« PoprzedniaDalej »
Chryfippus writ no less than Three hundred Vo. lumes upon this Art: But Seneca has observ'd, Chryfippus that his Refinements serv'd only to break and enervavit enervate its masculine Spirit. He, and his Suc- virilem cessors, were they that first brought up the Use pbiam suis of formal and virtual Distinctions. Their Viva-argutits. city of Genius, indulg'd too largely to the Imagi- Senec. nation, which always represents Things beyond
Stoicis their natural Proportions, by giving too much
verba reo Force and Power to Words. Names, and the perienda Significations of Names, were the great and on-sunt, impoly Subje&t of their Debates. And thus they be- nendaque came the first Founders and Authors of that nova novis
rebus noPhilosophy which was reviv'd by the Nomina
mina.Cic. lifts, so many Ages after : At least, there was a de Fin. near Resemblance between these two Sects, Zeno eoin their way of overstraining the Niceties of rum prinTerms. But this Logick, which was scarce any
ceps non better than merely verbal, rendred the Stoicks inventor extremely slight and superficial, and made their fuit, quam Philofophy hang upon their Lips. However, novorima Aristotle's Logick, together with the rest of his
Ibid, Works, being conceal'd from the Publick, the Logick of Zeno was chiefly in Vogue with the following Ages, and one of the first that was taught at Rome; the Subtilties of which Plau- In Afinar. tus expos'd with so much Humour in his Come
in Plcudies ; as Cicero afterwards did in many places of
dol, his Works: The Stoicks having by this Affectation, made themselves ridiculous to the Wisdom of the Romans.
VI. Epicurus took up a Method of Reasoning, less diale&ica. arificial than that of Zeno, but more fine and contemnit delicate. The Censure which Tully has pass’d
Epicurus. upon him, of his despising Logick, will hold
Fin. In eâ philofophiæ parte, quæ Logica dicitur, Epicurus planè inermis erat pudus eft; nibil de dividendo ac partiendo docer. Idem. Ibid.
true only with regard to the Logick of the Stoicks, which indeed he could not approve of, as being too full of Nicety and Quirk. "Epicurus fet about this work with greater Simplicity. The analytical Method of Division and of Argumentation, was unknown to him; and this Defect rendred him weak and little in Disputes. His Search of Truth proceeded only by the
Senses, which he term'd the first and natural Ex Diog. Light of Mankind. This was his first and funLaer.Lu
damental Rule, as the Reflection upon the Judg. cret. Plu, tarch. & ment of Sense was his second. As he acknowGaffend, ledg'd Two Sorts of Truth, the one Natural,
the other Moral, so his Principle was, that we should distinguish by the Senses what is real in Nature, and by the Appetite, (or the Way of the Heart) what is good and convenient for our Estate, which latter he term’d moral Truth. This was the Sum of his Doctrine: The three leading Maxims of it were as follow :
1. That the Senses cannot be deceiv’d, because the Impresion which they take from the Object must always be true, as consisting in a Sensible Species; but that the Reasonings of the Soul upon this Impression are capable of Falsehood.
II. That the Opinion which we form of any Sensation, may indifferently be either true or false.
III. That 'tis true when the Judgment of Sense proceeds upon the represented Species, without Obstacle, and with such an Evidence, as Reafon cannot controul or resist ; but that it
be false when defective in this Evidence.
These are the main Axionis of Epicurus's Logick, upon which he founds the different Reasonings
of Ex Diog.
of the Soul, fram’d by Vertue of the Sympathy that there is between the Understanding and the Sense. He says, 'tis in Strength of these Notices which the Soul receives from the Senses, that it forms its Doubt or Opinion, its Obfcurity or Evidence, the respective Character of which is in this manner stamp'd upon it. To proceed ; that Way of anticipated Knowledge, which he stiles Presumption, is according to him géantes: but the Idea of singular Things, reunited in
Laert. their universal and common Notion: And hence he draws the Rule of Definition, which he looks upon as the only Method of Science. By the Help of these several Principles, he establish'd a more natural Way of Reasoning than the other Philosophers. The Simplicity of his Logick was in a good Measure owing to the Clearness of the Terms ; he being of Opinion, that the common Source of all Disputes was the Ambiguity of Propositions. Thus he resolv'd ali Fallacies and Sophisms by the bare Explication of the Words ; concluding, that when once Men understand one another, and are not merely stupid, they must of necessity be agreed. That Over-ballance of Authority which he allow'd to the Senses, may indeed seem a very uncertain Way of coming to any perfea Knowledge of Truth. But he tabours to rectify the Eò rem diDefault of this Principle, by using the utmost mittit EPrecaution in all his Reasonings : And Luere. picurus, fi tius, who explains his Doctrine in Verse, has; unussensus in his fourth Book, propos'd no less than four-vitä merteen Objections against the Judgment of Sense, titus sit, and given a satisfactory Answer to them all. In nulli una word, a Soundness and Simplicity of Sense, quam elle assisted with fome natural Reflection, was all
Cic. Acad the Art of Epicurus: He was not so curious in
Qu. Doleostoicos noßros Epicureis irridendi fui dediffe facultatem. Id.de Fin.
Modes and Formalities as the Stoicks, who by that Nicety laid themselves open to the Con. tempt of him and his Tribe.
VII. When the writings of Aristotle, which had lain hid for so many Ages, were once discovered, and the World was made acquainted with his Method, it was this alone that was generally follow'd in After-times, as the most folid and certain ; becaufe the Art of Thinking and of Discourfing appear'd there in its highest Perfection, by the Invention of Syllogifm, and was incapable of the least Improvement by all the Study and Meditation of his Successors. Galen, who had entertain'd some different Notions of the Art of Logick, at length acquiefcd in that of Ariftotle, and contributed, largely to its Fame; while that additional Figure of Syllogifm which he before had invented, was ever look'd on as an indirect Method of Argumentation. Alexander Aphrodisaus, Simplicius, Ammo. nius, and Philoponus, among the Greeks ; Apuleius, S. Austin, Boethius, Thomas Aquinas, and many others of the Latins, together with the Arabians, ftudied Aristotle's Logick, as the great Pattern and Original. Nay, we may affirm, that there was never any Thing rationally advanc'd upon this Art, but what Aristotle had first thought of; and that there has been scarce one new Discovery made in the universal Oeconomy of the Operations of the Mind, since the time that he wrote. It was, likewise, upon this excellent Model that the Schoolmon form'd their Character, who reign'd with so long and so absolute a Sway. It is true, they fell into a Division of Nominalists and Realifts; but both these Parties proceeded in their Debates upon the Principles of Aristotle. I shall say nothing of the System of
Raimundus Lullius, which is but a cabbaliftick Jargon, a Ranging of Words without Things wholly groundless and precarious; an Art to pronounce at all Adventures, upon all Subje&s, and to discourse very plentifully in the Air : la Thort , 'tis an Imitation of that extravagant Scheme which Peter Montuus pretended to have
De unius copied exa&ly from Abezebron, an Arabian Phi- legis vert losopher, fit, as he conceiv'd, to demolish Anti- tate.csgo chrisi at his appearing. From this fine Original Raimundus Lullius took the Draught of his Logick, which is only capable of making Fools or Madmen. About two hundred Years since, Laurentius Valla undertook to reform the Aristotelian Logick, by reducing the ten Prædicaments to Three, and by cutting off the third Figure of Syllogism. But this bold Enterprize did not succeed, nor found any to second it. Ludovie cus Vives attempted another sort of Reformation, not so much in respect of Aristotle, as of the Schoolmen, but with no better Success. Nor did Peter Ramus nieet with greater Encouragement in his Design of Ruining the Credit of Ariftotle, by Help of the Memoirs of Valla and Vives. For the Plan which he form’d of a new Logick, has nothing rational in it, but what he borrow'd from that of Aristotle, which he spoilt in presuming to mend it. Cardan compos'd a Logick upon the joynt Stock of Aristotle, Hippocrates, Euclid, Ptolomy, and Galen; but this work had nothing valuable in it, besides the geometrical Method of Aristotle, which the Compiler was so wise as to transcribe.
VIII. As for the Judgment that may be pass’d on the modern Logicians: Bacon's Organum is by no means a regular Piece ; it consists of a Num. ber of particular Remarks, and those very curi