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lated by the council of Laodicea, of which I have spoken already.
The creed occurred amongst the prayers of compline, according to the ancient English offices; and it appears to have occupied this position even in Anglo-Saxon times.
It followed the song of Simeon, or Nunc dimittis, as it does at present ". This creed is now placed before the prayers and collects, in order to preserve uniformity with the office of morning prayer.
These prayers, including the lesser litany, the Lord's Prayer, and the versicles and responses which follow, have long been used in the English and other western churches, at the end of the evening service. They occur not only in the offices of the churches of Salisbury, York, Hereford, &c. but in those of the Anglo-Saxon ages. Benedict, A.D. 530, speaks of the lesser litany and the Lord's Prayer as used at the end of evening prayer. The council of Girone, A.D. 517, appointed that every day after vespers the Lord's Prayer should be said by the priest
b Brev. Sar. Psalt. fol. 57. d Concil. Gerundense, caBrev. Eborac. fol. 3.
“ Placuit observari, ut c“ Canticum de evangelio, omnibus diebus post matutinas litania, et oratio Dominica, et et vesperas oratio Dominica a fiant missæ." Benedict. Re- sacerdote proferatur.” gula, c. 17.”
1 And after that, these prayers Tunc omnia fiant in prostra
following, all devoutly kneel- tione ab inceptione I. Kyrie ing; the Minister first pro
Eleisone. nouncing with a loud voice. The Lord be with you.
Dominus vobiscum. Answer. And with thy spirit. Et cum spiritu tuo. Minister. Let us pray.
Oremus f. Lord, have mercy upon us.
Kyrie eleison. Christ, have mercy upon us. Christe eleison. Lord, have mercy upon us. Kyrie eleison.
Our Father, which art in Pater noster qui es in cælis, heaven, hallowed be &c.
sanctificetur &c.h | Then the priest standing up Erigat se Sacerdos solus sic
dicens i. O Lord, shew thy mercy Ostende nobis Domine mi
sericordiam tuam. Answer. And grant us thy Et salutare tuum da nobis. salvation. Priest. O Lord, save the king. Domine salvum fac
regem. Answer. And mercifully hear Et exaudi nos in die qua us when we call
thee. invocaverimus tek. Priest. Endue thy ministers Sacerdotes tui induant juswith righteousness.
titiam. Answer. And make thy cho- Et sancti tui exultent". sen people joyful. Priest. O Lord, save thy
Salvum fac populum tuum, people.
e Breviar. Sarisb. fol. 57. pletor. Offic. Anglo-Sax. ad Psalt, ad completorium. Vesper. et in nocte. Appendix
f Breviar. Sar. fol. 57. Psalt. to Hickes's Letters. Brev. These three forms are not Ebor. fol. 3. placed before the lesser litany h Breviar. Sar. fol. 57, Offic. in any of the ancient offices, Anglo-Sax. ad Vesper. et in as far as I am aware. Their nocte. Brev. Ebor. fol. 3. former position was immedi- i Breviar. Sar. fol. 57, ad ately before the collect, and in completorium. that place their antiquity is
j Brev. Sar. fol. 57, ad comvery great ; however, they are pletorium. well placed at present at the
k Breviar. Sar. fol. 22, Psalt. very commencement of the ad Vesperas. prayers.
1 Brev. Sar. fol. 22, Psalt. g Brev. Sar. fol. 57,
ad com- ad Vesperas.
Et benedic hæreditati tuæ m.
Answer. And bless thine inheritance.
Priest. Give peace in our time, O Lord.
Answer. Because there is none other that fighteth for us, but only thou, O God.
Priest. O God, make clean our hearts within us.
Answer. And take not thy holy Spirit from us.
Da pacem Domine in diebus nostris.
Quia non est alius qui pugnet pro nobis nisi tu Deus nostern.
Cor mundum crea in me Domine.
Et Spiritum sanctum tuum ne auferas a meo.
The collects are placed in the same position relatively to the prayers as they have always occupied in the offices of the English churches. The collects of the day, for peace, and for aid against perils, are also in the same order, in relation to each other, as in the ancient English offices. Here the collect of the day followed Magnificat at vespers,
the collect for peace was recited after vespers, and the collect for aid against perils succeeded the prayers at the end of compline. Collects were repeated at the end of evening prayer according to the AngloSaxon offices P; and Amalarius, A.D. 820, refers to the same custom.
We find in the sacramentaries of Gregory, A.D. 590, and Gelasius, A. D. 494, collects appointed peculiarly to be said at evening prayer"; and the
m Brev. Sar. fol. 22, ad Ves- to Hickes's Letters. peras.
9 Amalar. de Eccl. Officiis, Brev. Ebor. fol. 264, p. ii. lib. iv. c. 7. Suffragia ad Vesperas.
Gregorii Sacramentar. o Brev. Sar. fol. 13.
Menard. p. 209, 210. Gelasii P Offic. Anglo-Sax. ad Ves- Sacr. Muratori, tom. i. p. 745. peras et in nocte. Appendix VOL. I.
council of Agde, A. D. 517, ordained that the people should be dismissed with a benediction in the evening, after the prayer had been collected; that is, after the collect had been said. The office of vespers, according to the eastern church in the third or fourth century, also terminated with a collect, and a benediction by the bishop, as we may perceive in the Apostolical Constitutions'; and the same order is visible in the most ancient monuments of the office of vespers, according to the rites used in the patriarchate of Constantinople".
THE COLLECT FOR PEACE.
This collect is found in all the ancient monuments of the English church, where it has been used for above twelve hundred years. It is, without any reasonable doubt, as old as the fifth century, since it occurs in the sacramentary of Gelasius, A.D 494.
O God, from whom all holy Deus, a quo sancta desidedesires, all good counsels, and ria, recta consilia, et justa sunt
, all just works do proceed ; Give opera ; da servis tuis illam, unto thy servants that peace quam mundus dare non potest, which the world cannot give;
ut et corda nostra that both our hearts may be mandatis tuis dedita, et hosset to obey thy command- tium sublata formidine, temments, and also that by thee pora sint tua protectione tranwe being defended from the quilla. Per &c. V fear of our enemies may pass our time in rest and quietness ; through the merits of Jesus Christ our Saviour. Amen.
s Concil. Agathense, can. 30, “ Plebs collecta oratione ad vesperam ab episcopo cum benedictione dimittatur.” Concilia, Labbe, tom iv. p. 1388.
Apost. Const. lib. viii. c. 36.
u Goar, Rituale Græcum, p. 46.
v Brev. Saris. fol. 83, Brev.
THE COLLECT FOR AID AGAINST PERILS.
This collect is also found in the most ancient monuments of the English church, and likewise occurs in the sacramentaries of Gregory the Great and Gelasius. In this last it is expressly appointed to be used at evening service; so that this collect has been appropriated to evening prayer for nearly fourteen hundred years.
Lighten our darkness, we be- Illumina, quæsumus Domine seech thee, O Lord, and by Deus, tenebras nostras ; et tothy great mercy defend us from tius hujus noctis insidias tu a all perils and dangers of this nobis repelle propitius. Per night; for the love of thy only Dominum &c. W Son, our Saviour, Jesus Christ. Amen.
CONCLUDING COLLECTS AND BENEDICTION.
With regard to the collects for the king, royal family, clergy and people, and the prayer of S. Chrysostom, I have nothing to say, which has not already been said at the end of the remarks on morning prayer. It may, however, be observed, that there is nothing whatsoever inconsistent with the ancient practice of the English churches in placing these collects in the place they occupy; since they are to be regarded in the light of memoria, or commemorations, which were very common after the collects of the canonical hours.
I have also spoken of the benediction at the close
Ebor. fol. 264, Miss. Sar. Commune, fol. 19, MS. Leofric. fol. 27. Gregorii Sacramentar. a Menard.
216. Gelasii Sacr. Muratori Lit. Rom. Vet. tom. i.