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With reference to the Capitula, found in our MS., but wanting in most old Latin MSS., there is good reason to believe that they did not form part of the archetype from which the text of ff was copied, but were gathered from another MS. which had affinities with the parent of the DPGQ aur c group, whose Capitula are given by Wordsworth and White in their edition of the Vulgate Gospels

As regards the paragraphs in ff, they exhibit a curious correspondence with those in e. It may be roughly stated that five out of every six breaks in the narrative in e are also found in ff. The paragraphs in b and f in St. John are almost identical.

The result of the comparison of the palaeography of ff with that of other ancient Latin MSS. has convinced the present writer that f must rank with a in point of antiquity. It is earlier than hacts or n, and also earlier than b. Many of the letters in ff resemble the uncial letters current in the fourth century. The M in ff is a replica of the M of the fourth century Cicero Palimpsest at Rome, Pal. Soc. ii. Pl. 160.

One cannot tabulate all the palaeographical impressions that are received from a MS. and that lead to the belief that it is earlier or later than another. The great simplicity of the letters in ff, the absence of all knobs or ornamental points, the smallness and plainness of the capitals, the straightness and thinness of lines marking abbreviations, the extreme rarity of punctuation -all these contribute to the conviction that ff belongs to a remote antiquity, and that it surpasses in age all other Old Latin MSS. with the exception of a.

Character of the Codex. The study of a MS. involves a twofold mental process—the ascertaining of the character of the scribe's exemplar and at the same time the ascertaining of the character of the scribe himself.

The licence of Western scribes is almost proverbial, and has been used by Hort as a strong argument for dismissing as summarily as he has done the evidence of Western MSS. a MS. such as e writes, for example, capharnaum for naim, and capharnaum also for corozain, confounds Cleophas and Cephas and alters the context accordingly, the student may well hesitate about accepting any singular readings of such a codex. A witness who distorts even a few facts impairs the value of his evidence as a whole.

The striking character of ff is the absence of any such errors as those just named. There are unconscious errors of transcription such as are found in all MSS. ; but of wilful alteration of the text from 'supposed fitness for immediate and obvious edification' there is, to the best of the present writer's belief, not a single instance.

The singular readings of ff are quite different in character from most of the singular readings of e, or even of b or k.

Another source of obliteration of ancient readings is the Harmonistic proclivity of many scribes—the result of such compilations as Ephrem's Diatessaron. Again, ff can be shown to be more free from this influence than any extant Latin or Greek MS.

· The subscriptions after St. Matthew and St. John bear out this conclusion. The subscription after St. Luke varies.

Summary:
Evidence for assigning ff to as early a date as 375-425 may be discovered in

(a) The unfixedness of the spelling to a degree unparalleled in any other MS. Of this almost every page of the MS. furnishes proof.

(B) The exceeding rarity of punctuation.

(y) The absence of all observance of the rules of grammar; and the persistence of vulgarisms in both grammar and spelling.

() The shape and form of the letters, especially of E, T, M and O.

(e) The large amount of verbal variation from the Vulgate, especially in such well-known and often quoted verses as St. Matt. xi. 28, St. Luke ii. 14, St. Mark xiv. 24.

(5) The comparative freedom of ff from the harmonizings which are found in other texts. The earliest texts would be the least harmonized. (Cf. St. Matt. xxiv. 35, xxvii. 34; St. Luke iii. 21, vi. 31 ; St. Mark iv. 39, xiv. 24.]

(8) The agreement of ff with the Old Syriac Version ; and with Irenaeus and Origen in ancient readings lost in all other MSS.

The cumulative force of the evidence from these sources cannot be negatived by imputing to f the textual timidity of the fifth century'. That the text of ff keeps on the whole nearer to the Text. Recept. than do the other ancient Old Latin MSS. (with the exception of a) is a fact which must be recognized, but it determines nothing either for or against the antiquity of our MS. or of its text. In this case, as in others, theories must be subserviated to ascertained facts. The large measure of support given by the two oldest Latin MSS. a and ff to the Text. Recept. is a fact which can no longer be neglected, especially when it is remembered that the text has been preserved with less alteration in the versions than in the MSS.'

The reader is referred for a full discussion of this evidence to the writer's articles in the Journal of Theological Studies for October, 1905, and January, 1906.

The text that follows is an exact print, line for line and column for column, of the whole MS. Where italic type occurs, it always, except in the headings of the pages, denotes rubricated letters in the original. All corrections in the MS. earlier than the twelfth century have been faithfully given either in the text or in the Appendix at the end of the volume. The copious later Vulgate corrections have (for the most part) been omitted.

Postscript. My warmest thanks are due to the Rev. H. J. White, who, services, has revised the printed sheets of f with the MS. itself, and has thus conferred on the present edition a high degree of accuracy.

I have also to thank my learned friends, Mr. A. Souter and the Rev. J. F. Bethune Baker, and my obligations to Professor Burkitt, of Cambridge, and Dr. Sanday, of Oxford, are too many to be here set out in detail. From M. Henri Omont and the other authorities at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris I have received nothing but courtesy during the past eight years in which I have been a frequent visitor at their magnificent Library of MSS.

Postscript from London,

Feast of the Epiphany, 1907.

among other

Fol. 1.

Fol. 2. Est pueris sedentib. Iudicii quam uobis In domum đi et panes Consilium facie in foro et adclama- XXX112 In illo tempore propositionis man bant · aduersus euTM tibus ad inuicem 17 et pondens iħs dixit [res ducauit quod non li ut eum perderent dicentibus · canta

confiteor tibi pater cebat ei manducare 15 Ihs autem secessit uimus uobis . et no- dñe caeli et terrae neque his qui cum illo i]nde et sequeban saltastis lamenta quia abscondisti haec erant nisi solis sacer tu]r eum multi et uimus uobis et non a sapientibus et pru

dotibus

cu]rauit eos 16 omnes planxistis

18 uenit dentibus et reuelas 5 Aut non legistis in lege au tem quos cura johannis neque ma ti ea paruolis 26 ita pa quia sabbatis sacerdo uit praecepit eis ne ducans neque bibens ter quoniam sic fu tes in templo sabbatu- per uulgarent eu et dicunt demonium it beneplacitum an uiolant et sine crimi i7 ut adi npleretur habet 19uenit filius te te

ne sunt dico autem quod dictum est 27 Omnia mihi tradita uobis quia sabbato per ese diam profe hļominis manducas sunt a patre meo et

maior est hic

tam dicentem et] bibens et dicunt

nemo nouit filium ?Si enim sciretis quid ecce pluer meus ecce) homo uorax et nisi pater et patrem est misericordiam

quem e legi dilec potator ujini amicus quis nouit nisi filius uolo et non sacri

tus meus in quo publicanorum et pec et cui uoluerit fili

ficium numquam

bene conplacuit catorum et iust]ifica us reuelare

condemnassetis

anima mea · po 28 Uenite omnes qui innocentes dñs est nam spiritum laboratis et onera enim sabbati filius meum super euTM ti estis et ego uos (re hominis

et iudicium ge ficiam 20 tollite iu XXXVI' Et inde transies tibus adnuntia gum meum super uenit in synagoga

bit non conten

n

18

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m

Egerunt penitentia

Uos et discite a me Eorum 10 et ecce ho 91 Uae tibi corozain et

mo erat ibi manum bedsaida quia si in

quia mitis sunt et hu habens aridam tyro et sidonae fac milis corde et inue Et interrogabant tae sunt in uobis olim nietis requiem ani dicentes si licet sa[b in cilicio penitentia

mis uestris 30 iugum e batis curare ut ac egissent

nim meum suaue et cusarent eum 22 Uerum tamen dico onus meum leuae est

"Ipse autem dixit illis uobis tyro et sidoni XXXU 12' In illo tempore qui ex uobis q[ui habet remissius erit in die

abiit ihs per segetes ouem et ceciderit iudicii quam uobis

sabbatis discipuli au in foueam sabbatis 23 Et tunc capharna

tem eius seruientes um numquid usq.

coeperunt uellere nonne ene bit eam in spicas et manducare

et leuauit "quan caelum exaltaberis 2 Pharisaei autem uide to magis melior usquae in infernu

tes illos et dixersunt est homo (oue itaq. discendis quia in so illi ecce discipuli tui licet sab{batis bene domis factae fuisse faciunt (quod non facere uirtutes

quae

factae licet seis facere sab 13 Tunc ait homini ex sunt in te forte ma- bastis

tende (manum tu sissent usque in ho Ad

am [et extendit diernum

man{um suam et di co uobis quia ter

restituta est sicut rae so domorum

et altera Remissius erit in die

14 Et.

det neque clama bit neque audiet aliquis in plateis uocem eius . 20 harum dinem quassata non confringet et linum fumiga tem non extinguet donec eiciat in uictoria iudiciu 21 et in nomine eius gentes sperabunt 22 Tunc oblatus est ei homo daemoniuhabens caecus et mu tus et curauit eum ita ut loqueretur et uideret 23 Et stupebant omnes uturbe et dicebant numquid hic est filius dauid parisaei aute audientes dixerunt hic non eicit demonia

24 tame

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42

Fol. 3.

Fol. 4. Nisi in belzebul pri Non remittetur

41 Uiri nineuitae resur Tecum ad ipse respo cipem daemonioru ei neque in hoc sae

gent in iudicio cum dens dicenti sibi ait 20 Sciens autem iħs co culo neque in futuro generatione ista et

quae est mater mea gitationes eorum 99 Aut facite arborem condemnabunt ea aut fratres mei dixit eis. omne reg

bonam et fructum quia penitenitentia 49 Et extendens manuo num diuisum con eius bonum aut fa egerunt in praedica in discipulos suos di tra se desolatur . et cite arborem mala- tione ionae et ecce xit · ecce mater mea omnis ciuitas uel et fructum eius ma plus quam iona

et fratres mei 50 qui domus diuisa con lum ex fructu eni- 2 Regina austri resur

cumque enim fece tra se non stabit. 26 si

arbor cognoscetur get in iudicio cum ge rit uoluntate patris enim satanas sata 34 Progenies uiperaru- neratione ista et co- mei qui in celis est nan eicit aduersus quomodo potestis

demnauit eam quia

ipse meus frater et se diuisus est quomo bona loqui cum si

benit ab ultimis par

soror et mater est do ergo stabit reg

tis mali ex abunda- tibus terrae audire XXXUIIII 131 In illa die num eius tia enim cordis os lo sapientiam solomo

[exit iħs et se 27 Quod si ego in belze quitur

nis et ecce plus hic debat secus mare bul eicio demonia 35 Bonus homo de bono

quam solomon

? et congraegatae fili uestri in quo ei thensauro profert

43 Cum autem inmun sunt ad eum tur ciunt ideo ipsi iudi bona et malus homo dus sps exierit ab ho bae ita ut in nauicu ces erunt uestri de malo tensauro

mine ambulat per lam ascenderet 28 Si autem in spu.điego profert mala

loca arida quaerens

sedere · et omnes eicio demonia · uti 30 Dico autem uobis quo requiem et non in turbae stabant in que adpropiauit in niam omne uerbu- ueniet 4* tunc dicit re litore uos regnum đi otiosum quod locuti uertar in domum Et locutus est ad eos

multa in parabolis 2° Quomodo potest quis Fuerint homines red Meam unde exiui Dicens ecce exiit intrare in domum dent de eo ratione et ueniens inuenit qui seminat semina fortis et uasa eius in die iudicii 37 unus eam uacantem

re *et cum seminat diripere nisi prius quisque enim ex uer scopis mundanta

quaedam ceciderunt alligauerit forte

bis suis condemna et ornatam 45 tunc secus uiam et uene et tunc domum illius uitur

derunt ei uadit et adsumit runt uolucres et co diripiet XXXU1198 Tunc respon

secum septem alios mederunt ea quae 80 Qui non est mecum quidam de scribis sös • nequiores se dam autem caecide contra me est et qui et parisaeis dicen et introeuntes ha runt in petrosa ubi non congregat me tes magister uolumus bitant in eo et fiunt non habebat terra cum dispargit

a te signum uidere nouissima hominis multam et continuo 31 Ideo dico uobis om 89 Iħs autem respondens illius peiora magis exhorta sunt quia ne peccatum et blas ait illis generatio ma

quam priora sic erit

non habebant alti phemia remittetur la et adultera signu

generationi huic tudinem terrae 6 sole hominibus · sps aute quaerit et signum pessimae [quente autem orto aestua blasphemia non non dabitur ei nisi XXXVIII* Haec eo lo- uerunt quia non remittetur homi signum ionae pro ad turbas ecce ma habebant radicem nibus

fetae · 40 sicut enim fu ter eius et fratres aruerunt 'alia aute92 Et quicumque dixe it ionas in uentre caeti stabant foris quae

ceciderunt in spinis rit uerbum aduer tribus diebus et trib. rentes loqui cum eo et creuerunt spinae sum filium homi noctibus sic erit et dixit autem ei quida– et suffocauerunt ea nis remittetur ei filius hominis in cor ecce mater tua et 8 Alia uero caeciderunt qui autem dixerit dae terrae et tribus di fratres tui foris stant in terram bonam contra söm. sēm. ebus et tribus noctib. quaerentes loqui et dabant fructum

Fol. 5.

Fol. 6. Quaedam centesi 16 Uestri autem beati Tricensimum

Dem est omnibus mum aliud sexage oculi qui uident et 24 Aliam parabulam pro seminibus · cum simum aliud tricen

aures quae

audiunt posuit illis dicens · si autem creberit simum qui habet au 17 amen dico uobis mile est regnum cae

maius fit omnibus res audiendi audiat quod multi profe lorum homini qui se holeribus et fit ar 10 Et accedentes discipu- tae et iusti cupierunt minauit uonum se bor ita ut uolucre dixerunt ei quare in [li uidere que uidetis men in agro suo celi ueniant et abi parabolis loqueris et non uiderunt

26 Cum autem romirent tent in ramis eius ad eos

et audire quae audi homines uenit ini XL33 Aliam parabolam "Ad ipse respondensait tis et non audierunt micus et supersemi locutus est eis simi illis quia uobis datu 18 Uos ergo audite para nauit zizania in tri le est regnum cae est nosse myteriu bolam seminantis ticum et abiit. 26 sed cu- lorum fermento regni illius autem 19 omnis qui audit uer creuisset herba et fruc quod acceptum mu non est datum " qui bum regni et non

tum fecisset tunc ap lier abscondit in enim habet dabitur intellegit uenit

paruerunt zizaniae

farinam mensu ei et abundabit · qui malus et rapit quod 27 Accesserunt autem ris tribus donec fer autem non habet seminatum est in serui patrisfamilias mentatum est totu et quod habet aufere corde illius hic est et dixerunt ei dñe 34 haec omnia locu tur ab eo qui secus uiam se nonne bonum se

tus est iħs in para 19 Ideo in parabolis lo minatus est 20 qui aute men seminasti in a bolis ad turbas et quor eis ut uidentes

supra petrosa semi gro tuo unde ergo sine parabolis no non uideant

natus est hic est qui habet zizania . et ait loquebatur eis. et audientes uerbum audit et

illis inimicus homo 38 ut impleretur quod audiant et non continuo cum gau

hoc fecit dicunt ei

dictum est per pro Intellegant ne qua Dio accipit illud 21 sed Serui uis imus et col Fetam dicentem do conuertantur

non habet in se ra ligimus ea • 29 et ait no.“ aperiam in parabo 1 et tunc inpleuitur

dicem sed est tem ne forte colligentes lis os meum eruc poralis facta aute zizania eradicetis

tuabo absconsa in eis profeti eseiae tribulatione prop

simul et tritticum

ante constitutio dicentis ter uerbum conti 80 sed sinite utraque

nem mundi uade et dic popu nuo scandalizatur

crescere usque

ad 38 tunc dimisit turbas lo huic auditu 22 qui autem in spinis messem et in tem uenit in domum et audietis et non seminatur hic est

pore messis dicam

accesserunt ad euintellegetis et qui uerbum audit messoribus · colli discipuli eius dicen uidentes uide et sollicitudo sae gite primum ziza tes enarra nobis pa bitis et non uide culi et uoluptas di nia et alligate ea fas rabolam tritici et bitis 15 incrassatu uitiarum suffocat

ciculos ad combu zizaniorum agri est enim cor po

uerbum et sine fruc rendum • tritticu“ 87 Ad ihs respondens ait puli huius et au tu efficitur 28

autem congraega

qui seminat bonu“ ribus grauiter

ro in terram bona te in horreum meuTM semen filius homi audierunt et ocu seminatus est hic 31 Aliam parabolam lo

nis est. 38

'ager autem los suos cluserunt est qui audit uerbu“ cutus est eis dicens hic mundus · bonu“ ne quando uide et intellegit · tunc

simile est regnum

uero semen · hi sunt ant oculis et au fructum adfert

caelorum grano

fili regni . zizania ribus audiant et facit aliut quide sinapis quod accipi autem filii sunt ne et corde intelle centesimu

ens homo semina quitiae . So inimicus gant et conuer

uit in agrum suu autem qui semina tantur et sane simum aliud

s2 quod minimum qui uit ea • diabolus est illos

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