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professed purpose of this Satire, or that with which Horace seems to un, may be gathered from the first two lines. Discontent with the that Providence had assigned them; disappointment with the pony years' labor, and perhaps dishonesty, have gained them; envy of ghbors' circumstances, even if they be worse than their own; dison, in short, with what they have and are, and craving for something e not and are not, these are features common to the great majority For this vice of discontent the Greeks had a comprehensive name, pía. It will be seen that, after propounding the whole subject in e of a question to Mæcenas, Horace confines himself to one solution that not the most comprehensive (see notes on vv. 28. 108). Avarice y reason he assigns for the universal disease, and any one will see by he leaves many untouched who are as culpably restless as the s, but not in their sordid way.

tire is put first in the order of this book, not as an introduction (of bears no signs), but because it is addressed to Mæcenas.

sibi sortem] See note on C. i. 9. 14, as to 'sors' and 'fors.' o are opposed, as effect and cause, the condition and that which it. Fors' and 'ratio' are opposed as that which a man cannot that which he carves out for himself. Fors' is 'accident,' 'ratio'

t] This sense of 'laudare,' 'felicem praedicare,' paκapíČew, is below, v. 9, and in v. 109, where it occurs in combination with, quivalent to, 'probare.' So Cicero (De Am. c. 7) says: "Ex quo eata mors videtur, horum vita laudabilis."

liversa sequentes?] This is briefly expressed, for 'sed quisque In the transition from negative to positive statements, the positive hich is contained in the former is often carried on in the mind, so et the latter, as in those sentences which are coupled by 'nec' and and TE. 'Nemo vivit' is 'quisque non vivit.' 'Diversa ' indimerely different, but opposite' careers.


is annis] Virgil says (Aen. ix. 246): "Hic annis gravis atque turus Aletes.' And gravis' is one of the commonest words old age, as may be gathered from Cicero's treatise De Senect.; s is equally common in the same connection. Horace, in his own ng, had undoubtedly heard many a veteran grumbling at his con

enim, concurritur :] See C. ii. 18. 23, n.

fomento] 'Horae momento' is a common phrase in Livy and ers. Horace has below, 'puncto mobilis horae.' 'Punctum' is little more precise than 'momentum,' which signifies the progress ough conventionally its smallest division. Pliny draws a distinceen them (Panegyr. iv. c. 56): Quod momentum, quod immo unctum aut beneficio sterile aut vacuum laude?"

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legumque peritus] 'Jurisperiti,' 'jurisconsulti,' were persons who d the law. Their expositions were called 'responsa,' and they gave

them gratuitously. They were distinct from the professors or teachers ('advocati') and others, who were paid for their services, and from 'ora. tores,' though the 'consultus' sometimes combined with his calling as such that of the orator' or 'patronus.' If we are to believe this statement of Horace, and another to the same effect (Epp. ii. 1. 103), we must suppose that these learned persons sacrificed their own convenience to the anxiety of their clients, and received them at a very early hour in the morning. Jus' embodied all law. As to 'leges,' see Epp. i. 16. 41, n. On 'laudat,' see v. 3, n.

11. datis vadibus] Vades' were sureties provided by the defendant, to secure his appearance before the prætor at a time agreed upon between the plaintiff and himself. If he did not appear, he forfeited the amount of the vadimonium ' or agreement, and his 'vades' were liable to pay it if he did not (see S. 9. 36, n.). The person here represented, therefore, is the defendant in an action, going up reluctantly to Rome, to appear before the prætor according to his agreement. 'Ille' is as if the man were before us.

14. Delassare valent] Though 'delasso' does not occur elsewhere, there is no reason to suspect the word, or alter it. The intensive force of 'de' is well added to 'lasso. It corresponds to κará, which has the same force. Who Fabius was, it is impossible even to conjecture with probability.

15. Si quis Deus,] This is not a Roman way of speaking, but Greek, ei daipov Tis. En ego' does not belong to 'faciam,' but is absolute: 'Here am I.' 'Eia' is an exclamation of haste, 'Away!' 'Nolint,' 'they would not' (ovк éléλolev av), is the apodosis to 'si quis Deus.' Compare S. ii. 7. 24: "Si quis ad illa deus subito te agat, usque recuses." Atqui' is another form of atquin,' and 'quin' represents 'qui,' with a negative particle affixed.


18. partibus:] An expression taken from the language of the theatre: 'the part you have to play' in life.

21. Iratus buccas inflet,] An obvious, but not very reverential, representa tion of passion.

25. olim] See C. ii. 10. 17, n.

27. Sed tamen amoto] 'Sed,' 'sed tamen,' 'veruntamen,' are often used, and especially by Cicero, not to express opposition, but after a parenthesis or digression, as here and C. iv. 4. 22. See, for another instance among many, Cic. in Verr. ii. 3. 2.

28. Ille gravem] The cause of that discontent which was spoken of at the beginning is here traced to the love of money, each man thinking that his neighbor is getting it faster than he is, and wishing therefore to change places with him. But Horace does not mean that to be the only solution of the universal discontent. That would be absurd, and one at least of his own examples would contradict his theory, the jurisconsultus, who did not pursue his laborious vocation for pay. He therefore shifts or limits his ground a little, and dwells upon that which he supposes to be the most prevalent cause of discontent; and with his ground he changes his examples. Nauta' and 'mercator' here are the same person, the trader navigating his own ship. (See C. i. 28. 23.) Perfidus caupo' appears again in 'cauponibus atque malignis' (S. i. 5. 4). Per omne Audaces mare qui currunt' is repeated from C. i. 3. 9, sqq.

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32. cibaria:] This word, which is generally used for the rations of soldiers or slaves, is used here ironically for the humblest provision that can be made for the latter years of life, as if that was all that these men set before their minds.

33. nam exemplo est,] for this is their model.'

35. haud ignara ac non incauta futuri.] Experience tells her that times will change, and instinct teaches her to provide against that change; she knows

ming, and provides accordingly. This is what Horace means; but torpid in the winter, and lays up no store in her house for that ough no error is more common than to suppose she does. These work hard during the warmer months of the year, but the food they consumed before the winter.

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te, simul inversum] Quae' is opposed to 'quum te' (v. 38): 'now versum annum is compounded of the two notions 'inversum cae'mutatum annum.' The sun enters Aquarius in the middle of Virgil uses the word 'contristat' (Georg. iii. 279): unde nigerster Nascitur, et pluvio contristat frigore caelum." our things which are little upon the earth, but they are exceeding the ants, the conies, the locusts, and the spiders. (Prov. xxx. 24,

The ant is one

s, mare, ferrum,] This is a mere proverbial way of speaking, comlanguages. No obstacles are too great for a man who has a selfish o serve, if he has set his heart upon it. The second person is used ce to the language. The self-deceiver is confronted with his own


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od si comminuas] The miser is supposed to interrupt, and say, "But e to take from it, it would soon dwindle to a paltry 'as.' 'Quod ' the neuter of the relative, but here, as often elsewhere, it is used to new sentence with what precedes, and is not connected with 'ponsantecedent.

lia frumenti] 'Modiorum' must be supplied. As to millia,' ee S. ii. 3. 197, n. On 'area,' see C. i. 1. 10, n. Triverit,' 'supit threshes.' This is the concessive use of the subjunctive. The of putting a note of interrogation in such sentences as this is exThe older editions generally have it. Similar constructions are S. Fuerit Lucilius inquam Comis et urbanus; fuerit limatior-sed S. 3. 15, "Decies centena dedisses :-quinque diebus nil erat in S. ii. 6. 50; Epp i. 1. 87; and many other places.


s ac meus:] This construction occurs again, S. i. 6. 130; 10. 34, Cicero likewise uses 'ac' with the comparative (Ad Att. xiii. tius abfuturus ac nollem." 'Plus quam' occurs immediately bee scene that follows is that of a rich man's household preceding him untry, a pack of slaves (venales'), some carrying provisions and ly town-made bread in netted bags (reticula'), and others with burdens, and some with none at all. The man who carried the uld not get any more of it on that account, when the rations were , but all would share alike.

id referat―viventi,] Refert' is 'rem fert,' and the construction ua,' etc.; refert' is no more than a corruption of meam,' 'tuam,' fert.' So 'magni refert' is 'rem magni fert,' 'it brings with it a great price,' and 'refert viventi' signifies it brings something that him who lives,' that is, it affects him, and 'quid refert' is 'wherein Fect him?'

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suave est] At' introduces the supposed answer to the preceding A rejoinder immediately follows to this effect: "You might as if you only wanted a pitcher of water, you had rather draw it from a eam, like the Aufidus, than from the little spring by your side. The ace of which might be that you would be drowned.'

eris] Acron explains 'cumera as a large basket of wicker-work, n-ware vessel like a 'dolium,' in which the poorer sort kept their

idi] This word is used for 'aqua' by Ovid (Met. v. 454): "Cum ixta perfundit diva polenta." The 'urna,' one of the Roman liquid

measures, contained half an 'amphora,' or twenty-four 'sextarii.' As observed before (C. iii. 19. 14), the cyathus' contained one twelfth of a 'sextarius,' which was one forty-eighth of an 'amphora.'

55. malim] Malim' simply means 'I would rather'; 'mallem' (the reading of the early editions), 'I would have done it if I could, but the time is past. The Aufidus (Horace's native river, C. iii. 30. 10) is still described as a rapid and violent stream at some seasons.

61. bona pars] The greater part.' A. P. 297: "Bona pars non ungues ponere curat. On 'cupido,' see C. ii. 16. 15, n.


62. quia tanti quantum habeas sis.] 'because you are valued according to your wealth.'

63. illi?] Such a man as this.' 'Quatenus' signifies 'since.' 'Bid him be miserable, since he likes to be so.' 'Facio' is sometimes used in this See C. iii. 24. 30. The story that follows may have been picked up by Horace at Athens, or invented by him. The language ('sibilat―plaudo') is taken from the theatre.


68. Tantalus] See Epod. xvii. 66, n.

69. Quid rides?] The miser is supposed to laugh at Horace's trite illustration, and the solemn way in which it is announced.

71. tamquam parcere sacris] This appears to have been a proverbial expression. See S. ii. 3. 109, sq.

72. Cogeris] you force yourself.'

74. sextarius,] See v. 54, n. A 'sextarius' of wine would be enough for one temperate man's consumption in a day.

78. compilent fugientes,] 'rob you, and run away.'

79. pauperrimus-bonorum.] C. iii. 30. 11: " Pauper aquae Daunus."

S. ii. 3. 142.

80. At si condoluit] This is an argument urged by the avaricious man: 'If you have money, you will have anxious friends to nurse you in sickness.' The answer is, 'Your nearest relatives have no wish you should live, and no wonder either, since you prefer your money to all the world.'

tentatum frigore] Tentatum" is the word commonly used in connection

with diseases.

85. pueri atque puellae.] This, which appears to be a proverbial sort of expression, occurs again S. ii. 3. 130.

86. argento post omnia ponas,] i. e. 'postponas omnia argento.'

88. An si cognatos,] 'But say, if you seek to retain and keep the affection of those relations whom nature gives you without any trouble of your own, would you lose your labor, like the luckless fool that tries to turn an ass into a racer?' Training an ass to run in the Campus Martius among the thorough-bred horses that were there exercised (see C. i. 8. 5; iii. 12. 8) was perhaps a proverbial way of expressing lost labor. 'Amicos' belongs to cognatos' in the way I have translated it, and 'servare amicos' is 'to keep them fond of you.'

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92. quaerendi,] 'money-getting.' 'Plus' means 'a superfluity.' 94. ne facias] Lest you fare,' un „páσons.

95. Ummidius quidam;] Who this person was, is unknown. All that can be safely said of him is what Horace says, that he was very rich and mean, and that he was murdered by one of his freedwomen (his mistress probably), who, Horace says, was as stout-hearted as Clytemnestra, the bravest of her family, who killed her husband Agamemnon. Tyndaridarum' is masculine: Tyndaridum' would be the feminine form. The sons of Tyndarus, therefore, as well as his daughters, should, strictly speaking, be included.

97. adusque] Forcellini gives only two other instances of this word from writings of Horace's day, Virgil (Aen. xi. 262), and Horace himself (S. i. 5. 96). It is only an inversion of 'usque ad,' 'every step to.'

ivam Maenius ?] The construction is the same as "discinctus aut pos" (Epod. i. 34), where it has been proposed to insert 'ut' bes.' Mænius and Nomentanus appear to have been squanderers of d good livers, according to the obvious meaning of this passage. united again in S. i. 8. 11, ii. 1. 21, where the former appears under Pantolabus, one who lays his hands on anything he can get Bov), or borrows money from any one who will lend it. He spent and turned parasite. Both Mænius and Nomentanus are names ucilius for characters of the same kind, and Horace may very probonly borrowed the names to represent some living characters, does not choose to point out by their own names. Nomentanus ame of one of the guests at the dinner of Nasidienus (S. ii. 8. 25). rs again, S. ii. 3. 224, sqq..

ontibus adversis componere:] These words go together, 'to bring -e, and compare or match.'

ppam] Vappa,' wine which has got flat and sour, expresses a debauchee: nebulo,' a frivolous fellow, light as a mist ('nebula '). anain - socerumque Viselli.] The Scholiast says that Horace has under these names a well-known Greek proverb. What the disetween them may have been, is unknown.

mo ut avarus] I return to that point from which I have digressed, no covetous man is satisfied with himself.' The reading is not certhe hiatus is unusual. Horace qualifies the general assertion he The outset, by limiting his remark to the avaricious. See note on v. on 'laudet,' see v. 3.

t, quum carceribus] These lines are a little like the last three verses s first Georgic.

dat uti conviva satur,] These are so like the words of Lucretius that perhaps Horace remembered them when he wrote, Cur non ut plenus vitae conviva recedis,

Aequo animoque capis securam, stulte, quietem ?" "rispini scrinia lippi] We know nothing about Crispinus. The feris pen has profited him nothing. He was more anxious to write an to write well. See S. i. 4. 14, sqq. Crispinus appears in the ire of this book (v. 139), where he is the only attendant of the wouldHe appears again in S. ii. 7. 45. 'Lippi' is used for mental


Satire, the coarsest of all written by Horace, seems to have been sugy the death of Tigellius, a celebrated musician of the time. It is against the tendency of men to run into extremes, and to pass from eme to the other. Illustrations of this subject are drawn from the of Rome. The ideas and the language are marked by a grossness unusual with Horace.


ast Satire was, as has been said, written on the death of one Tigeleminent musician, a native of Sardinia, and a friend of Julius Cæsar. the vices and follies of the age are attacked in strong language, and

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