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ous, which are owing to the Author's vehement Desire of signalizing himself by new Concepti. ons, and of saying what none had said before him. Nothing can be less solid, than those four Images, which he sets up for the Principles of all Things. He is constantly upon the Metaphor, and scarce ever speaks of Things according to their natural Import. He seems to have been entirely a Stranger to the geometrical Way of Reasoning in Use with the Schoolmen. But the Spaniards, who have the Advantage of other Nations in grave Reflection, refind so strongly upon Logick in the last Age, as to alter the Purity of natural Reason by the Subtilties of their Argumentation, and by falling into empty and abstracted Notions, void of all Reality. Their Philosophers found out a Way to be Masters of Reason in spight of good Sense, and to give some Sort of Colour and Out-side to the most extravagant Allertions. And by this means their Debates were so fill'd with the Chicane of vain Contention, as to serve for nothing but to raise the Choler, and to blacken the Blood. Smiglesius, a Jesuit of Poland, is one of the last that has written on Aristotle's Logick, with a just Mixture of Subtilty and Solidity. His very fagacious Spirit has founded the Depth of this Art, with so much Justness and Clearness, as is scarce to be paralleld in any other Author. His Logick is an admirable Work. The rest of the Modern Philosophers have applied themselves rather to Phyficks than Logick. But nothing can be more extravagant than Vanhelmont's logical Treatise, in which he pretends to overthrow the whole Aristotelian Syftem, without any Ground to support his own. Descartes began a Logick; which he left unfinishid: Some Frag. ments of it are still in the Hands of his Difci
ples, under this Title, Of Erudition. There are some Strokes of Logick in his Method, where he tells us, that the Mind of Man being finite, it ought to begin with the Consideration of fimple Objects, and then gradually to accustom it felf to the Knowledge of compound Things, and the Art of distinguishing them from each other. He says, If we would make a right Difcernment between Truth and Falfhood, we must divest our felves of Prejudices, by learning first. to doubt of all Things. His Principle, I think, therefore I am, which he lays down as the first evident and sensible Truth, upon a close Examination will appear to be somewhat defective: For since the Proposition, I think, resolves it self into this other, I am thinking, I am, therefore I am, will make but a frivolous Repetition. After all, as he is the best Notionalist of the Moderns, what he delivers, how new foever, is not ill conceiv'd, but discovers that Depth of Meditation which was his peculiar Excellence. But nothing is more immethodical than his Discourse of Method. 'Tis a Medley of Morality, Physicks, and Metaphysicks, that scarce asserts or establishes any one Doctrine. Yet we find in it fome Marks of Sincerity, which shew us the true Character of his Genius; especially, where he makes that very, ingenuous Confeflion, " That the only Advantage to be acquired by " Philosophy, is the Art of Speaking probably “ of all Things, and of raising the Admiration
of such as know less than our felves.” Campanella's Logick is confus'd and perplex'd, as being form'd upon the Model of the Averroists, which he too strictly copied. But, to conclude this Subject, we may affirm, Thit of the modern Treatises of Logick, the most accomplish'd in all its Parts, is that which Peter Mounyer, a Phy
facian of Grenoble, has publish'd on the Works of Honoratus Faber, the Jesuit. What he has written on the Art of Syllogism and Consequence, which is his main Business, is an Original in its kind : No Man has ever carried these SpecuPations farther, or has more exhausted the Matter, by reciting the almost infinite Modes and Connexions of the Syllogistick Terms.' But let us pafs on to the Confideration of Moral Philosophy, as a Doctrine of less Obscurity and greater Reality.
1. S Logick teaches us to think and speak, philofoso Morality, or Ethick, teaches us to pbie diffe
live: The one is imployd in directing rendi, althe Conceptions, the other in regulating the tera viDesires of the Soul. Democritus was the first of vendiCic.
de Fin. the philosophick Order that began with Wonder
Facere dos to reflect, how Man, being ignorant of Himself, cet pbiloshould yet engage his Curiosity in studying the sophia, non heavenly Bodies. This latter was the whole dicere. Se, Business of the Philosophers before Socrates, who first applied himself to the forming ofthe Manners. ante pedes Pythagoras had indeed given him a Specimen of nemo videt this Design, who deduc'd the Rules of Morality & cæli from the Observation of Nature. This part of scrutamur Knowledge, which Pythagoras learned by his plagas; Converse with the Egyptian Priests, was not his cic.de first Inclination, yet 'twas what suited very well with his Genius, and was accordingly prosecuted by him. The great Aim and Tendency of Tota phihis moral Doctrine was to purge the Mind Solophone from the Impurities of the Body, and from the commentaClouds of the Imagination, by the Study of tio mortis. Philosophy, which he term’d The Meditation of eft.Cic.
Death. It seems to have had more Purity and Piety than the other Systems, but lefs Exact nefs. For it contain’d only single Maxims without Order or Dependance; and these Maxims were but a bare Explication of divine Worship, of Piety to Parents and Friends, of natural Honesty, of Modesty, Integrity, publick Spiritedness, and other common Offices of Life. And with the Precepts of this found Doctrine, he informed the Minds of the People. St. Ferom obferves that the whole Scheme of Pythagoras's Morals is contain'd in his Golden Verses, which yet are not so properly to be ascrib’d to him, as to his Dis. ciples. Hierocles, Governour of Alexandria under
Diocletian, has written a Comment on this poem. Cap. 1: Longinus mentions but two Words of Pythagoras,
which alone gives us a noble Idea of his moral Doctrine: When being ask'd what Accomplishments advanc'd as nearest to the Divine Na.
ture, he answer'd Beneficence and Veracity. And Magn. Moroc., though Aristotle assures us, that this Philosopher's
Discourses did not proceed so much upon the
Subje&t of Virtue, as those of Socrates ; yet Cicero Ve qui fa
has confess’d, that there appear'd in the Followpiens
beers of Pythagoras a peculiar Character of Wisdom, beretur is which fo distinguilh'd them from all other Sects, continuò that at Rome in the Time of the first Gonfuls, Pytbagore. a wife Man and a Pythagorean were esteem'd tur. Cic. equivalent Terms: And what Apuleius reTufc. Qu. ports of the Sobriety of these Professors, might Athenæus very juftly claim the Admiration of ancient 1. 4. C. 16. Times.
II. Socrates improv'd this Morality which Pythan primus goras had brought out of Egypt, with the Addiphiloso
tion of settled Principles, and with some Sort of pbiæ mo
regular Method, by the Definitions and Divisi. fuit. Cic. ons of the several Virtues. Other Philosophers, Qu. Acad.