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consideration of the question, whether St. James is to be considered as the originator of this liturgy, for this question will more properly be discussed when I have traced the substance of St. James's liturgy to a period antecedent to the council of Chalcedon, A.D. 451.
If it appears that the Monophysites and the orthodox, who held no communion from the period of that council, nevertheless had liturgies which were both ascribed to St. James, and which in order, substance, and expressions, were almost exactly the same; we have reason to think that they were derived from the same original, namely, from the liturgy used by all the Christians of Antioch and Jerusalem before the division.
Let us then proceed to compare the Monophysite with the orthodox liturgy of St. James. I have observed that the introduction of the Monophysite liturgy is uncertain as regards its text, and that it bears no marks of antiquity. I have also remarked that the introduction of the orthodox liturgy was interpolated from the Greek rite, and some other source, before the tenth century. Omitting, therefore, any comparison of the introductions of these two liturgies (which originally consisted only in the reading of scripture), I will compare their Anaphore, or solemn offices, the text of which is well ascertained, and is generally free from interpolations.
These liturgies begin the Anaphora with the benediction, “ The love of God, the grace of the
Son, and the communion of the Holy Spirit, be “ with you all.” Then follow the address,“ Sur“ sum corda,” &c. and a preface or thanksgiving ; then the hymn Tersanctus, followed by a continuation of thanksgiving; then a commemoration of our Saviour's deeds and words at the last supper, a verbal oblation, and a prayer for the Holy Ghost to sanctify the elements into the sacraments of Christ's body and blood d. Whoever compares these parts of the orthodox and Monophysite liturgies together, will be surprised at their minute agreement in sentiments and expressions, when he considers the centuries that have elapsed since the separation of the orthodox and the Monophysites. After this, the solemn prayers for all estates of men and for all things succeed. The order of these prayers is a little different in these two liturgies, but their substance and the words of the petitions generally agree. And it may be remarked, that such prayers as these appear to have been arranged differently in many of the eastern liturgies, being regarded as an accessory part of the liturgy, and admitting of a variety which would have been regarded as unsafe, if it had been introduced into the essential parts of the office. The difference between these prayers, as to expressions, is chiefly caused by a greater fulness and variety of epithet in one than in the other.
After the prayers and commemorations follow a salutation, and a bidding prayer by the deacon'. Then a collect introductory to the Lord's Prayer; then the Lord's Prayer and a benediction. After this comes the form of address, τα άγια τοις αγίοις, the
d á Liturgia Jacobi Syriacè, semani, p. 41-48. Renaudot, tom. ii. p. 30–34. f Ibid. p. 38, 39. Assemani, Liturgia Jacobi Græcè, Asse
p. 48, 49. mani, tom. v. p 32-41.
8 Ibid. p. 39, 40. Assemani, Renaudot, p. 34–38. As- p. 49–52.
bread is broken with some rites which are not probably of any primitive antiquity, and communion takes place". After which come a prayer of thanksgiving, and a benediction of the people'. The orthodox liturgy gives these last forms at greater length than the Monophysite.
Whoever compares these venerable monuments will not fail to perceive a great and striking resemblance throughout. He will readily acknowledge their derivation from one common source; and will admit that they furnish sufficient means for ascertaining all the substance, and many of the expressions, which were used in the solemn Anaphora of the patriarchates of Antioch and Jerusalem, before the council of Chalcedon, A.D. 451.
I have already remarked, that the title of St. James's liturgy is older than the council of Chalcedon; and we may reasonably infer, that the liturgy which bore this title generally in the fifth century, must have been considered at that time to be very ancient; and therefore must really have been long used in the church. Let us, then, advance another step, and inquire whether the Christian writers of the patriarchate of Antioch enable us to trace back the substance and order of St. James's liturgy to a more remote period. In the early part of the fifth century lived Theodoret, bishop of Cyrus, in the northern part of the patriarchate of Antioch. In a letter to Joannes Economus he speaks of the apostolical benediction, “ The grace of our Lord Jesus “ Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of “ the Holy Spirit be with you all ;” and adds, “ this
h Ibid. p. 40–42. Assemani, p. 53 – 58.
p p. 60–63.
“is the beginning of the mystical liturgy in all “ churches j.” When we refer to the Monophysite and orthodox liturgies of St. James, we find both beginning the mystical liturgy, or Anaphora, with this very benediction" .
Shortly before, probably about the end of the fourth century, Jerome, who also lived within the patriarchate of Antioch, said, “ Every day the voices “ of priests celebrate ó jóvos ávauáprntos.” This expression is found in the orthodox and Monophysite liturgies of St. James, and it is there appointed to be said by the priest only' In another place he refers to the use of the Lord's Prayer in the liturgy: “ Christ taught his apostles to dare to say daily, with
faith, in the (commemorative) sacrifice of that “body, Our Father m,” &c. .
Let us turn to those works of Chrysostom, which were written while he was a presbyter of the church of Antioch. From him, as well as from almost every other writer, we learn that the liturgy commenced with lessons from the Old and New Testaments; which were followed by the exhortations and sermons of the presbyters and bishops“.
5 Η χάρις του κυρίου ημών tiam tuam frustra Deo repuκ. τ. λ.-τούτο δε εν πάσαις ταις tatur, si est communis cum ÉKKAnoiais tņs uvotiņS &oti cæteris.” Hieronymus, lib. ii. deltoupyiaszpovípiov. Theo- adv. Pelagium. Compare Lidoret. Epist. Joanni Economo, turg. Jacobi Syr. Renaudot, tom. iii. p. 132. Oper, a Sir- p. 38. Græc. Assemani, p. 47. mond. Paris, 1642.
“ Sic docuit Christus apo* Liturgia Jacobi Syr. Re- stolos suos, ut quotidie in cornaudot, tom. ii. p. 30. Lit. Jac. poris illius sacrificio credentes Græc. Assemani, tom. v. p. 32. audeant loqui, Pater noster qui
1 “Sacerdotum quotidie ora es in cælis,” &c. Adv. Pelag. concelebrant ο μόνος αναμάρ- lib. iii. 15. Compare ReTNTOS, quod in lingua nostra di- naudot, 39, 40. Assemani, citur: Qui solus est sine pec- 49–52. cato. Quæ laus juxta senten- Chrysostomi Hom. vii.
Chrysostom gives the order of the introduction, after the sermon, as follows. He describes the prayers for the energumens, or those afflicted with evil spirits, the catechumens, or those who were preparing to receive the sacrament of baptism, and the penitents'. These prayers were made in the form of a litany by the deacon and people; and after each prayer the objects of it were dismissed. Then followed an address, and a prayer of the faithful?. This was succeeded by a salutation or kiss of
I now proceed to those passages of Chrysostom which refer to the Anaphora, or mystical liturgy. p. 106. tom. i. edit. Comme- μετά του ιερέως ο λαός φθέγγεlin. Ηom. xviii. p. 226. ται, όπουγε και μετ' αυτών των
ο Και γάρ υπέρ των ενεργου- χερουβίμ, και των άνω δυνάμεων, μένων, υπέρ των εν μετανοία, κοινή τους ιερούς εκείνους ύμνους κoιναι και παρά του ιερέως και αναπέμπει; Chrysostomi Ηom. παρ' αυτών γίνονται εύχαί· και xviii. in Epist. 2. ad Corinth. πάντες μίαν λέγουσιν ευχήν, tom. ix. p. 873. ed. Commelin. ευχήν την ελέου γέμoυσαν. Πά- Paris, 1609-1617. See Ηom. λιν επειδάν είρξωμεν των ιερών Χxviii. p. 365, tom. i. same ediπεριβόλων τους ου δυναμένους tion. Ηom. Ixxii. in Matth.
. . . της ιεράς μετασχεϊν τραπέζης, p. 624. tom. vii. Ηom. vii. in ετέραν δεί γενέσθαι ευχήν, και Epist. ad Rom. p. 68. tom. ix. πάντες ομοίως επ' εδάφους κεί- Hom. ii. in 2 Ep. ad Cor. p. μεθα και πάντες ομοίως ανιστά- 740. tom. ix. μεθα, όταν ειρήνης πάλιν μετα- P See the passage quoted in λαμβάνειν, και μεταδιδόναι δέη, the last note, and this. Και η πάντες ομοίως ασπαζόμεθα. Έπ’ πρώτη δε δέησις ελέους γέμει, αυτών πάλιν των φρικωδεστάτων όταν υπέρ των ενεργουμένων μυστηρίων επεύχεται ο ιερεύς το παρακαλώμεν. Και η δευτέρα λαώ, επεύχεται δε ο λαός τω πάλιν υπέρ ετέρων των εν μεταιερεί. το γάρ, μετά του πνεύμα- νοία πολύ το έλεος επιζητούσα. τός σου, ουδέν άλλο εστίν, ή και η τρίτη δε πάλιν, υπέρ ημών τούτο. Τα της ευχαριστίας πά- αυτών. Chrysost. Ηom. Ixxii. λιν κοινά. ουδε γάρ εκείνος ευ- in Matth. p. 624. tom. vii. χαριστεί μόνος, αλλά και ο λαός
9 Hom. xviii. in Ep. 2. ad άπας. Πρότερον γάρ αυτών λα- Cor. as quoted in last note but βών φωνήν, είτα συντιθεμένων, one. εν τοις μυστηρίοις ασπαότι αξίως και δικαίως τούτο γίνε- ζόμεθα άλλήλους. Ηom. lxxvii. ται, τότε άρχεται της ευχαρι- in Joannem, tom. viii. p. 399. στίας. Και τί θαυμάζεις είπου