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eighteenth century; when Assemani published another text of St. James's liturgy, from a MS. of the tenth century, and the various readings of a MS. of the twelfth century. These three copies, though they apparently differ frequently in order, yet appear on examination to exhibit very nearly the same text. The variations are generally to be accounted for, by the necessity of writing successively, prayers which were in practice repeated at the same time by different persons; by the introduction of a variety of prayers from other known and respectable sources; and by the adaptation of the prayers and commemorations to the peculiar circumstances of different places and times.

In speaking of these variations, however, I would be understood chiefly to refer to the introduction of this liturgy, namely, to that part which precedes the blessing, beginning “The love of the Lord and “ Father,” &c. The Anaphora, or solemn thanksgiving, consecration, and prayer which follows, is found in the three texts of St. James's Greek Liturgy, without any other difference than a slight variety in the order of the petitions for God's grace, or in the names of those persons who were commemorated in the prayers.

The liturgy of St. James, in the Greek language, has given rise to much controversy, and to great confusion of ideas. Shortly after it was first published, some controversialists of that age employed it to support their doctrines; and while these persons thought themselves obliged to defend the title of this liturgy, and to ascribe its composition to St. James the Apostle, others pronounced it altogether

• Assemani Codex Liturgicus, tom. v. p. 68. 400.

spurious and modern. Baronius, Bellarmine, Leo Allatius, Bona, and Benedict the fourteenth, have endeavoured to prove that it was actually the production of St. James. Cave, Fabricius, Dorschæus, Basnage, Dupin, and Tillemont, and many others, have rejected it as possessing no legitimate claims to such an antiquity, but exhibiting many signs of interpolation and novelty. Grancolasius, Assemani, and Zaccaria, admit that it contains some things which are not as old as the apostolic age, but yet think that the main structure may be referred to St. James.

A diligent investigation of the subject has led me to conclude that this liturgy, as now extant, is to be regarded as the liturgy of the orthodox of Jerusalem and Palestine, which some time before the tenth century had received several additions and alterations, to adapt it to the formularies of the church of Constantinople.

After the council of Chalcedon, A.D. 451, the orthodox of Antioch and Jerusalem were not many in number; and when the Mahommedans invaded those parts in the seventh century, they protected the Monophysites, while they depressed and persecuted the orthodox. Under these afflicting circumstances, the orthodox Syrians became entirely dependent on the patriarchs of Constantinople, and in consequence the liturgies then used at Constantinople, namely, those of Basil and Chrysostom, were introduced. And

And by the twelfth century they had come into such general use amongst the orthodox of Syria and Palestine, that no other seem to have been used at Antioch ; and even at Jerusalem they appear to have been used on all occasions except the greater feast days, when St. James's liturgy was still employed! These circumstances render it probable that several alterations would have been made in the liturgy of St. James, in order to adapt it to the rites of the Greek church, if

any such adaptation were possible.

Let us, then, examine the liturgy of St. James, and see whether there are not evident signs of alterations and adaptations to the Greek rite. We find in this liturgy a hymn resembling oι τα χερουβίμ uvotiüs', which last occurs in the liturgies of Constantinople in the same place'. This hymn was first introduced into the liturgy of the church of Constantinople in the time of the emperor Justin, in the seventh century'; and there is no presumption that it was then derived from the liturgy of any other church. This hymn was therefore peculiar to the Constantinopolitan liturgy, and was introduced into the liturgy of the orthodox of Jerusalem in imitation of it. Certainly this hymn was not known in Syria before the council of Chalcedon, for the Monophysites do not use it. Secondly, the elements are carried to the altar in procession at the same time as in the Constantinopolitan liturgies of Basil and Chrysostom, and the prayer then said, beginning o Ocòs, o Ocos nuôv, is taken word for word from Chrysostom's liturgy". Thirdly, the prayer

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9 This appears by the evi- Liturgia Jacobi, Assemani, dence of Theodore Balsamon, tom. v. p. 16. orthodox patriarch of Antioch, s Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 72, in his reply to the queries of et not. 108, in Chrysost. Liturg. Marcus, patriarch of Alexan

t Ibid. p.

131. dria ; and by his Annotations Liturg. Jacobi, Assemani, on the Thirty-second Canon of tom. v. p. 17. Liturgia Chrythe Council in Trullo.

sostomi, Goar, p. 63.


beginning κύριε ο Θεός ο κτίσας, is taken entirely from Basil's liturgy', and in one MS. is expressly ascribed to him". Fourthly, the anthem sung before or after the name of the holy virgin in the commemorations* is derived from the Constantinopolitan rite, which prescribes such an anthem in this place'; and the very anthems of χαίρε κεχαριτωμένη and άξιόν έστιν ως αληθώς are found in the printed copies and MSS. of Chrysostom’s liturgy in the same position”. There is no trace in any of the liturgies of the Nestorians, or the Monophysites, of any anthem like these; and as we cannot assign any reason why they should have omitted such an anthem, if they had ever used it, we must conclude that these anthems were not used by the eastern churches before the council of Chalcedon, for otherwise we should have met with them in the liturgies of the Monophysites. When these anthems were first used I cannot precisely say. But it certainly is probable that they were devised at Constantinople, since I find that the orthodox churches of Alexandria and Jerusalem both adopted them, and it is more probable that both followed the rite of Constantinople in this respect, than that either originated a custom which was adopted by the church of Constantinople and the other. Fifthly, the anthem o povoyevns viòs is sung before the hymn Tersanctus, as it is in the Constantinopolitan liturgya. Sixthly, one of

p. 164.

v Assemani Cod. Lit. tom. v. y Liturgia Chrysost. Goar, p. 28. Goar, Liturgia Basilii, p. 78. Basilii, ibid. p. 170.

2 Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 78. W The Codex Messanensis 103. Assemani, p. 77.

Liturgia Jacobi, Assemani, * Assemani Cod. Lit. tom. v.


Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 44, 45. 86.

p. 6.
p. 101.

the MSS. published by Assemani contains a prayer taken from Basil's liturgy“; and the other manuscript, whose various readings he has given, also includes the same prayer, which likewise occurs in the liturgy of Chrysostomo.

It appears, therefore, that the orthodox of Jerusalem and Palestine did not hesitate to introduce into their own liturgy of St. James several rites and prayers, with or without acknowledgment, from the liturgies of Constantinople. The first MS. of St. James's liturgy, published by Assemani, enables us to determine the text as it was in the tenth century. It was before this time that the alterations or additions which I have described took place. However, besides the prayers and rites which are in this way accounted for, a large number of others remain, (especially in the introduction of St. James's Greek Liturgy,) which we must refer to the orthodox patriarchs of Jerusalem, between the fifth and tenth centuries, as it is impossible to trace them to a more remote antiquity, and they do not appear in the liturgy of any other church.

These remarks will, I trust, be thought sufficient to shew, that the Greek liturgy of St. James, as now extant, is to be regarded as the old liturgy of the Melchites, or orthodox of the church of Jerusalem and the neighbourhood, some time before the tenth century; and that this liturgy had received many additions from the rites of the church of Constantinople before that time.

Having endeavoured to give a clear idea of the view which we are to take of the liturgy of St. James as now extant, I defer for the present any

• Assemani, p. 74. Goar, 163. • Ibid. p. 402. Goar, 72.

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