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wise, actually reign in hell, and also constitute hell with man; but love to the Lord and love towards our neighbour, are heavenly loves; they do, likewise, actually reign in heaven, and also constitute heaven with man.

401. 5. Of the Internal and External Man.

"1. Man is so created, as to be, at one and the same time, both in the spiritual world and in the natural world. The spiritual world is the abode of angels, and the natural world of men and being so created, he is endowed with an internal and external; the internal being that by which he is in the spiritual world, and the external that by which he is in the natural world. His internal is what is called the internal man, and his external is what is called the external man. 2. Every man hath both an internal and an external, but then they are widely different in the good and in the evil. With the good, the internal is in heaven and its light, and the external in the world and its light, which latter is with them illuminated by the light of heaven; so that the internal and external act in unity, like cause and effect, or like prior and posterior: but with the bad, the internal is in hell and in its light, which light, with respect to that of heaven, is thick darkness, and their external may be in a similar light to that which the good enjoy; wherefore it is inverted: this then is the reason why bad men can speak and teach about faith, about charity, and about God, but not, as the good, from faith, from charity, and from God. 3. The internal man is what is called the spiritual man, because it is in the light of heaven, which light is spiritual; and the external man is what is called the natural man, because it is in the light of the world, which light is natural. The man whose internal is in the light of heaven, and whose external is in the light of this world, is a spiritual man as to both, for spiritual light from the interior illuminates the natural light, and makes it as its own; but with the wicked the case is reversed. 4. The internal spiritual man, C


considered in itself, is an angel of heaven, and also, during its life in the body, notwithstanding its ignorance of the fact, is in society with angels; and after its separation from the body, is introduced into their company. But the internal man, with such as are evil, is a satan, and also, during its life in the body, is in society with satans, and after its separation from the body, is introduced amongst them. 5. The interiors of the mind with those who are spiritual men, are actually elevated towards heaven, because that is the first object of their regard; but the interiors of the mind with those who are merely natural, are averted from heaven, and turned towards the world, because this is the first object of their regard. 6. They who entertain a common idea only of the internal and external man, suppose, that it is the internal man which thinks and wills, and the external man which speaks and acts, because thinking and willing have reference to what is internal, and speaking and acting to what is external: but it is to be observed, that when a man is well affected, both in thought and will, towards the Lord, and whatsoever relateth to the Lord, and also towards his neighbour, and what relates to his neighbour, he then thinks and wills from the spiritual internal, but when a man is ill affected, both in thought and will, in the above cases, he then thinks and wills from an infernal internal, because from the faith of what is false and the love of evil. In short, so far as a man is principled in love to the Lord and in love towards his neighbour, he is in the spiritual internal, from whence he both thinks and wills, and likewise speaks and acts; but so far as a man is in the love of self and the love of the world, he thinks and wills from hell, let his words and actions be what they may. 7. It is so provided and ordered by the Lord, that in proportion as a man thinketh and willeth from heaven, the internal spiritual man is opened and formed in him; this opening is an opening into heaven and even to the Lord, and this formation is a formation after the image and order of things in heaven: but, on the con

trary, in proportion as a man thinks and wills, not from heaven, but from the world, the internal spiritual man is closed, and the external opened and formed: this opening is an opening into the world, and this formation is a formation after the image and order of things in hell. 8. They with whom the internal spiritual man is opened into heaven and to the Lord, are in the light of heaven, and in illumination from the Lord, and thence in intelligence and wisdom: these see truth by the light of truth, and have a perception of good by the love of it. But they with whom the internal spiritual man is closed, do not know what the internal man is, neither do they believe the Word, nor the doctrine of a future life, nor any thing belonging to heaven and the church; and as they are only in natural light (lumen), they imagine nature to be self-existent, and not from God, and see what is false as truth, and have a perception of evil as good. 9. The internal and external, of which we have been speaking, are the internal and external of the spirit of man; his body is only an additional external, within which the former exists; for the body does nothing from itself, but from the spirit which is in it. It is to be observed, that the spirit of a man, after its separation from the body, retaineth the same capacity of thinking and willing, of speaking and acting, as before. Thought and will then constituting its internal, and speech and action its external.

402. 6. Of the merely Natural and Sensual Man.

"As there are but few who know what persons are included under the class of sensual men, or their quality, and yet it is of importance that they should be known, we shall proceed to describe them. 1. A sensual man is one, whose judgment, on all occasions, is determined by his bodily senses, and who believeth nothing but what he can see with his eyes and feel with his hands, allowing to such sensible objects a reality of existence, but denying it to all others ; wherefore a sensual man is in the lowest degree a natural

man. 2. The interiors of the mind, which see by the light of heaven, are closed with a sensual man, so that he is unable to discern there any truth belonging to heaven and the church, because he only exercises his thought in the most external sphere, and doth not think interiorly from any spiritual light. 3. And as he abideth in the density of natural light (lumen), he is interiorly opposed to all things belonging to heaven and the church, and yet exteriorly he can argue in favour of such things, and that with a degree of ardour, proportionable to the authority which he enjoys or hopes to obtain by them. 4. Sensual men can reason with great keenness and dexterity, because their thought is so near their speech as to be almost in it, and as it were in their very lips*; and for this further reason too, that they make all intelligence to consist in speaking from the memory only. 5. Some of them have the power to confirm whatever they please, and to establish falses with much ingenuity, which afterwards they suppose to be truths; but their reasonings and confirmations are drawn from the fallacies of the senses, which appear captivating and persuasive to the common herd of mankind. 6. Sensual men are cunning and malicious

* This property of the sensual man may probably, at first perusal, appear strange to the reader, who will not easily apprehend why the thinking principle in such a man should be nearer the external organs of speech than in one who is spiritual. The difficulty, however, of conceiving aright on this point will vanish, when it is well considered, that with spiritual men the thinking principle is elevated into the higher regions of the understanding, where spiritual things have their abode, and consequently is further separated from the regions of sense, or those that have a nearer connection with material things, such as are the organs of speech, and all the other organs fitted for material communications; whereas, in sensual men, there is no such elevation of the thinking principle, and of consequence the thoughts of such must all lie near to, if not totally immersed in, the material organs, with which they have a close and natural connection. Hence the common observation, “That great talkers are seldom men of deep thought," seems to have its ground in true philosophy; and hence too the declaration in Scripture, “That a man full of words shall not prosper on the earth," may easily be explained and accounted for.

above all others. 7. The interiors of their minds are vile and filthy, because they communicate with the hells. 8. All who are in hell are sensual, and the deeper the hell is in which they live, so much the more sensual are they : and the sphere exhaling from infernal spirits, conjoins itself with the sensual principles of man from behind. 9 Inasmuch as sensual men do not see any genuine truth in the light, but only reason and dispute about every thing whether it be so; and as these altercations are heard at a distance like the gnashing of teeth, which is nothing but the collision or jarring of falses one against another, and also of the false against truth; it is evident what in the Word is signified by GNASHING OF TEETH: the cause of all this is, that reasoning from the fallacies of the senses correspondeth with the teeth. 10. Men of learning and erudition, who have deeply confirmed themselves in falses, especially they who have confirmed themselves against the truths of the Word, are more sensual than others, though they may not appear so in the sight of the world. Such sensual men have been the principal broachers of heretical doctrines. 11. The hypocritical, the deceitful, the voluptuous, the adulterous, the covetous, are, for the most part, sensual. 12. They who rea-f soned from sensual things only, and argued against the genuine truths of the Word and thence of the church, were, by the ancients, called serpents of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

Whereas by sensual things are meant such as are the objects of the bodily senses, and are imbibed by those senses, it follows, 13. That man, by means of things sensual, hath communication with the world, and by means of things rational, which are above the former, with heaven: 14. That sensual things minister subordinately from the natural world, in the supply of such materials as perform the office of servants to the interiors of the mind in the spiritual world: 15. That there are sensual things which

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