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is in the autumn, and early part of winter; but during the spring months, sensitive invalids and persons with delicate chests, should avoid Brighton. The Undercliff in the Isle of Wight, has so many advantages of position, as to be one of the warmest climates--if not the warmest-in this country. Dr. Clark very justly complains that its benefits are so little appreciated, as that there is not encouragement enough given to provide even a very limited supply of accommodations to visitors. 'To patients labouring under pulmonary disease, the Undercliff offers an eligible residence. Dr. Clark thinks that the summer months may be passed in other parts of the Isle, not so hot as the Undercliff, --such as Niton, Cowes, Sandown, Shanklin; but especially Ryde. The more delicate class of patients are, however, recommended to return to Undercliff, in September. As it is likely that this latter place will ultimately become the site of numerous houses; it may be well to diffuse, as widely as possible, the just recommendation of Dr. Clark, as to their construction.
* In erecting houses for the abode of invalids, care should be taken to make the rooms of a proper size and height, and one room, at least, should be very large. Small low rooms, are extremely difficult to keep at a uniform temperature, and they are in every respect unsuitable for the residence of invalids, more especially pulmonary invalids. This circumstance should be attended to in the bed rooms as well as the sitting rooms.'-vol. i. p.41.
The South-WESTERN Coast extends from Portland island to Cornwall, and includes, of course, the far famed coast of Devonshire. The winter temperature of this district is from three to four degrees higher than that of London, and of course, it is then even warmer than the south coast. The difference applies to the night temperature, which is a consideration of some consequence. Salcombe, we suspect to be capable of better things than Dr. Clark seems to hope from it. It is decidedly the warmest spot in the whole district; and though we have seen some tropical trees growing, not far from Lyme Regis, in Dorsetshire, and also, in one of the villages between Lyme and Sidmouth, (we think, Colyford), yet certainly, no where that we are acquainted with in England, do the lemon and orange trees shoot out with more apparent cordiality than at Salcombe. We do not think either, that the Doctor has done justice to that exquisite scenic vision, Torquay. It is protected on all sides by hills, which are cut into terraces, and on which are built, or, we should rather say, are building-ranges of uniform houses, neatly filled up. One of the most magnificent scenes in nature is the widely extended bay in front of it, associated with glorious historical recollections, ---an ocean, almost in itself, which is commanded from nearly every window in Torquay. The air is certainly keen, but it has an almost parching dryness in it, which converts the mud of the street, after a shower of rain, into dust in a few hours. Much as has been said, and, we believe, sung of Dawlish, it seems to us to be an insignificant place as compared with other
parts of the Devonshire coast. It is infinitely too close and compact, and on much too small a scale to be chosen as an eligible residence. We do not know if Dr. Clark noticed the streain which traverses it from north to south. We know, at all events, that the fashionable side of the town is that most distant from this current. One thing, however, ought not to be omitted, when we speak of the comparative advantages of places of residence on the Devon coast ; and that is the facilities which they afford for dangerous and perhaps fatal accidents. No one, who has had the opportunity of recently visiting this coast, but must have been struck with the extent of the inroads which the sea has made
short distance from Dawlish, as we have reason to remember, the ocean has eaten its way to the very margin of the road. We should observe that this road is considerably,- perhaps some forty feet, above the level of the sea, and the waves having washed away the earthy strata with which they came in contact, the remaining portion up to the height of the road, deprived of a foundation, fell by its own weight. This process of encroachment is going on with sure, although dilatory progress; and even now, the traveller as he approaches Dawlish, at the moment when he imagines that he is advancing on a safe and firm road, has only to look over the slight hedge on his left, and lo! what a gulf is ready to swallow him beneath. These are facts which ought to be known, with the view, first, of giving a general warning, and also for the parpose of rousing in the proper quarter a determination to remove the danger. The south-western climate is likely to be beneficial in cases where the organs of breathing have been long affected, and where there is a dry cough, unattended with expectoration. But if the patient be languid and weak, and be affected with a cough of a different description to the other—that is to say, where the expectoration is copious, shewing the sources of this expectoration to be in a very relaxed state—then the south-western climate will certainly prove injurious to him. The same result seems likely to follow in all cases where there is a preternatural discharge of any description, arising from debility, and also in cases of indigestion connected with nervous disorders. But Dr. Clark confesses that he is in great difficulty as to the real character of the climate of Devonshire, for he says that the observations which have been made are too few and desultory to justify any person in speaking confidently upon it. Exeter can boast of one of the most intelligent and public spirited bodies connected with literature and science in this country, we mean the proprietors of the institution in that city.*
* As a proof of what we assert, we may mention that the Exeter institution is far more extensively supplied with valuable publications than the institutions of a similar kind in London. All the parliamentary documents are regularly on its tables, as they issue. Surely the institutions of the metropolis ought not to be outdone in this way.
From the exertions of that body, we expect that the amplest mate: rials for forming a digest of the characters of the different parts of the Devonshire climate will be provided. Dr. Clark observes, that a series of observations simultaneously made for a few years only, would be quite sufficient for the purpose.
West OF ENGLAND. The most remarkable place, not merely in Cornwall, but in the whole country, in respect of temperature, appears to be Penzance. In winter it is five degrees and a half warmer than London, and in summer it is two degrees colder: in spring it is of the same temperature as our metropolis, and in autumn is a little warmer. From this remarkable equality of temperature, Penzance deserves considerable attention. It has also another peculiarity of some consequence, namely, that it is in the night that this superiority of temperature occurs,-a circumstance that distinguishes it from most warm places on the continent. Thus Rome at two o'clock in the day is seven degrees warmer than Penzance; but at seven o'clock in the morning Penzance is as warm as Rome. Still however, this spot, so favoured, has its countervailing disadvantages, for there falls in Penzance nearly twice as much rain as in London, to say nothing of the humidity which the warm west winds bring with them, and which humidity, as Dr. Forbes remarks, though injuriously felt by the animal world, is not detected by, or to use the far more expressive word of the French, is not accused to the rain
gauge. Penzance is likewise liable to frequent and violent storms, and those who best know that place, and the district adjacent, concur in noticing the singular combination which it presents—great variability, as to winds and rain, and quite as great a constancy of temperature: Hence Penzance and its neighbourhood are not beneficial in consumption, when that complaint has fairly set in ; but where there is only a tendency to it, and great debility exists, and also where there is a teasing dry cough, this climate will be found of use. We should imagine, indeed, that in any kind of disease where humidity is not contra-indicated, this part of Cornwall, as a permanent residence, would be beneficial. Both Cheltenham and Bath are a little warmer in winter than London, but in point of equality of temperature, they have no great advantage over the metropolis. Bristol and Clifton, on account of the great protection which they enjoy from cold and humid winds, are regarded by Dr. Clark as at once the mildest and driest climate in the west of England, and therefore the most suitable residence for invalids in winter. Young persons of scrofulous constitutions are advised to prefer Malvern in summer, or some parts of the Welch mountains, in case the sea air or bathing is advisable for them.
It will be seen that those places in England which have been recommended to invalids, as promising relief from certain disorders, are selected in consequence of their superior temperature to the rest of England generally; and as temperature is only relative, it will consequently always be a matter of inquiry with the physician, from
what part of the country the patient comes. Thus a person accustomed to the climate of the south of Scotland, will, other cir. cumstances being equal, experience as much benefit from a residence in the south of England, as an inhabitant of the latter will, if he transports himself to the south of Europe, the increase of temperature being to the same amount in each case. Dr. Clark will, no doubt, endeavour to find out what has been the effect of the climate of the south of Europe on Scotch invalids, for by his theory it ought to be infinitely more marked on such travellers, than upon those who go from England in general.
We have thought it necessary to enter into the above details respecting our own country, inasmuch as the salubrious powers which, in a considerable portion of its marine districts, it possesses, are either not known, or what is worse, are misunderstood. We own we expected from Dr. Clark, before quitting the English territory, that he would have afforded some explanation of the completely negative character which the eastern coast of England seems ever to have maintained with respect to health. The difference in this particular between the two opposite shores of this country, we believe to be only an example of a law which we find of universal application, namely, that all western coasts, continental, as well as island, are more favourable to the support of organic life, than those on the eastern side. The oak, the vine, and other plants which require mildness of climate, will be found thriving at a much greater dis. tance from the equator on western shores than on the opposite side. This fact, we have no doubt, will ultimately lead to the establishmentof a principle connected with the influence of climate or health.*
FRANCE is the next country to which the author draws our attention ; the southern part being long esteemed amongst us as
; a suitable residence for invalids, and very often resorted to, Dr. Clark, we fear too truly, says, with a want of discrimination that has made the practice fruitful of injury. The south of that kingdom is the only portion of it which has obtained, or which deserves this species of reputation; and Dr. Clark attributes to this division two perfectly distinct climates, the distinctive qualities of each of which require to be cautiously remembered by the physician. The west, and south-west of France, constitute one integral climate. They include the tract of country from Brittany to Bayonne. The map will show the principal towns in the intermediate space to be L'Orient, Nantes, La Rochelle, Bourdeaux, Montauban, Pau, and Toulouse. This climate resembles that of Devonshire; it is soft, humid, and relaxing, and agrees very well with, and will be found serviceable to invalids who labour under that dry teasing sort of cough of long standing, which we have already mentioned. The fact that but few cases of consumption, among the natives, are
* See a very interesting, and far too brief lecture on the Geography of Plants, delivered by Mr. John Barton, at Chichester.
found in this part of France, is strong evidence of the sanative power of the climate in that disorder; and we are quite sure that if Dr. Clark will turn his attention, more sedulously than he has done, to the undoubted connection that subsists between the general condition of the inhabitants of any place and its climate, he will be able to shorten very considerably the labours of in, vestigation. In Jersey and Guernsey, for instance, scrofula, is very prevalent; hereditary communication has, no doubt, great influence in keeping up disorders in particular localities, still it is impossible that scrofula could have been so long triumphant in those islands, unless climate contributed its malignant aid to prolong the reign of that distemper. Of the South-East of France, which possesses a different climate from the South-West, Dr. Clark gives the following character:
· The general character of the climate of the south-east of France, therefore, is dry, hot, harsh, and irritating. Absolutely warmer than our own island, and the south-western parts of France, its temperature is distributed through the year and through the day with great irregularity. It has a much wider range of temperature than our own climate; this being, when compared to that of England, as three to one for the year, and as two to one for the day. Sometimes the winter is very rigorous. In 1709, the ports of Marseilles and Toulon were frozen over; and, indeed, in ordinary years, the orange trees are occasionally killed by the cold in the most shel. tered parts of Provence. The temperature, no doubt, remains more steady from day to day, than our own; but its changes, though less frequent, are more sudden and extensive.
• This tract of country is subject also to keen, cold, northerly winds, especially the mistral, which prevails during the winter and spring, and is most injurious to pulmonary diseases.
Although decidedly improper for consumptive patients, and for those labouring under irritation of the mucous membranes of the digestive or pulmonary organs, more especially irritation of the stomach, larynx, or trachea, this climate may prove useful to invalids of a different class. On persons of a torpid, or relaxed habit of body, and of a gloomy, desponding cast of mind, with whom a moist relaxing atmosphere disagrees, the keen, bracing, dry air of Provence, and its brilliant skies, will often produce a beneficial effect. In some cases of chronic, intermittent fevers, also, it proves
: The distinctive characters of the climate we have been considering, prevail more or less in the different places resorted to by invalids, but none can be considered as exempt from them. The following is the order in which they ought to be preferred : Hyéres, Toulon, Marseilles, Montpelier, Aix, Nismes, Avignon. The remarks which I have to make on these places individually, are derived partly from native practitioners, and partly from my own observation; and it will be found, I think, that the particular facts very much confirm the general character given of the whole south-east of France, from Montpelier to Nice.'-pp. 108–110.
Nice is a residence to which invalids have been fondly directed to turn their attention. We looked with great interest to the con