trib. sum filium homi noctibus sic erit et nis remittetur ei filius hominis in cor qui autem dixerit dae terrae et tribus di contra spm. sēm. ebus et tribus noctib.

Fol. 5. Quaedam centesi 16 Vestri autem beati mum aliud sexage oculi qui uident et simum aliud tricen aures quae audiunt simum 'qui habet au 7 amen dico uobis res audiendi audiat quod multi profe 10 Et accedentes discipu- tae et iusti cupierunt dixerunt ei quare in sli uidere que uidetis parabolis loqueris et non uiderunt ad eos

et audire quae audi "Ad ipse respondensait tis et non audierunt illis quia uobis datu 18 Uos ergo audite para est nosse myteriu bolam seminantis regni illius autem

19 omnis qui audit uer non est datum 12 qui bum regni et non enim habet dabitur intellegit uenit ei et abundabit · qui malus et rapit quod autem non habet seminatum est in et quod habet aufere corde illius hic est tur ab eo

qui secus uiam se 18 Ideo in parabolis lo minatus est 20 qui aute quor eis ut uidentes supra petrosa semi non uideant

natus est hic est qui et audientes

uerbum audit et audiant et non continuo cum gau Intellegant ne qua Dio accipit illud 21 sed do conuertantur non habet in se ra Het tunc inpleuitur dicem sed est tem

poralis facta aute in eis profeti eseiae tribulatione prop dicentis

ter uerbum conti uade et dic popu nuo scandalizatur lo huic auditu 22 qui autem in spinis audietis et non seminatur hic est intellegetis et qui uerbum audit uidentes uide

et sollicitudo sae bitis et non uide culi et uoluptas di bitis 15incrassatur uitiarum suffocat est enim cor po uerbum et sine fruc puli huius et au tu efficitur 28 qui ue ribus grauiter ro in terram bona“ audierunt et ocu seminatus est hic los suos cluserunt est qui audit uerbu“ ne quando uide et intellegit · tunc ant oculis et au fructum adfert ribus audiant

Fol. 6.
Tricensimum

Dem est omnibus 24 Aliam parabulam pro seminibus . cum posuit illis dicens · si autem creberit mile est regnum cae maius fit omnibus lorum homini qui se holeribus et fit ar minauit uonum se bor ita ut uolucre men in agro suo

celi ueniant et abi 26 Cum autem romirent tent in ramis eius homines uenit ini XL33 Aliam parabolam micus et supersemi locutus est eis simi nauit zizania in tri le est regnum cae ticum et abiit · 26 sed cu- lorum fermento creuisset herba et fruc quod acceptum mu tum fecisset tunc ap lier abscondit in paruerunt zizaniae farinam mensu ?? Accesserunt autem ris tribus donec fer serui patrisfamilias mentatum est totu et dixerunt ei dñe 34 haec omnia locu nonne bonum se tus est iħs in para men seminasti in a bolis ad turbas et gro tuo unde ergo sine parabolis no“ habet zizania · * et ait loquebatur eis. illis inimicus homo 90 ut impleretur quod hoc fecit dicunt ei dictum est per pro Serui uis imus et col Fetam dicentem ligimus ea • 29 et ait no aperiam in parabo ne forte colligentes lis os meum eruc zizania eradicetis

tuabo absconsa simul et tritticum

ante constitutio 80 sed sinite utraque nem mundi crescere usque ad s6 tunc dimisit turbas messem et in tem

uenit in domum et pore messis dicam accesserunt ad eu messoribus · colli discipuli eius dicen gite primum ziza tes enarra nobis pa nia et alligate ea fas rabolam tritici et ciculos ad combu zizaniorum agri rendum • tritticu

87 Ad iħs respondens ait autem congraega qui seminat bonu te in horreum meuTM semen filius homi 31 Aliam parabolam lo nis est . 88 ager autem cutus est eis dicens hic mundus · bonu simile est regnum

uero semen · hi sunt caelorum grano

fili regni · zizania sinapis quod accipi autem filii sunt ne ens homo semina quitiae . 59 inimicus uit in agrum suum autem qui semina sa quod minimum qui uit ea · diabolus est

et facit aliut quide et corde intelle centesimu gant et conuer aliut sexage tantur et sane simum aliud

illos

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