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The Library.

William Bateson, F.R.S., Naturalist, his Essays and Addresses, together with a short Account of his Life. By Beatrice Bateson. (Cambridge University Press. £1 1s. net).

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grams thrown off in his writings show his penetration in a further aspect; thus, to take a single example, in the argument for Greek he says of the Natural Science man: To him it is easier to solve a difficulty than to feel it." In the intensity of emotion which accompanied the great critical moments of his work he

reminds one of Alfred Russell Wallace. Certain limitations are obvious. In spite of unusually keen sympathies for individuals,

I of the biologist focussed upon genetics, keentment at cruelty or injustice,

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in itself a subject beyond the scope of 'N and Q., there is yet, even in the pages which their author classed as suitable for the eupeptic only or frankly as indigestible," much in this volume that our readers should enjoy. Bateson's was a thoroughly original mind. There was in his work and thought a very minimum of the second-hand, the received; a maximum of direct contact with fact and direct recognition and judgment of fact. This power, science, if it does not create it, at any rate increases and makes more quick and supple, and perhaps no one can now conceive of Bateson as anything but a naturalist. Yet he had a great deal of the poet in him, and still more of the artist, and these essays, with their clearness, their frequent felicity of phrase, their easy literary allusions, and their pungency reveal not merely the full capable man of science (and the man of letters may sometimes find himself envying the man of science his workmanlike pen) but the born writer. He had that quality-is it moral or intellectual?-which we think may come to be recognised as a characteristic of the best scien

and

tific workers of his particular generation, that of disdain of mere utility, particularly of commercial utility. The attitude, we may suspect, is growing old-fashioned; but it lent great dignity, freedom and exhilaration to the earlier years of Bateson's work, well-described in the Memoir, when he was labouring unrecognized in that line of biological investigation, which he himself named Genetics, and which has since, re-inforced by the re-discovery of Mendel's researches, vindicated itself and him in a way it is now superflous to indicate. This turn of mind prompted him to most eloquent and cogent defence of compulsory Greek at Cambridge; just as the enthusiasm and speed which also characterized him led him to good suggestions for methods in classical education, though he himself would have been the first to recognize that much of his counsel was rendered nugatory by the inadequacy of ordinary teachers and the general trend of the world. Mrs. Bateson tells us that he rated achievement in art higher than achievement in science, and his early letters illustrate this. A charming incident of his childhood opens up to us much more than his early interest in nature. When he was seven or eight he defended against criticism a disreputable-looking man, who used to haunt the ditches about Cambridge, by exclaiming reverently: "That man is a naturalist.' Another instance of unusual quality in imaginative intuition will be found in his youthful remarks on the Sistine Madonna. The occasional epi

one feels that his scorn for history and politics came from a certain incapacity to understand a whole range of human experience. Yet in some mitigation of this view one may surely set the fine letter on the mutual duty of the Government and the citizen in 1914, which he wrote to clear his young son's troubled mind. In 1913 a sudden attack of angina broke his health and altered life for him. In spite of the change he took his share, especially in the winter of 1916-7 when he spent much time in France, of the manifold burden of the war. Nor do the papers of the last ten years of his life show any enfeeblement from the various suffering he was called upon to face. Memoir is admirably done; we question whether the full biography which Mrs. Bateson in her preface expresses hope of seeing undertaken by a more competent hand " could, in fact, add much to this portrait. We should all, however, welcome more of Bateson's letters.

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Shakespeare's Stratford. By Edgar I. Fripp. (Oxford University Press. 2s. 6d. net).

MR. FRIPP'S new book on Shakespeare and Shakespeare's town is marked by all those characteristics which have gained for him the affectionate esteem of those who make Shakespeare, so to speak, a part of their lives. We rather doubt the truth of the sweeping statement with which his Preface begins that a great artist, whether poet or painter, inevitably reflects his environment, while he mirrors so much more. Could any one tell, from the poetry of Keats or Shelley, where either spent his childhood? Or accurately guess the circumstances of Turner's early life from his pictures? Nevertheless, the dictum holds truth where Shakespeare is concerned. We are not so much baulked here as in some other points by the slenderness of the record. The Poet's return to his native town, the comely state in which he lived there, the laying of his bones in a place which denoted his well-rooted citzenship, all show us plainly enough that Shakespeare loved Stratford, and it may truly be said that what a poet or painter greatly loves is indeed inevitably reflected in his work. This little book, with the aid of a map, takes us from street to street and house to house in the Stratford of Shakespeare's day and tells us, from the town records, what is known of the several citizens. Mr. Fripp has so steeped himself in the records and has visualized all the people so vividly that they come alive to us under his hand, and appear to us, as they evidently do to him, as a worthy, respectable, even lovable group of human beings, no whit

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less interesting to read about than the knights and lords, captains and courtiers of the time. The religious difference between the townspeople considerably enhances the liveliness of the interplay of character, and Thomas Barber, for example, or George Whateley, or William Hiccocks gain clearer outline in our vision of them by their recusancy nection with recusants. The religious question, as we all know, had strong bearing on the reception of players at Stratford. In 1587 Barber as bailiff gave permission to the Queen's Men and the Earl of Leicester's Men to play in the town, and Mr. Fripp ventures the suggestion that Leicester's Men, being short of their full number by the absence of members of the company in Germany, enticed Will Shakespeare off his office-stool to join them. The story of the poaching is disposed of by recognition of the fact that there was no park at Charlecote in those days; and the gibe against Lucy in the Merry Wives of Windsor is referred to Sir Thomas Lucy the Second, who in 1601 had just succeeded his father, and incensed the town by his support of Sir Edward Greville.

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On the birthplace Mr. Fripp, with dates in aid, shows himself corrective. John Shakespeare bought the Middle House and the West House in 1575. and there is no evidence to show he occupied them before that date except the tradition about the birth-room, a tradition which our author connects with the fact that the Poet leased the East House to strangers and, virtually, gave the rest to his sister, Joan Hart. One might stop to comment on something at every page, but it must suffice here to note the Latin letter written by Richard Quyney to his father at the age of eleven. The end of it looks like the production of a schoolmaster, yet that such productions should have been, from any origin and in any form, current in correspondence between Stratford tradesmen and their small sons throws instructive light on the education Shakespeare received. At the close of the book the Droeshout portrait and engravings are discussed, and the portrait now at the Memorial Library at Stratford is accepted by Mr. Fripp as genuine and as having triumphed over a generation of criticism."

W volume of thede with
E have received with pleasure the first

Life in the Middle Ages (Cambridge University Press, 7s. 6d. net). First published in 1910, this work had to make its way under the disadvantage of being, in form, bulky and unmanageable. It is now divided into four parts of which this, the first and largest, deals with Religion, Folk-lore and Superstition. The following ones will contain respectively the passages illustrat ing the Chronicles, Science and Art; Men and Manners; and then Monks, Friars and Nuns. The present volume consists not exclusively but largely of faits divers, and in using it for illustration care should be taken to emphasize

that, even more truly than it shows us what life in the Middle Ages was like, it shows us what amused or edified or horrified medieval people. A collection drawn from works in six languages, it is also useful in showing the oneness or at any rate the similarity-of culture, thought and custom throughout Europe. It is not to be wondered at that a second edition is required. At ante p. 272 we noticed William Law's library at Kings Cliffe, Northamptonshire. The new edition (1s.) of the Catalogue is now in our hands, a very interesting list of books, especially as including great French and Spanish authors. The first of the original rules laid down for the Master for the " lending out of books was that "He should read the Catalogue of ye Books to any person that desires to hear it." The first book was lent to a lady in Wing, Rutland. We have also received Mr. E. A. B. Barnard's The Last Days of Hailes Abbey and of Gretton Chapel (18.), a careful and instructive account of the depositions before Commissioners appointed to enquire into depredations committed at Hailes Abbey after the Suppression-followed by a note on the enquiry by Commissioners in 1557-8 into the grounds of an appeal for the restoration of divine service at Gretton Chapel, where the evidence taken opens up many good particulars of the local history and circumstances of the time. Popular Names of Birds (as used, that is, in Somerset and adjacent parts of other counties), a shilling booklet compiled by Mr. A. S. Macmillan and published by the Folk Press, is specially to be commended for its index, which gives under the usual English name of a bird, its scientific name and then the string of popular names. That new popular names are still being bestowed is shown by the Blackbird's name of Zulu.

BOOKSELLER'S CATALOGUE.

MR. HAROLD HALEWOOD, of Preston, among his Early Books about Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands, has, we notice, Frederick R. Stack's Views in the Province of Auckland a series of coloured lithographs brought out in 1862-which, in the original wrappers, are offered for £20 10s. Other good New Zealand items are Barraud's and Travers's New Zealand: Graphic and De1877. Ves the scriptive,' the drawings being Barraud's work

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F.

Pictorial Illusof a Whaling volumes

trations of New Zealand (1847: £4 10s.).
Debell Bennett's Narrative
Voyage round the Globe 1833-6, 2
(Melbourne, 1857: £3 10s.)
(1840: £4 4s.) and Gill's Victoria Illustrated
examples and we must not omit a copy of La
are other good
Voyages,' 20 volumes, and
Harpe, Abrégé de l'Histoire Générale des
with the Atlas
(Paris, 1780: £5 12s. 6d.).

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS.
WE cannot undertake to answer queries
privately.

Printed and Published by The Bucks Free Press, Ltd., at their Offices, High Street,
Wycombe, in the County of Bucks.

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THE following complete Series, each of 12 volumes, are in stock, and may be obtained from the Manager, Notes and Queries," 20, High Street, High Wycombe, Bucks :FIRST SERIES (1849-1855), 12 Volumes and General Index, bound cloth, (2 volumes and General Index in Publisher's cloth), second hand, clean and sound, £3 38.

SECOND SERIES (1856-1861), 12 volumes, uniformly bound in cloth, second hand, clean and sound, £2 2s. THIRD SERIES

(1862-1867), 12 volumes, uniformly bound in cloth, second hand, clean and sound, £2 28.

The three above series are all uniformly bound except for the two volumes and General Index of the First Series.

SIXPENCE.

SHAKESPEARE,

and other early Dramatists. Report all early books, pamphlets, manuscripts, autograph letters, out of the way items, etc., to

MAGGS BROS.

34 & 35, Conduit St., London. W

BOOKS and AUTOGRAPHS for SALE.

Early printed Works, Standard Authors, First Editions, &c. Catalogues free. Books and autographs wanted for cash. Lists free.Reginald Atkinson, 188, Peckham Rye, London, S.E.22.

E.

MSSearches,

VALPY LAURENS, Pedigrees, -The Lodge, Melbourne Square, S.W.9.

BINDING CASES FOR VOLUME

CLIII.

PUBLISHER'S BINDING CASES for VOL. CLIII. (July-December, 1927) are now on sale, and should be ordered from 66 NOTES AND QUERIES," 20, High Street, High Wycombe, Bucks, England, direct or through local bookbinders. The Cases are also on sale at our London office, 14, Burleigh Street, W.C.2.

Price 38., postage 3d.

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QUERIES:-Byron: references in his letters-The MS. Diary of Thomas Marchant, of Little Park, Hurstpierpoint (1714-1728)-Marionette Theatre, Adelaide Street, Strand Charlotte Clarke's Marionette Theatre-Fort Jerome, St. DomingoWookey Hole and Clement of Alexandria, 316Engraver hanged for forgery-Use of Whalebone as a crest-The character of Hugh Peter (1598-1660)-Fisher Harding, Ship-builder-The Critics Huguenot emigrants and France William Hadwen, poet, 317 William Knipe: Jacks-Pitt: origin of name-George FamilyThe Hon. Charles West Tracy Australian epitaphs in England-John Letratus-' British Monumental Inscriptions': Roffe Fortune Lane-Cookery Facts and Superstitions, 318. REPLIES: A Jewish Tradition XVI Century place-names: identification sought-First edition of Gray's Elegy: "The MacGeorge Copy," 319 -The Duchess of Douglas "-Growth of Population-Hair suddenly turned white, 320 round in the ears "-Naval records-The Trial of Dame Alice Lisle Utensils for bleeding, 321 Dr. John Ward of Stratford-on-Avon The Church of Ford-Bank notes-Bishop Samuel Lisle his burial-place-Thomas Hilton-Introduction of paper-lanterns and fireworks into Europe-Hermitages near York, 322-Great men's practical maxims-Dunn (Donne) of Pembroke or Carmarthen-Poems in praise of books and reading Source wanted, 323.

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No. 2-Jan. 8, 1916 (Vol. i).
No. 53-Dec. 30, 1916 (Vol. ii).
No. 67-Apr. 14, 1917 (Vol. iii).
No. 86-November 1917 (Vol. iv).
No. 128-Sept. 25, 1920 (Vol. vii).
No. 148-Feb. 12, 1921 (Vol. viii).
No. 168-July 2, 1921 (Vol. ix).
No. 185-Oct. 29, 1921 (Vol. ix).
No. 194-Dec. 31, 1921 (Vol. ix).
No. 228-Aug. 26, 1922 (Vol. xi).
Indices to Vol. vi (Jan.-June, 1920) and
Vol. ix (July-Dec., 1921).

Please send offers to " NOTES & QUERIES," 20, High Street, High Wycombe, Bucks.

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QUERIES" have been transferred to

&

THE LIBRARY:- The Commerce between the 14, BURLEIGH STREET, W.C.2.

Roman Empire and India.'

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JOTES AND QUERIES is published every NOT Friday, at 20, High Street, High Wycombe, Bucks (Telephone: Wycombe 306). Subscriptions (2 28. a year, U.S.A. $10.50, including postage, two half-yearly indexes and two cloth binding cases, or £1 15s. 4d a year, U.S.A. $9, without binding cases) should be sent to the Manager. The London Office is at 14, Burleigh Street, W.C.2 (Telephone: Chancery 8766), where the current issue is on sale. Orders for back numbers, indexes and bound volumes should be sent either to London or to Wycombe; letters for the Editor to the London Office.

WE

Memorabilia.

E have received from the Clarendon Press the Catalogue of the Exhibition of Books illustrating the history of English Dictionaries held in the Bodleian Library at Oxford to celebrate the completion of the Oxford English Dictionary. The exhibits number fifty-four, beginning with the tenth century Psalterium Latino-Saxonicum (MS. Junius 27), and ending with the Great Dic tionary itself, to which are added specimens of manuscript copy, corrected proof and electrotyped plate. This catalogue has not only permanent interest but permanent value from the useful Foreword contributed by Mr. Onions. He traces English lexicography onwards from the glosses on mediæval texts.

WE
E have been interested, in the April num-
ber of Old-Time New England, by Mrs.
Catharine Perry Hargrave's lavishly illus-
trated account of the Playing-Cards of Puri-
tan New England. It is rather surprising to
learn that card-tables, even among the Puri-
tan clergy, were common in the eighteenth
century, and that playing-cards might appear
in the same advertisement of a seller's wares
as Bibles. The earliest playing-cards made
in Boston depicted here are of date 1799 and
ca. 1800, but the Stamp Act of 1765 affords
evidence that they were made in considerable
quantities at that time in America,-a "side-
line," it is suggested, of wall-paper making,
printing and book-bindery. The making of
the "
card"
was somewhat difficult, and by
reason of this the plain backs of playing-
cards, as in France, were sometimes used for
seems to have flourished considerably in the
the printing of invitations. The industry
early nineteenth century, when the Fords, at
Milton, Massachusetts, produced cards with
more or less striking designs. Between 1862
and 1865 Union Cards were produced, adorned
with the stars and stripes and the U.S. seal.
The United States Playing Card Company,
of which Mrs. Hargrave is the librarian, aims
at bringing together a constructive and per-
manent record of the earlier American
manufacture of playing-cards.

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OUR contemporary L'Intermédiaire pub-
of the introduction of the custom of shaking
lishes, as part of a query about the date
hands in greeting, the text of a communica-
tion from Rome, dated Apr. 10, as follows:
Le président des organisations Ballila vient
d'adresser aux présidents des comités provin-
ciaux une circulaire qui constate d'abord que
le salut romain est entré dans les mœurs et
demande qu'il ne soit plus accompagné, comme
Le
on le voit encore de la poignée de main.
dernier geste doit désormais être supprimé
dans les rapports quotidiens des citoyens
italiens, car il dénonce
66 un état de conscience
étranger et contraire au parfait caractère

Glosses have great importance for developed English lexicography in that a majority of them give the earliest examples of the words. The sixteenth century produced not only many Latin-English Dictionaries but also dictionaries of other languages giving the English equivalents of words. The English-Latin dictionary goes. back to the fifteenth century. In the early seventeenth century appeared the first dictionaries giving English explanations of Eng-fascite. lish words at first only "hard words." The La circulaire ajoute que d'ailleurs des raisons Dictionarium Anglo-Britannicum,' a re-cast habitude qui est le véhicule de tous genres hygiéniques conseillent de renoncer à cette of Phillips's New World of Words' (1658), d'infections. Les instructeurs des Ballila published in 1730, furnished Chatterton with devront veiller que désormais le salut à la some of his pseudo-archaic vocabulary. Among romaine soit exclusivement employé dans leurs the exhibits illustrating the great innovation organisations. which Johnson made, that of the use of quotations, is the copy of Sir Matthew Hale's Primitive Origination of Mankind,' marked by Johnson for excerption by his assistants. The immediate predecessor of the Great Dictionary in the Catalogue is Webster's Dictionary.

IN the Cornhill for May Professor Ernest Weekley has one of his lively articles on nomenclature London Street Names,' in this instance. Of the words used for an urban thoroughfare our author says "road" does not occur in the City; that the first London avenue was probably Northumberland

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