Obrazy na stronie

ly about the same time, on the return of Augustus to Rome, B. c. 13. at is here said of the subjection of the world and the universal peace id in effect at the close of the fourteenth Ode; but it was natural that, ace had received the emperor's commands to publish another book of he should conclude it with one addressed to Augustus himself, reviewe blessings of his reign, which at this time had been crowned by a series cesses by which universal peace was established.


When I would sing of wars, Phoebus checked me with his Thy reign, O Cæsar, hath brought back our lost honor, with plenty ace and order, and the means by which our name and strength have e great. Under thy protection we fear no wars, at home or abroad; Orth and the East obey thy laws, and we with our wives and children ng of the heroes of old, of Troy, and Anchises, and of Venus's son.

crepuit lyra,] This is explained by Ovid (A. A. ii. 493):

"Haec ego cum canerem subito manifestus Apollo
Movit inauratae pollice fila lyrae."

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puit lyra' therefore signifies 'checked me by touching the strings of e, and leading me to a strain more fitted to my muse.' The other metis common enough. See Virgil (Georg. ii. 41): "Pelagoque volans a patenti.'

ua, Caesar, aetas] The abruptness with which this is introduced is remarking. A longer preface would have weakened the Ode.

ruges et agris] This is a repetition of C. iv. 5. 17, sq.


Jovi] To the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. Perepta] As the standards were quietly and voluntarily sent to AugusPhraates, Horace's language is somewhat exaggerated. The recovery iii. 5, Introd.) of the standards lost by Crassus was one of the greatest of rejoicing that ever happened at Rome. Without it, the restoration 1 by Augustus, and of which Horace here gives a compendious picture, have been wanting in one of its chief features; the honor, as well as ace, of Rome was restored. These praises are repeated from or in (for not say which was written first) Epp. ii. 1. 251, sqq. See also Epp. i.

anum Quirini] If 'Janum Quirim' and not 'Janum Quirinum' be e reading, Horace assigns to Romulus the building of the temple of which is usually assigned to Numa. The other would mean 'Janus Quirinus,' a name given him as Janus of the Quirites. As to the shutthe temple, see Epp. ii. 1. 255, n.

evaganti This nowhere else appears with an accusative case, but re' and 'exire' are used with an accusative repeatedly. (Compare C. 29.) 'Artes' means those virtues in which the discipline of life is as prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance.

furor Civilis aut vis] Civilis' belongs to 'furor,' and 'vis,' which is nical word, means here 'personal violence.' 'Ira' applies to foreign See C. iii. 14. 14, n.


nimicat] This is another word which Horace probably found in use cers of a former day. Later writers have taken it from him. It means enmity.' 'Apprecati' (v. 28), 'remixto' (v 30), are also words first In Horace.

qui profundum Danubium bibunt] The German tribes, particularly the ici lately subdued. Edicta Julia' can only mean here the laws of tus, laid upon them at their conquest, though in its technical sense the edicta' would not apply. The rules of a governor published in his e were his edictum,' and these people were not in a province. Hor

ace therefore does not use the word in its legal sense. The Geta lay towards the mouths of the Danube, while the Daci were situated to the west of them, on the same or south side of the river.

23. Seres-Tanain] See C. iii. 29. 27, n. The Seres and Indi are not much distinguished by Horace (see C. i. 12. 56), and, when he is referring to the East, their names are generally associated with the Parthians, more for the sake of amplification than with historical or geographical accuracy. The Roman armies had not yet even crossed the Tigris. But when Augustus was in Syria, we are informed by Suetonius, ambassadors came from the far East to ask his protection and alliance.


25. lucibus] This word is used for 'diebus' by Ovid (Fast. iii. 397) :"His etiam conjux apicati cincta Dialis

Lucibus impexas debet habere comas."

The singular is more common.

29. Virtute functos] This is a concise way of expressing 'virtutis munere functos,' as in Cicero (Tusc. i. 45): "Nemo parum diu vixit qui virtutis perfectae perfecto functus est munere.'

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more patrum] Cic. (Tusc. i. 2) tells us that in the Origines of Cato it is stated that it was the custom of old to sing songs at meals upon the virtues of great men. The practice may have been partially revived in Horace's day. The conclusion of this Ode recalls C. iv. 5. 31, sq.

30 Lydis] Plato tells us that the Lydian and Ionian melodies were best suited to delicacy and feasting, the Dorian and Phrygian to war; and Aristotle that the Lydian were most suitable to the tender age of boyhood, as harmonizing the mind and training it to good. There is no particular force, however, here in the word 'Lydis.' As to 'tibiis,' see C. i. 1. 32, n. The pipes used by the Lydians themselves are called by Herodotus (i. 17) avλós ἀνδρήϊος and αὐτὸς γυναικήϊος, probably as representing the voices of a man and a woman respectively.

31. Anchisen] The family of Anchises, the grandfather of Iulus, are mentioned here, because Augustus belonged by adoption to the Julian family, of which Iulus was the reputed founder.


EN Augustus had completed the period of ten years for which the impower was at first placed in his hands (B. C. 27-17), he determined to te his successes at home and abroad by an extraordinary festival, and k as his model the Ludi Tarentini or Taurii, which had in former times bserved as a means of propitiating the infernal deities, Dis and Proseron occasions of great public calamities. It does not appear that this I ever was held at regular intervals. How, therefore, the name Ludi res arose, is not clear; but, as it was now for the first time given, it obably convenient to have it believed that the games were no more e observance of a periodical solemnity. The Quindecimviri were orto consult the Sibylline books, and they reported, no doubt as they esired, that the time was come when this great national festival should eated, and the details of it were laid down as from the commands of cle in a set of hexameter Greek verses, composed of course for the ocand which have been preserved to us by the historian Zosimus. ace appears to have been much pleased at being chosen poet-laureate occasion (see C. iv. 6, Introd.). The Ode was sung at the most solemn the festival, while the emperor was in person offering sacrifice at the hour of the night, on the river-side, upon three altars, attended by the men who presided over religious affairs. The chorus consisted of -seven boys and twenty-seven girls of noble birth, well trained no doubt occasion (C. iv. 6). The effect must have been very beautiful, and no that the impression on Horace's feelings (for in all probability he was ) was strong and lasting.


llo and Diana, hear the prayers we offer you in obedience to the Sibyl's nds (1-8).

un, that rulest the day, thou lookest upon nothing mightier than Rome

yia, protect our mothers and children, and prosper our marriage-law , in the cycle of years, this our festival may come again (13-24). ye, Parcæ, who do prophesy truly, let our future destiny be as the Let the earth and air give strength to our flocks and fruits (25-32). thy weapon, Apollo, and hear thy suppliant boys (33, 34), en of the stars, O Moon, hear thy maidens (35, 36),

e Rome is your handiwork, and at your bidding Æneas brought his nt to these shores (37-44).

gods, give virtue to the young and peace to the old, and power and d glory to the family of Romulus (45-48).

at the prayers of the noble son of Anchises, for his victories shall be ed with mercy (49-52).

abled are the Mede, the proud Scythian, and the Indian (53-56); e, plenty, and all the virtues have returned to our land (57-60). Phoebus, the augur, the prince of the bow and of song, the physician vorably regardeth his Palatine temple and the fortunes of Rome and , ever extend our blessings to another and still happier lustrum

May Diana, who inhabiteth the Palatine and Algidus, hear our prayers (69-72).

We, the choir of Phœbus and Diana, will go home believing that our prayers are heard (73-76).

1. silvarumque potens] Compare C. iii. 22. 1. 'Lucidum cacli decus' applies to both deities.

5. Sibyllini] See Introd. These were oracular books written, it is conjectured, on palm-leaves, in Greek verse, which were kept in the Capitol and consulted on extraordinary occasions. The leaves taken at random were supposed to give the directions required. They were under the care of certain persons, at this time fifteen in number (quindecimviri,' v. 70), who alone had power to consult them. The books were said originally to have been sold to Tarquinius Superbus by an old woman, and to have been three in number. They were burnt with the Capitol, B. C. 82, but collections of these verses having accumulated in various towns of Italy, they were got together and deposited in the same building, and used as before.

6. Virgines lectas] See Introd.

7. septem placuere colles] The seven hills of Rome, which were Cœlius, Esquilinus, Viminalis, Quirinalis, Capitolinus, Palatinus, Aventinus.

9. Alme] This epithet is to be taken in its proper sense as derived from 'alo.' 'Sun the nurturer.' This stanza is addressed to Phoebus, and was sung perhaps by the boys. The two next, addressed to Diana, may have been taken up by the girls; but this is uncertain.

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13. Rite maturos] O thou whose office it is gently to bring babes to the birth in due season.' 'Rite' means 'according to thy province and func tions.' Eileovia, the Greek name for Here and Artemis, or more properly in the plural number for their attendants, when presiding at the delivery of women, (which name is said to contain the root of eλeiv, but that seems doubtful,) is represented by the Latin 'Lucina,' "quae in lucem profert," which title also was given indiscriminately to Juno and Diana. The title 'Genitalis' does not occur elsewhere in this sense, but appears to be a version of the Greek Teveruλλís, which was applied to Aphrodite as well as Artemis and her attendants.

17. producas] This signifies to rear,' as in C. ii. 13. 3.

18. Prosperes decreta] In B. c. 18, the year before this Ode was written, a law was passed which, after Augustus, was called "Lex Julia de Maritandis Ordinibus," its object being the regulation and promotion of marriages. It is referred to in the note on C. i. 2. 24.

21. Certus undenos] The notion that the Secular Games were celebrated every 110 years, which seems to have been the length of a seculum as measured by the Etruscans, was a fiction invented probably at this time. There is no trace or probability of their having been so celebrated either before or after Augustus. They lasted three days and nights. They were celebrated by Claudius, A. D. 47, and again by Domitian, A. D. 88.

25. Vosque veraces cecinisse,] Ye too who are true to declare, O Parcæ, that which hath been once decreed, and which the steadfast order of events is confirming' (that is, the power of Rome). The orders of the oracle (see Introduction) directed a special sacrifice of lambs and goats, movτoyóvois Moípais, which was the Greek name of the Parca (some writers derived their birth from Occanus and Ge, the earth). Semel,' in the sense of once for all' (каðáжαέ), is common enough. The Parca could not but be true exponents of the decrees (fata') of Jove, since to them their execution was intrusted. That was their province (see C. ii. 16. 39). There may be some inconsistency in asking them to give good fates to Rome, since they could

xecute ministerially 'quod semel dictum est.' But such confusion is


Condito mitis placidusque telo] The boys take up the song for two the girls for two more, and after that they probably join their voices. the promontory near Actium there was a statue of Apollo with his bow nd a fierce aspect, which was an object of terror to the sailors who aphed the coast. (See Virg. Aen. iii. 274, sq.) And again on the shield eas (viii. 704) the same figure is represented. To this god Augustus is devotions before his battle with M. Antonius, and to him he attribis success. Accordingly, on his return to Rome, he built a temple to O of Actium on Mons Palatinus (v. 65; C. i. 31; Epp. i. 3. 17), and set tatue (executed by Scopas, see C. iv. 8. 6, n.) of that god, but in a difcharacter, the bow being laid aside and a lyre substituted for it in one and a plectrum in the other. He was clad also in a long flowing robe. rtius was present at the dedication of the temple, and gives a descripfit (ii. 31); the last object he mentions being the statue of Apollo, as described. This change of character is what Horace alludes to. regina bicornis] In a rilievo on Constantine's arch, Diana, as the moon, resented in her chariot drawn by two horses, and with a small crescent forehead, which is a common way of representing her on gems and S. In the above group Hesperus is flying in front of her.

Roma si vestrum est opus,] Encas tells Dido (Virg. Aen. iv. 345) that the oracle of Apollo that bade him seek Italy, and Horace introduces ith good effect, associating Diana with her brother for the occasion. . iv. 6. 21, n.

fraude] C. ii. 19. 20.

Castus C. iii. 2. 30, where the correlative term is used: "Neglectus > addidit integrum." Aen. vi. 661: " Quique sacerdotes casti."

Liberum munivit iter,] Made a free course,' 'opened the way.' 'Mus used commonly in this sense both literally and figuratively. See xxi. 37, where he is describing Hannibal's passage of the Alps): "Inde >em muniendam per quam unam via esse poterat milites ducti," etc. (in Verrem, ii. 3. 68), "Existimat easdem vias ad omnium familiariesse munitas."

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Quaeque vos bobus veneratur] Veneratur' is equivalent to 'venerando ur,' and is used transitively here and in S. ii. 2. 124; 6. 8, as well as in authors. The oracle required that milk-white bulls should be offered ✓ to Zeus.

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bellante prior,] Bellante' is opposed to 'jacentem,' and 'prior to 'Mightier than his enemy in the fight, but merciful when he is fallThe chorus pray rather for the blessings of peace than the triumphs of ind therefore praise Augustus's clemency to his conquered enemies, accorded with the warning of Anchises (Aen. vi. 852, where Virgil y had reference to Augustus) :

"Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento;

Hae tibi erunt artes, pacisque imponere morem,
Parcere subjectis, et debellare superbos."

Albanas secures,] The Roman fasces, as "Albanique patres " (Aen. Ascanius or Iulus, the son of Æneas, according to the legends from the Romans had their notions of their own history, transferred the seat father's kingdom to Alba Longa, and there it continued till Romulus, cendant, founded a kingdom on the banks of the Tiber, about ten miles Alba.

responsa] Replies to their offers of submission and petitions for friendThis word is used for the replies of the gods, and here perhaps ex3 the majesty of Augustus delivering his will as that of a god, like

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