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testified its use in the Syrian church by a commentary which he wrote upon it. According to Abraham Echellensis”, the Syrians or Monophysites all assert that St. James wrote a liturgy; and this he confirms by the testimony of Joannes Maron, (who lived in the sixth or seventh century",) Dionysius bishop of Amida, and Jacobus Edessenus; who affirm that their liturgy had descended to them from the

age of the apostles, and that St. James was its author.

A liturgy of St. James has also been used from a remote period by the orthodox of Jerusalem and Syria. In the twelfth century Theodore Balsamon, orthodox patriarch of Antioch, said that the liturgy of St. James was used in Jerusalem and Palestine on the great feast days®; though it appears from the context, that the liturgies of Constantinople had by that time come into general use at Antioch. The use of this liturgy in the church of Jerusalem was mentioned about the same time by Marcus, orthodox patriarch of Alexandria, in his questions to Theodore Balsamon. He inquired, whether the


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b Renaudot, Liturg. Orient. Monophysites, which are very Collectio, tom. ii. p. 454.

c In his Annotations on He- 6 Σημείωσαι από του παρόνbedjesu de Scriptoribus Chal- τος κανόνος, ότι πρώτος ο άγιος daicis, p. 135.

Ιάκωβος ο αδελφόθεος, ως πρώ“Hoc est principium Li- τος αρχιερατεύσας της Ιεροturgiæ D. Jacobi Apostoli, quæ colupitāv ékkinoias, tapédwke omnium liturgiarum antiquis- την θείαν ιεροτελεστίαν, ήτις sima est, ideoque juxta illius παρ' ημίν αγνοείται, παρά δε ordinem suas instituerunt cæ- τοίς Ιεροσολυμίταις και τοίς teri." Joannes Maron, cited by Ilalalotivaious évepykirai év Abraham Echellensis, not. in rais peyalais &optais. Theod. Hebedjesu, p. 138. In speak. Balsamon, not. in Can. 32.

cæteri,” he alluded Concil. in Trullo. Bevereg. to the authors of the other Pandect. tom. i. p. 193. liturgies used by the Syrian VOL. I.


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liturgies read in the parts about Alexandria and Jerusalem, and said to have been written by the holy apostles James and Mark, were to be received or not'. In the ninth century, the emperor Charles the Bald, in an epistle to the clergy of Ravenna, said, “The liturgy was celebrated before us accord“ing to the rite of Jerusalem, whose author was “James the Apostles.” The most important testimony to the antiquity of an orthodox liturgy of St. James, is contained in the thirty-second canon of the council in Trullo held at Constantinople, A.D. 691. The two hundred and twenty-seven bishops there assembled, commanded that water should be mixed with the wine of the eucharist; according to the ancient custom of the church, which was transgressed by the Armenians. And they fortify this decree by the authority of a written liturgy of St. James. “For James, brother (according to the flesh) “ of Christ our God, to whom the throne of the

church of Jerusalem was first committed, and Basil, archbishop of the church of Cæsarea, whose “ fame has extended throughout the whole world, “ delivering to us the mysterious liturgy in writing, “ have appointed ",” &c.


1 Αι περί τα μέρη της 'Αλεξ- more Hierosolymitano auctore ανδρείας, και των Ιεροσολύμων Jacobo apostolo.” Carolus Calαναγινωσκόμεναι λειτουργίαι, νus, Epist. ad Cler. Ravennat.

, . . . και λεγόμεναι συγγραφήναι παρά h Και γάρ και Ιάκωβος ο κατα των αγίων αποστόλων Ιακώβου σάρκα Χριστού του θεού ημών του αδελφοθέου, και Μάρκου, δεκ- αδελφός, ός της Ιεροσολυμιτών ται είσι τη αγία και καθολική εκκλησίας πρώτος τον θρόνον εκκλησία, ή ού; Marcus Alex- ενεπιστεύθη, και Βασίλειος και της andrin. cited by Renaudot, Lit. Kαισαρέων εκκλησίας αρχιεπίOrient. tom. i. p.

lxxxviii. σκοπος, ού το κλέος κατά πάσαν « Celebrata etiam sunt την οικουμένην διέδραμεν, έγcoram nobis Missarum officia γράφως την μυστικών ημίνιερουρ

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It appears, therefore, that the Monophysites and the orthodox of the patriarchates of Antioch and Jerusalem have, from a very remote period, agreed in ascribing their liturgies to St. James the Apostle, who was frequently entitled first bishop of Jerusalem. This fact affords some reason for thinking that they esteemed their liturgies to be very much alike. It is also probable that the Christians of this patriarchate commonly ascribed their liturgy to St. James before the council of Chalcedon, A. D. 451. For a complete separation took place at that time between the orthodox and the Monophysites ; thenceforward each side regarded the other as heretical, and accordingly they held no communion. It is highly improbable that either party, under these circumstances, would borrow from the other a title for their liturgy. All must therefore have received this title from their predecessors who lived before the council of Chalcedon.

However, though there is reason to think, that

γίαν παραδεδωκότες, τελειούν έν could not have been written τη θεία λειτουργία εξ ύδατος και for at least 300 years after his oivou iepòv tothplov ékdedó- death. (Expl. de la Messe, iii. kaoiv. Canon xxxii. Concil, in p. 380.) In fact, had Proclus Trullo. Bevereg. tom. i. p. 191. really written it, it is not cre

I have not cited the tract dible (considering the interestascribed to Proclus, archbishop ing nature of its contents) that of Constantinople, who died no notice should have been A. D. 446, and which speaks taken of it by the succeeding directly of St. James's liturgy, ecclesiastical writers. Yet it for strong doubts are enter- appears never to have been tained of its genuineness by cited by any writer till the Fabricius, Simon, Leo Alla- thirteenih or fourteenth centius, and Le Brun. The lat- tury; and the silence of nine ter justly observes, that the hundred years (it must be conname of Chrysostom, applied fessed) throws an additional in this tract to St. John of and serious doubt on the geConstantinople, shews that it nuineness of this tract.

the Christian churches in the patriarchate of Antioch referred their liturgy to the apostle James before the council of Chalcedon, I am not prepared to contend that they had long done so; much less am I disposed to vindicate the genuineness of St. James's liturgy; that is, to maintain that he was either its author or writer. It will appear, however, in the sequel, that I am far from denying the apostolical antiquity of this liturgy in some respects.

Before I proceed to deduce the common origin of the Monophysite and orthodox liturgies of St. James from actual comparison, I must endeavour to establish their texts, and to decide which portions of each may be considered certain, and which uncertain.

The Monophysite liturgy of St. James was first translated from the Syriac into Latin by Renaudot, who published it in the second volume of his valuable work, entitled, “ Liturgiarum Orientalium Collectio,” and added copious and learned explanatory notes. This liturgy, like all other oriental liturgies, may be divided into two parts. The first part, or Introduction, extends to the beginning of the Anaphora or solemn prayer, containing the preface, consecration, &c. and terminates before the priest blesses the people, saying, “ The love of God, the “the Son, and the communion of the Holy Spirit, “ be with you all.” The second part, or Anaphora, extends from this benediction to the end of the liturgy. The Introduction is rarely found in the MSS. of Syriac liturgies, and varies very considerably in different MSS. Renaudot has published two forms of it, which agree in very few respects'. Nei


grace of


Renaudot, Liturg. Oriental. tom. ii. p. 30.

j Ibid. pp. 1. 12.

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ther of these is of any antiquity. For there is no mention of the prayers and dismissal of catechumens, energumens, and penitents, in them ; yet we know that these rites were formerly used in the liturgy of Antioch, as well as in all the east; and other liturgies still retain some memorials of them.

There is indeed no air of antiquity in the Introduction until we come to the prayer entitled “ ante “osculum pacisk,” which is found in all the copies of St. James's liturgy in Syriac, and which is also cited expressly from it in the very ancient Coptic liturgy of Basil'. The text of the liturgy intervening between this prayer and the blessing, beginning, “The love of the Father,” &c.", already alluded to, may be considered certain, and is probably very old.

The order and text of the Syriac Anaphora of St. James beginning from “The love of the Fa“ther,” &c., and including the thanksgiving, consecration, and solemn prayers, is perfectly ascertained

, not only by means of MSS. of various ages, but by ancient commentaries which all accord with it.

I shall now proceed to examine the text of the orthodox liturgy of St. James, which is written in the Greek language. This liturgy was first edited at Rome in A.D. 1526, by Demetrius Ducas", and no other copy of the liturgy of St. James in Greek was known to exist until the middle of the

k Renaudot, Liturg. Orien- Testamenti, tom. iii. by Fabrital. tom. ii. p. 29.

cius; in Assemani's Codex Li1 Ibid. tom. i.


turgicus, tom. V., which is the m Ibid. tom. ii. p. 30. edition to which I shall refer;

n From the edition of Ducas and the latter part, or Anait was copied into the Biblio- phora, translated into English theca Patrum. It is also found by Dr. Brett in his Collection in the Codex Apocryphus Novi of Liturgies, p. 14.

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