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years, the liturgy of Basil prevails without any substantial variety from the northern shore of Russia to the extremities of Abyssinia, and from the Adriatic and Baltic seas, to the furthest coast of Asia. In one respect this liturgy must be considered as the most valuable that we possess. We can trace back the words and expressions of the greater portion to about the year 370 or 380. This is not the case with any other liturgy. The expressions of all other liturgies we cannot certainly trace, in general, beyond the fifth century. It is true we can often ascertain satisfactorily the expressions used at that date, and we may have no reason to deny that the same words were used long before. We can also trace their substance, and order, and some of their expressions, with certainty to a far greater antiquity. But we have not only the same sort of means for inferring and tracing the antiquity of the order and substance of the liturgy of Cæsarea in primitive times, but can actually ascertain the expressions used there about the

It may fairly be inquired here, how far we are to extend the office of Basil in composing this liturgy. There is no reason to think that it extended further than to enrich the ancient formularies of Cæsarea, by the addition of new fervour and sublimity to their devotion, and of beauty and correctness to their diction. Those that presided over the church in primitive times had the power of improving and enriching its formularies, provided the main substance was still preserved. Of the exercise of this power we probably have an instance in the liturgy of Basil. For while there are good reasons for affirming that he made no alteration in the main

year 380.


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order and substance of the Cæsarean liturgy, it would hardly have borne his name had he merely put in writing the liturgy previously used at Cæ

No monument of antiquity, as far as I am aware, gives us any direct information as to the part which Basil took in composing the liturgy which bears his name. But we know from his own writings, that “the customs of psalmody,” or divine service at the canonical hours, which he had appointed in his monasteries, were “consonant and agreeable to all the churches of God.” And we may thence conclude, that as nothing apparently was introduced into his liturgy merely for the sake of novelty, it bore a great resemblance to that which had previously been used at Cæsarea. We are also aware, that the same order and substance which are visible in Basil's liturgy were used long before his time in the patriarchate of Antioch?, and in the countries of Europe, which afterwards became a portion of the patriarchate of Constantinople'. And it will presently appear that, according to the Fathers, the same order and substance was extensively prevalent in the exarchate of Cæsarea also before the time of Basil.

The law of secrecy, which was so rigidly adhered to in the Christian church for many ages, and which especially forbade any discovery of the rites of the eucharist', was in no part of the church more strictly obeyed than in the exarchate of Cæsarea. The effect of this caution is, that we have very few

P See Basil. Epist. 207, tom. this Dissertation. jii. Oper. edit. Benedictin. r Section III. of this Discited near the beginning of this sertation. section.

s. Bingham's Antiquities, 9 See the first Section of book x. c. 5, § 8.

notices amongst the Fathers of that exarchate relative to the liturgy.

Of the doctrines of the eucharist there are indeed abundant testimonies in these authors; but of the rites with which it was administered there is a very sparing and cautious mention. However, as far as this goes, it proves that the same liturgy (as to order and substance) prevailed in Cappadocia before the time of Basil as afterwards. Basil himself, in a book written about A. D. 374, speaks of the prayer of consecration in the liturgy in terms which seem to imply that the same order and substance had been long and generally used. He says, that in the prayer of consecration the church "was not content

merely with those things which the Apostle or “ the Gospel commemorated, but that many things “ were said before and after, as having great efficacy “in the mystery. This accords perfectly with the liturgy of Basil, where the thanksgiving precedes the things commemorated by the Apostle Paul and the Gospels, and the invocation of the Holy Ghost follows them; all which were held by the church to have great efficacy in the mystery or sacrament". It is remarkable that a verbal coincidence is found between these expressions of Basil's and his liturgy'.

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+ Tà rñS ÉTIKANOEws púuara, Spiritu Sancto, c. 27, p. 55, επί τη αναδείξει του άρτου της tom. iii. Oper. ed. Bened. ευχαριστίας και του ποτηρίου u Bingham's Antiq. book xv. της ευλογίας, τίς των αγίων c. 3, $ 11. Albertinus de Eu,

c. 3, § tyypáows fuiy karaléoliev; charistia, lib. i. c. 6.

ημίν καταλέλοιπες; ου γάρ δή τούτοις αρκούμεθα ων ' δεόμεθα και σε παρακαλούο Απόστολος ή το Ευαγγέλιον μεν, Goar, p. 169. και αναδείξει επεμνήσθη, αλλά και προλέγομεν τον μεν άρτον τούτον, ποίησον και επιλέγομεν έτερα ως μεγάλης αυτό, κ. τ.λ.-το δε ποτήριον έχοντα προς το μυστήριον την τούτο, αυτό το τίμιον αίμα, ισχύν, έκ της άγράφου διδασκα- κ. τ. λ. Ιbid. ,

t. . Nias mapalaßóvres. Basil. de

Gregory, bishop of Nyssa in Cappadocia, and brother of Basil, speaks of the exclusion of catechumens before the mysteries. He afterwards alludes to the thanksgiving of the liturgy, including the mention of seraphim with six wings, and the hymn (Tersanctus) sung by Christians with them ". In Basil's liturgy we find the preface or thanksgiving making mention of seraphim with six wings; with whom the congregation are encouraged and supposed to join in singing Tersanctus. Gregory Nyssene elsewhere argues in support of the divine uvotaywyía, or liturgy, that the oblation of our gifts, or evxai, (things devoted or vowed to God,) should take place before we pray to God for his benefits*. This accords exactly with the order and substance of Basil's liturgy, where the verbal oblation of the gifts of bread and wine takes place before the solemn prayers?. We may observe that Gregory

W“Me tui pudet, quod cum * In speaking of our Saviconsenueris, adhuc ejiciaris our's words, őray ipogeúxnole, cum catechumenis, tanquam in- he says, f{eoti di' avrūv tūv sipiens puellus, et qui arcana της προσευχής λόγων την θείαν non potest celare, cum dicen- uvotaywyiav katavoñoal, then dum sit mysterium. Unire afterwards, evxo uév łoti, kaows

, ευχή μέν έστι, populo mystico, et arcanos είρηται, χαριστήριος δωροφορίας ,

, disce sermones. Eloquere no- επαγγελία. ή δε προσευχή την biscum illa que sea alas haben- μετά την εκπλήρωσιν της επαγtia Seraphim, cum perfectis γελίας τω θεώ γινομένην πρόσChristianis dicunt hymnos ca- οδον διερμηνεύει διδάσκει ούν nentia. Desidera cibum qui ημάς ο λόγος, μη πρότερον confirmat animam, gusta potum aitiolai tl Tapà toữ Oɛoī, apiv qui cor exhilarat, ama myste- avrợ ti tōv kexaplouévwv èwrium quod eo modo qui non ροφορήσαι. εύξασθαι γάρ χρη cadit sub aspectum, veteres πρότερον, είτα προσεύξασθαι. transmittit ad juventutem." Gregor. Nyss. de Orat. DomiGregorii Nyss. Opera, Paris, nica, Orat. 2. tom. i. p. 724. 1615, tom. i. p. 957. Compare See also the context. Goar, Liturg. Basil. p. 162. y Goar, Lit. Basil. p. 168. 166. 168. 170, &c.

170, &c.

Nyssene speaks of the same order which we now perceive in Basil's liturgy, as the established and well-known order of those churches, which it could scarcely have then been, had it been first introduced by Basil.

Gregory Nazianzen preserves a cautious silence on the rites of the eucharist; he only speaks of bishops as priests who offer unbloody sacrifices to God', which is explained by the liturgy of Basila. But there is a convincing proof that the order of Basil's liturgy is much older than his time, in the fact, that, in the early part of the fourth century, Armenia received the same order from the church of Cæsarea. This will be shewn in an Appendix to the Dissertation.

If we compare the liturgy of Cæsarea improved by Basil with that used at Antioch and Jerusalem in the fourth century, we shall find the order and substance of both exactly the same. This identity will be seen by comparing together the accounts which I have given of the Anaphoræ of both. It may well furnish an object of interesting inquiry, hou a substantial uniformity of liturgy could have been caused in such a great tract of country at so early a period ; more especially, when we reflect that the bishops had the power of making improvements in their liturgies, and that in fact almost all the monuments of this liturgy exhibit circumstantial varieties. In the fourth century no ecumenical bishop had yet been created. Antioch and Cæsarea

2 Ω θυσίας πέμποντες αναι

a τα σα εκ των σων σοι προσμάκτους ιερήες. pártovc iepnes. Gregor. Naz. Dépovtes, Goar, Rit. Græc. Lit. tom. ii. p. 81. Oéų dūpov, Bas. p. 168. θυσίαι καθάρσιαι, ibid. p. 201.

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