Obrazy na stronie
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C. ii. 10, Int. Who was the other brother of Proculeius is doubtful, and also on what occasion he assisted them. They may have lost their property in the civil wars, as the Scholiasts say. Proculeius was in great favor with Augustus, and was intimate with Mecenas (who married his sister or cousin, Terentia), and probably with Sallustius. He was alive at this time, and did not die till after Horace. Proculeius was, like Mæcenas, a favorer of letters, and is so referred to by Juvenal (S. vii. 94): "Quis tibi Maecenas quis nunc erit aut Proculeius ? ”*

6. Notus—animi] Horace's adaptation of Greek constructions is one of the chief features of his style. He uses 'metuente' here in the same sense as in C. iv. 5. 20, " Culpari metuit Fides": wings that refuse to melt,' as

Icarius's did. See C. iv. 2. 2.

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9. Latius regnes] The only king was the sage, according to the Stoics, and the sage kept all his passions under control. See S. i. 3. 125, n., and below, v. 21.

10. remotis Gadibus] Gades (Cadiz) was taken poetically for the western limit of the world, so that when Horace would say his friend Septimius was willing to go with him to the ends of the earth, he says 'Septimi Gades aditure mecum' (C. ii. 6. 1). It was originally, like Carthage, a Phoenician settlement, of which there were many in Spain, whence Horace says 'uterque Poenus,' the Phoenicians in Africa and those in Hispania.

17. Phraaten] Phraates was restored to the Parthian throne B. C. 25 (C. i. 26, Introd.). It is called the throne of Cyrus, because the Parthians succeeded to the greater part of the Eastern empire founded by Cyrus the Great. See C. i. 2. 21, n.

18. plebi] See C. i. 27. 5, n. Observe the elision of the last syllable of this verse by the commencing vowel of the next; and see C. ii. 16. 34, and C. iii. 2. 22.

19. populumque, etc.] And teaches men not to use wrong names for things.'

22. propriam] See S. ii. 2. 129, n.

23. inretorto] 'Who does not look with eyes askance (that is, with longing) at vast heaps of gold?' Compare Epp. i. 14. 37: "Non istic obliquo oculo mea commoda quisquam Limat."

ODE III.

THE person to whom this Ode is nominally addressed is generally supposed to be Q. Dellius, who, from being a follower, first of Dolabella, and then of Brutus and Cassius, became a devoted adherent of M. Antonius, and his tool, throughout his intrigues with Cleopatra, till shortly before the battle of Actium, when he quarrelled with Cleopatra and joined Augustus, who received him with favor (Plut. Anton. c. 59). Plutarch calls him iσTopikos. Dellius was called 'desultor bellorum civilium,' in allusion to the 'desultor' of the circus, who rode two horses at the same time. Horace's way of giving a name to his odes has been sufficiently noticed, and in this, as in other cases, there is nothing to guide us to the person whose name he uses. The Ode is on his usual commonplaces, moderation, the enjoyment of the present moment, and the certainty of death.

ARGUMENT. Be sober in prosperity or adversity, in sadness or in mirth. What is the use of the shade and purling stream, if we bring not thither wine and flowers, while circumstances and youth permit, and life is our own? Soon thou must give up all to thine heir; rich and noble, or poor and hum ble, we must all come to one place in the end.

2. non secus in] 'Non secus ac' is the more usual phrase: but 'non secus ay stand alone.

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6. remoto gramine] in a secluded grassy spot.'

8. Interiore nota Falerni.] The cork of the amphora' was stamped with e name of the consul in whose year it was filled, or a label with that inription was fastened to the vessel, and the amphorae ' being placed in the potheca' as they were filled, the oldest would be the innermost.

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9. Quo pinus ingens] Quo' signifies to what purpose,' as 'quo mihi rtunam si non conceditur uti?' (Epp. i. 5. 12.)

albaque populus] The Greeks had two names for the poplar,—λevký, hich was white, and aryepos, which was dark. Virgil calls the white picolor.' 'Amant,' as in C. iii. 16. 10, is used like the Greek dovσi, are wont.' Virgil has a like expression to hospitalem' (Georg. iv. 24), Obviaque hospitiis teneat frondentibus arbor."

11. obliquo laborat] To what purpose does the flying stream struggle to aste down its winding channel?' The stream is represented as striving hurry on, in spite of the obstructions offered by its winding banks. As 'trepidare,' see C. ii. 11. 4. Epp. i. 10. 21.

17. Cedes coemptis] Compare C. 14. 21, sqq. of this book.

18. lavit,] Horace uses this form, not 'lavat.'

21. Inacho] The name of Inachus, the earliest mythical king of Argos, pears to have been used proverbially, for we have it again in C. iii. 19. 1. 23. moreris,] This reminds us of Cicero (de Senect. xxiii.): "Commondi natura deversorium nobis, non habitandi locum dedit."

25. cogimur,]

c. iii. 20).

We are driven like sheep,' "Tityre coge pecus" (Virg.

26. Versatur urna] Compare C. iii. 1. 16: "Omne capax movet urna omen." The notion is that of Fate standing with an urn, in which every an's lot is cast. She shakes it, and he whose lot comes out must die. vid has imitated this passage (Met. x. 32):

"Omnia debemur vobis paullumque morati

Serius aus citius sedem properamus ad unam.

Tendimus huc omnes.

28. Exilium] This is put for the place of exile, as (Ov. Fast. vi. 666): Exilium quodam tempore Tibur erat." The word is only another form 'exsidium,' from 'ex-sedeo.' 'Cumbae' is in the dative case, and is the m usually found in inscriptions for ' cymbae.'

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ODE IV.

THIS amusing Ode represents a gentleman in love with his maid-servant, d jocularly consoles him with examples of heroes who had been in the me condition, and with the assurance that one so faithful must be, like the ves of the Homeric warriors, the daughter of a royal house. The name unthias must be fictitious, and Phoceus indicates that the person was also pposed to be a Phocian. Why Horace, assuming a Greek name for his l or supposed friend, should also make him a Phocian, is needless to quire. There may have been a significance in it which has passed away, never existed but for the understanding of the person addressed, and rhaps a few intimate friends. Xanthias was a name given to slaves, like ta, Sosius, &c. in the "Frogs" and other plays of Aristophanes. Horace was born B. C. 65, and he wrote this Ode when he was just finishing eighth lustre, which would be in December, B. C 25.

ARGUMENT. —Be not ashamed, Xanthias; heroes have loved their maids before thee, Achilles his Briseis, Ajax his Tecmessa, and Agamemnon his Cassandra. Doubtless your Phyllis is of royal blood: one so faithful and loving and unselfish is no common maiden. Nay, be not jealous of my praises; my eighth lustre is hastening to its close.

2. Xanthia Phoceu !] See Introd.

3. Briseis] Hippodameia, so called from her father, Briseus, king of Lyrnessus, a town of Troas, taken, with eleven others, by Achilles. He delivered up the spoils for distribution, and got Briseis for his prize (II. ix. 328, sqq.) Agamemnon took her from him, as a compensation for the loss of his own slave, Chryseis (Il. i. 320, sqq.).

6. Tecmessae; Tecmessa was the daughter of Teleutas, king of Phrygia, who was killed by the Greeks during the Trojan war, and his daughter became the prize of Ajax, the son of Telamon. Homer alludes to her when he speaks of Alavтos yépas (II. i. 138). Sophocles, in his play of Ajax, represents her as tenderly attached to him.

7. Arsit Virgine rapta,] That is, Cassandra, whom Agamemnon chose, when the spoils of Troy were divided among the Greeks. 'Arsit' is used by Horace three times with an ablative, — here, in C. iii. 9, 5, and in Epod. xiv. 9; and once as a transitive verb (C. iv. 9. 13): "Non sola comptos arsit adulteri crines”; as it is in Virgil's second Eclogue: "Formosum pastor Corydon ardebat Alexin."

10. Thessalo victore] Achilles, whose native country was Phthiotis in Thessaly.

ademptus Hector] 'the loss of Hector.' This is from the Iliad (xxiv. 243):

ῥηίτεροι γὰρ μᾶλλον ̓Αχαιοῖσιν δὴ ἔσεσθε

κείνου τεθνηῶτος ἐναιρέμεν.

13. Nescias an] You cannot tell but,'-'You may well believe.' All that follows, in this and the next stanza, is good-natured banter. See Introd. As to the phrase 'nescio an,' 'I incline to think it is so,' see Zumpt's Latin Grammar, §§ 354 and 721. On 'beati,' see C. i. 4. 14.

17. Crede non illam] Believe not that she whom thou lovest is of the villanous herd.'

22. Fuge] The same as 'noli,'-' do not.'

23. Cujus octavum] See Introd.; and as to 'lustrum,' see C. ii. 15. 13, n.

ODE V.

THIS Ode professes to be a remonstrance with one who is courting a young girl not yet come to womanhood.

ARGUMENT. That girl is too young for a yoke-fellow; as yet, she is like an unbroken heifer, or an unripe grape. She will come to thee of her own accord, when she is a little older; then will she wax wanton, and seek a mate, and thou wilt love her above coy Pholoe or Chloris or Gyges.

5. Circa] The Greeks use nepí in this way, occupied with.'

7. Solantis] This is the poetical word for satisfying hunger or thirst, as Virgil (Georg. i. 159): “Concussaque famem in silvis solabere quercu."

12. Purpureo varius colore] Erelong, autumn with its varied hues will dye the green grape with purple,' which means, that she will soon be ripe for marriage, as the purple grape is for plucking.

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13. ferox Aetas] Time is compared to a wild horse, as in Ovid (Fast. vi. 772): fugiunt freno non remorante dies." The words that follow mean, 'she will approach the flower of her age, as you recede from it'; which is expressed thus: the years which time takes from your life, he will add to hers.' The way of speaking is like that of Deianira, when, comparing her own age and attractions with those of her rival, she says: :

ὁρῶ γὰρ ἤβην τὴν μὲν ἕρπουσαν πρόσω,

τὴν δ ̓ αὖ φθίνουσαν.

(Soph. Trach. v. 547, sqq.) It is also explained by those verses in the Epistle to the Pisones:

(v. 175, sq.)

"Multa ferunt anni venientes commoda secum,
Multa recedentes adimunt."

16. Lalage] This name is formed from λaλeîv, “dulce loquentem" (C. 22. 24).

20. Cnidiusve Gyges,] This name, which is Lydian, Horace employs again (C. iii. 7. 5). This boy is represented as a slave from Cnidus in Caria, and he is said to be so beautiful that, if he were introduced at supper among the girls, the cleverest of the company could not detect him. 'Discrimen obscuum' means a difference hard to see.

24. ambiguoque vultu.] Ovid expresses the same ambiguity in the case of Atalanta very elegantly (Met. viii. 322) : —

"Talis erat cultus; facies quam dicere vere

Virgineam in puero puerilem in virgine possis." Boys let their hair grow till they assumed the 'toga virilis,' about their fifeenth year.

ODE VI.

Or Septimius, to whom this Ode is addressed, we know nothing, except hat he was an intimate friend of Horace's, as we gather also from the letter of ntroduction he gave him to Tiberius (Epp. i. 9). He had a house at Tarenum, where Horace probably paid him one or more visits. Beyond this we now nothing of Septimius.

It was probably on or after a visit to Septimius, that Horace composed the wenty-eighth Ode of the first book; and, probably, with the attractions of Tarentum fresh in his mind, he wrote this Ode. He says that, next to Tiur, it is the place where he would choose to end his days. He says the same ■ Epp. i. 7. 45.

ARGUMENT.Septimius, I would that I might end my days at Tibur, or, that be forbidden me, at Tarentum. Above all others I love that spot, with its honey, its olives, its long spring, and mild winter, and grapes on Mount Aulon. On that spot we ought to live together; and there thou houldst lay my bones, and weep over them.

1. Septimi, Gades aditure mecum] That is, 'who art ready to go with me, I need be, to the ends of the earth.' See above C. 2. 10, n.

2. Cantabrum indoctum] At any time before B. C. 29, when the Cantabri ere first reduced, they could have been called by Horace 'indoctos juga -rre nostra,' even though no attempt had been made to impose that yoke. 29 they were reduced to subjection; in 26 they broke out again, and in the llowing year they were finally subdued, though an insurrection had to be ut down by Agrippa, some years afterwards (see C. iii. 8. 21; iv. 14. 41.

Epp. i. 12. 26). They were one of the fiercest of the tribes of Hispania, and the last that submitted to the Romans. They occupied a part of the north coast, between the mountains and the sea.

3. Syrtes] The modern Gulfs of Sydra and Gabis.

5. Tibur] Tibur (Tivoli), which was sixteen miles east of Rome, Horace was in the habit of visiting (see C. iii. 4. 23. Epp. i. 7. 45). He here expresses a great affection for it. Some suppose he had a house there, which, as he nowhere mentions it, is improbable.

Argeo-colono] Catillus, or his brother Tiburtus (see C. i. 18. 2, n.).

7. Sit modus lasso] Lasso' may be taken with 'maris,' etc. (as 'fessi rerum,' Aen. i. 178), or absolutely, leaving the genitives to depend on 'modus': or the genitives may depend upon both. It is probable Horace is only speaking generally, meaning that the weary need seek no happier resting-place than Tibur, or Tarentum.

10. pellitis] This word refers to the practice of covering the sheep with skins, to preserve their wool. The Galasus (Galaso) flowed through the ager Tarentinus, which was rich in gardens and corn-land, as well as in pas

tures.

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11. regnata] Similar passives are found in C. iii. 3. 43, "Medis triumphatis"; iii. 19. 4, "Bella pugnata"; Epod. i. 23, "Bellum militabitur"; $. ii. 5. 27, "Res certabitur." Regnata occurs again in C. iii. 29. 27; and Tacitus (Hist. i. 16) speaks of "gentes quae regnantur." The word is not used by prose-writers of an earlier age than Tacitus. Phalanthus of Lacedæmon headed a body of youths, called from the circumstances of their birth Partheniæ, in migrating from the Peloponnesus into Italy, where they got possession of Tarentum.

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15. decedunt] This word is used again in the same sense of 'giving place to' in the second epistle of the second book, v. 213: "decede peritis." honey of Tarentum or Calabria (iii. 16. 33), and of Matinum (iv. 2. 27) in Italy, of Hybla in Sicily, and of Hymettus in Attica, are those Horace celebrates most. Venafrum (hod. Venafro) the most northern town of Campania was celebrated above all places in Italy for its olives. 'Venafro' is the dative case. See C. i. 1. 15, n.

18. Aulon] From the name, we may suppose this was a valley near Tarentum. It gave excellent pasturage to sheep. 'Baccho' depends on 'amicus.'

21. beatae arces;] Rich heights or hills near Tarentum. 'Arx' is akin to epkos, and signifies primarily a fortified place; and fortified places being commonly on heights, arx,' in a derived sense, came to mean a hill generally.

23. favillam] The practice of burning the dead was not general among the Romans, till towards the end of the republic. Before that, they were usually buried, though burning was known even in old times.

ODE VII.

POMPEIUS VARUS was a companion of Horace's in the army of Brutus, and fought at Philippi, after which it is probable he followed the fortunes, first of Sextus Pompeius and afterwards of M. Antonius, and did not return to Rome till the civil war was over. This Ode was written on his return, to welcome him.

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ARGUMENT. O Pompeius, my earliest friend and best, with whom I have served and indulged, full many a day, who hath sent thee back to us, a

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