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118 Ode was probably written as a dedication to Maecenas of the three books, when they were collectively published, probably in the fortynd year of Horace's age, B. C. 24. He says that different men have rent tastes; the Greek loves the Olympic games, the Roman to get e or money; one is quiet, another restless, and so on; while he only the lyre, and seeks to be ranked by Maecenas among lyric poets. RGUMENT. — Mæcenas, my protector, my pride, various are the aims of . The Greek seeks glory from the race; the lords of the world are emely happy, one in the honors of the state, the other in his well-filled s. The farmer will not plough the seas; the merchant is restless on . One man loves his ease and his wine; another, the camp and the din ar; while the huntsman braves all weathers for his sport. My glory is he ivy crown, my delight to retire to the groves with the nymphs and satyrs, where my muse breathes the flute or strikes the lyrc. Placed hee among the lyric choir, I shall lift my head to the skies.

atavis] A noun substantive, signifying properly an ancestor in the fifth ree, thus: 'pater,' 'avus,' 'proavus,' 'abavus,' 'atavus'; compounded of ' and 'avus,' and corresponding to 'adnepos' in the descending scale. ecenas belonged to the family of Cilnii, formerly Lucumones or princes Etruria, and up to a late period possessed of influence in the Etrurian n of Aretium, whence they were expelled by their own citizens B.C. 300. Liv. x. 3. Compare Proport. iii. 9. 1:

"Maecenas, eques Etrusco de sanguine regum,
Intra fortunam qui cupis esse tuam."

rtial xii. 4. 2: "Maecenas atavis regibus ortus eques."
1. S. i. 6. 1, sqq.

See also C. iii.

2. O et praesidium] My protector, my delight, and pride.' Virgil (G. ii. O addresses Mæcenas in the same affectionate terms:

"O decus, O famae merito pars maxima nostrae,


d Propertius, ii. 1. 73.

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3. Sunt quos] The Greeks say eσrw ous. The indicative is used with unt,' or 'est qui,' when particular persons are alluded to, as here the eeks in opposition to the Romans. So Epp. ii. 2. 182: “ Argentum nt qui non habeant, est qui non curat habere," where, by the latter, is stinctly indicated the wise man. Here Horace alludes to the Greeks of

former days, and is led to refer to them, because this was the chief subject of Pindar's poetry.

-curriculo] This may mean either the chariot (formed from 'curro,' as 'vehiculum' from 'veho") or the course.

4. Collegisse] The perfect is used to express the frequent repetition of the action, like the Greek aorist. The best illustration of what follows is in the Iliad (xxiii. 338, sqq.). Meta' was the conical pillar at the end of the course round which the chariots turned on their way back to the startingplace. By the Greeks it was called vioon. It was the mark of a skilful driver to turn the goal as closely as possible without touching it, which is implied in fervidis Evitata rotis.'

6. Terrarum dominos] That is, the Romans. Virgil (Aen. i. 282) calls them "Romanos rerum dominos."

8. tergeminis] This refers to the three curule magistracies, those of the ædile, prætor, and consul. Though the quæstorship was usually the first step in the line of promotion, it is not included, because it was not a curule office. Tergeminus' here signifies no more than 'triplex.' 'Geminus' is used in this combination with cardinal numbers frequently. So Virgil (Aen. vi. 287) calls Briareus ‘centumgeminus.' 'Honoribus' is the ablative case, as (C. i. 21. 9): "Vos Tempe totidem tollite laudibus." Tac. Ann. i. 3: "Claudium Marcellum pontificatu et curuli aedilitate - M. Agrippam geminatis consulatibus extulit."

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Certat tollere] The poets, following the Greek idiom, use for convenience and conciseness this construction of the infinitive with verbs, which in prose would require 'ut' with the subjunctive, or a supine, or 'ad' with a gerund or some other construction. In the next Ode we have "egit visere"; in the 12th, "sumis celebrare"; in the 26th, "tradam portare," and so on. Verbs of all kinds signifying desire and the reverse are frequently used with the infinitive, as in this Ode: "demere spernit," " refugit tendere"; C. 9. 13, "fuge quaerere," &c. Propertius uses the infinitive after 'ire,' which the prose writers never do: "Ibat et hirsutas ille videre feras" (i. 1. 12).

10. de Libycis verritur areis.] The great mass of the corn consumed at Rome was imported from Sicily and Libya. See C. iii. 16. 26, 31. S. ii. 3. 87. The 'area' was a raised floor on which the corn was threshed; and, after the wind had winnowed it, the floor was swept, and the corn was thus collected. See Virgil (Georg. i. 178, sqq.), where directions are given for making an area.'

11. findere sarculo] There is something of contempt in these words, where we should have expected 'arare.' The soil must be poor that was worked by a hoe, and the owner macro pauper agello.' (Epp. ii. 2. 12.) 'Scindere' is the proper word for the plough; findere,' for the hoe or lesser instruments.Attalicis conditionibus' signifies the most extravagant terms.' There were three kings of Pergamus of this name, which was proverbial for riches. The third left his great wealth to the Romans (B. C. 134). See C. ii. 18. 5. Compare for 'conditionibus' Cic. ad Qu. Fr. i. 2. 8: "Nulla conditio pecuniae te ab summa integritate deduxerit."

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13. dimoveas,] From the meaning of 'de,' 'down from,' 'demoveo' is more properly used when the place from which the removal takes place is expressed, and 'dimoveo' when the sentence is absolute, as here. For instance, demovet' is the proper reading in C. iv. 5. 14: “Curvo nec faciem littore demovet." The MSS. have in many instances dimovet' where demovet' is wanted. The same remark applies to diripio' and 'deripio.' —' Cypria,'' Myrtoum,' 'Icariis' (C. iii. 7. 21), 'Africum,' are all particular names for general, as 'Bithyna carina' (C. i. 35. 7). By adding names more life is given to the description. - Horace's epithets for Africus, which was the west-southwest wind, and corresponded to the Greek diy, are ' praeceps,'

ens,' 'protervus.' He uses the phrase 'Africae procellae' (C. iii. 23. signify the storms for which this wind was proverbial. 'Luctari,' e, decertare,' 'contendere,' are used by the poets with the dative nstead of the ablative with cum,' after the manner of the Greek θαί τινι.

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tium et oppidi Laudat rura sui ;] He commends the peaceful fields is native town; for otium et rura' may be taken as one subject. Endocilis - pati.] Examples of this Greek construction for 'ad patienare very numerous. To go no further than this book, we have audax ,'blandum dicere,'' nobilem superare,'' impotens sperare,'' callidum e,'' doctus tendere,' 'praesens tollere,' 'ferre dolosi.'- 'Pauperies,' ertas,'' pauper,' are not usually by Horace taken to signify privaor anything beyond a humble estate, as, among many other instances, sum pauper agello" (Epp. ii. 2. 12). Probamque pauperiem sine naero" (C. iii. 29. 56). Paupertas,' 'inopia,' ' egestas,' is the climax by Seneca (de Tranq. Animi, 8).

Est qui] See above, v. 3. This is the only instance in which 'est s followed by the indicative where the person is not expressed or understood. Horace may have had some one in his mind, and the tion would apply to many of his friends, or to himself.

lassici] The wine grown on Mons Massicus in Campania was of e flavor. Sce S. ii. 4. 54.

solido demere de die] That is, to interrupt the hours of business. So 7.6) 66 morantem saepe diem mero fregi." 'Solidus' signifies that has no vacant part or space; and hence solidus dies' comes to sigLe business hours, or occupied part of the day.

'solidus dies' ended at the hour of dinner, which with industrious s was the ninth in summer and tenth in winter. The luxurious dined , the busy sometimes later. The commencement of the day varied he habits of different people.

viridi] This is not an idle epithet, which Horace never uses. The s is an evergreen, which is expressed by 'viridi.'

caput] This is used for the mouth as well as the spring of a river. Georg. iv. 319, "Tristis ad extremi sacrum caput astitit amnis." (B. G. iv. 10) says of the Rhine, " multis capitibus in Oceanum influit." t is the spring. Shrines were usually built at the fountain-head of s, dedicated to the nymphs that protected them, which explains

lituo tubae] The 'lituus' was curved in shape and sharp in tone, sed by the cavalry: tuba,' as its name indicates, was straight and of one, and used by the infantry. "Non tuba directi, non aeris cornua (Ov. Met. i. 98). The 'lituus' is said to have been in shape a mean en the 'tuba' and the cornu'; not so straight as the one, nor so I as the other. See C. ii. 1. 17.

bellaque matribus Detestata.] 'Detestatus' is nowhere else used pasexcept by the law-writers, who use it for one convicted by evidence: ulatus' (Č. i. 32. 5), 'metatus' (ii. 15. 15), are likewise instances of ent participles used passively.

sub Jove] The atmosphere, and so the sky. Epod. iii. 2:

Nivesque unt Jovem." The Latin writers represented the atmosphere by Jupiter, ceks by Hera.

tenerae] This word occurs frequently in Horace in the sense of 'See C. 5. 19 (tenerum Lycidam).

teretes] This word may be rendered smooth and round.' It has more or less closely one of these meanings, or both. It contains the root as 'tero,' 'tornus,' reípw, and its cognate words, and its meaning

is got from the notion of rubbing and polishing. Horace applies it to a woman's ankles, a smooth-faced boy, the cords of a net, and a faultless man. It is applied by Ovid (Fast. ii. 320) to a girdle, and by Virgil (Aen. xi. 579) to the thong of a sling; where, as here, it represents the exact twisting of a cord. Plagae' were nets of thick rope with which the woods were surrounded to catch the larger beasts as they were driven out by dogs and beaters. (Epod. ii. 32. Epp. i. 6. 58; 18. 46.) Marsus for Marsicus, as Medus for Medicus, is the only form Horace uses. The country of the Marsi, east of Rome, Umbria, and Lucania were all famous for boars, being abundant in acorns, on which they fed and grew fat. Laurentian boars were also celebrated. See S. ii. 3. 234; 4. 41. 43.

29. Me doctarum hederae praemia frontium] The ivy, which was sacred to Bacchus, made a fit and usual garland for a lyric poet. "Doctarum frontium is the proper description of poets, who by the Greeks were called σοφοί.

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30. me gelidum nemus] This is an imaginary scene, in which Horace supposes himself wandering in cool groves, surrounded with dancing bands of wood-nymphs (Dryads and Hamadryads) and satyrs, and listening to the flute of Euterpe, and the lyre of Lesbos struck by Polyhymnia. Tibia' was a sort of flageolet. When it is used in the plural (as here, C. iv. 15. 30, Epod. ix. 5), it has reference to two of these instruments played by one person. Their pitch was different, the low-pitched tibia being called 'dextra,' because it was held in the right hand, and the high-pitched 'sinistra,' because it was held in the left. Euterpe, the Muse, was said to have invented the 'tibia,' and she especially presided over music. Polyhymnia, or Polymnia, another Muse, invented the lyre.

34. Lesboum-barbiton.] The lyre of Sappho and Alcæus, who were natives of Mytilene in the island of Lesbos, and flourished at the same time, about the end of the seventh century B. C. (C. 32. 5.)

35. Quod si Although the personal pronoun 'tu' is emphatic in this sentence, it is omitted, as is often the case in poetry, where no opposition of persons is intended. -'Lyricis' is less common than 'melicis,' to describe the lyric poets of Greece.

Lyricis] The most celebrated of the lyric poets of Greece were Pindar, Alcæus, Sappho, Stesichorus, Ilycus, Bacchylides, Simonides, Alcmeon, and Anacreon.


THIS Ode seems to have been written on the return of Augustus to Rome, after the taking of Alexandria, when the civil wars were brought to a close and the temple of Janus was shut, B. C. 29. Horace here urges Augustus to take upon himself the task of reducing to order the elements of the state, which so many years of civil war had thrown into confusion, and he does so in the following manner. He refers to the prodigies at Julius Cæsar's death, as evidences of the divine wrath for the guilt of the civil wars. He then invokes one god after another to come and restore the state, and finally fixes upon Mercury, whom he entreats to take upon himself the form of a man, and not to leave the earth till he has accomplished his mission and conquered the enemies of Rome. The man whose form Mercury is to take is Augustus.

If this Ode is read with C. ii. 15, and the others mentioned in the introduction to that Ode, the feeling with which Horace entered into the mission of Augustus as the reformer will be better understood.

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